HOME

TheInfoList




Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of
Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (russian: Новгоро́дская о́бласть, ''Novgorodskaya oblast'') is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Р ...
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. It is one of the oldest cities in Russia, being first mentioned in the 9th century. The city lies along the
Volkhov River The Volkhov (russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorodsky District, Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky District, Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia. It connects L ...
just downstream from its outflow from
Lake Ilmen Lake Ilmen ( rus, И́льмень, p=ˈilʲmʲɪnʲ) is a large lake in the Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (russian: Новгоро́дская о́бласть, ''Novgorodskaya oblast'') is a federal subject of Russia Russia (russi ...
and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
and
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
.
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
recognized Novgorod as a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
in 1992. The city has a population of At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the
Novgorod Republic The Novgorod Republic (russian: Новгородская республика, Novgorodskaya respublika, ; orv, Новгородскаѧ землѧ, Novgorodskaę zemlę, lit=Novgorodian Land; la, Novogardia or russian: Новгородская ...
and was one of Europe's largest cities.


History


Early developments

The
Sofia First ChronicleThe Sofia First Chronicle (Софийская первая летопись) is a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countri ...
makes initial mention of it in 859, while the
Novgorod First Chronicle The Novgorod First Chronicle (russian: Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471 is the most ancient extant Old East Slavic, Old Russian chronicle of the Novgorod Republic, Novgorodian Rus'. I ...
first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly already a major
Baltics The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid, Baltimaad; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės), also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the ...

Baltics
-to-
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
station on the
trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in red) and the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Other trade routes of the 8th to the 11th centuries shown in orange. The trade route from the Varangians to the Romans was a medieval trade route that connected Scandina ...
. The Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year when the city was first mentioned.Charter of Veliky Novgorod, Article 1 Novgorod is traditionally considered to be a cradle of Russian statehood. The oldest archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, however, have found cultural layers dating back to the late 10th century, the time of the
Christianization of Rus' The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages. In early 867, Patriarch Photius of Constantinople announced to other Christian patriarchs that the Rus', baptized by his bishop, took to Christianity with particular enthusiasm. Ph ...
and a century after it was allegedly founded. Archaeological dating is fairly easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, and most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating. The
Varangian The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymolog ...
name of the city or ( or ) is mentioned in
Norse Saga Sagas are prose stories and histories, composed in Iceland and to a lesser extent elsewhere in Scandinavia. The most famous saga-genre is the ''Íslendingasögur'' (sagas concerning Icelanders), which feature Viking voyages, migration to Iceland, ...
s as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain. Originally, referred to the stronghold, now only to the south of the center of the present-day city,
Rurikovo GorodischeRurikovo Gorodische ( rus, Рюриково Городище, p=ˈrʲʉrʲɪkəvə ɡərɐˈdʲiɕːə, t=Rurik's Hillfort), the primary settlement in the area known in Scandinavian sources as Holmgård, was the 9th century predecessor of Veliky Novg ...
(named in comparatively modern times after the Varangian chieftain
Rurik Rurik of Ladoga (also Ryurik or Rorik; orv, Рюрикъ ''Rjurikŭ'', from Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic la ...

Rurik
, who supposedly made it his "capital" around 860). Archaeological data suggests that the Gorodishche, the residence of the
Knyaz or () is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English English usually refers to: * English language English i ...
(prince), dates from the mid-9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century; hence the name Novgorod, "new city", from
Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also: Old Russian, be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська мова) was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East ...
and ( and ), although German and Scandinavian historiography suggests the Old Norse term , or the
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Euro ...
term . First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod (and that of other cities within the territory of the then
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
) occurs in the 10th-century policy manual by
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
emperor
Constantine VII Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal family, royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include ...
. Slightly predating the chronology of the legend of Rurik (which dates the first Norse arrival in the region around 858–860), an earlier record for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the (written up until 882) where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
in 838 and, intending to return to the
Rus' Khaganate The Rus' Khaganate, also Russkiy Khaganate (russian: Русский каганат, Russkiy kaganat), is the name applied by some modern historians to a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a col ...
via the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, were questioned by Frankish Emperor
Louis the Pious Louis the Pious (16 April 778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Ro ...

Louis the Pious
at , where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader whom they designated as (the Latin form of ''
Khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kh ...
'', a title they had likely borrowed from contact with the
Avars Avar(s) or AVAR may refer to: Peoples and states * Avars (Caucasus), a modern Northeast Caucasian-speaking people in the North Caucasus, Dagestan, Russia **Avar language, the modern Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Avars of the North Ca ...
).


Princely state within Kievan Rus'

In 882, Rurik's successor,
Oleg of Novgorod Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also: Old Russian, be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська мова) was a language used duri ...

Oleg of Novgorod
, conquered
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...

Kiev
and founded the state of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
. Novgorod's size as well as its political, economic, and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by
posadnik Posadnik (Cyrillic: ''посадник'', (literally: ''по-садник'' - ''pre-sident'') was the mayor in some East Slavic peoples, East Slavic cities or towns. Most notably, the posadnik (equivalent to a stadtholder, Burgomaster, burgomeiste ...
s, such as the legendary Gostomysl,
DobrynyaDobrynya (russian: Добрыня, uk, Добриня) was Vladimir the Great's maternal uncle and tutor. He was the historical prototype of the invincible bogatyr Dobrynya Nikitich in Kievan Rus folklore. Dobrynya's life and extent of his influ ...

Dobrynya
,
Konstantin The first name Konstantin () is a derivation from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...
, and Ostromir. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of
Yaroslav the Wise Yaroslav the Wise or Yaroslav I; russian: Ярослав Мудрый, ; uk, Ярослав Мудрий; non, Jarizleifr Valdamarsson; la, Iaroslaus Sapiens. (c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was the Grand Prince of Kiev from 1019 until his death. ...
, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father,
Vladimir the Great Vladimir Sviatoslavich ( orv, Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, ''Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь''; ''Uladzimir'', russian: Владимир ''Vladimir'', uk, Володимир ''Volodymyr''. See Vladimir (name) Vladimir (russi ...
, was a prince in Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws (later incorporated into
Russkaya Pravda ''Russkaya Pravda'' or Rus' Justice (Rus' Justice or Rus' Truth; orv, Правда роусьскаꙗ, ''Pravda Rusĭskaya'' (13th century, 1280), Правда Руськая, ''Pravda Rus'kaya'' (second half of the 15th century); russian: Ру ...
) among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they often referred to in later centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes. His son,
Vladimir Vladimir or Wladimir may refer to: Names * Vladimir (name) for the Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian spellings of a Slavic name * Uladzimir for the Belarusian version of the name * Volodymyr f ...
, sponsored construction of the great
St. Sophia Cathedral
St. Sophia Cathedral
, more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.


Early foreign ties

In
Norse saga Sagas are prose stories and histories, composed in Iceland and to a lesser extent elsewhere in Scandinavia. The most famous saga-genre is the ''Íslendingasögur'' (sagas concerning Icelanders), which feature Viking voyages, migration to Iceland, ...
s the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. Many
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
kings and yarls came to Novgorod seeking refuge or employment, including
Olaf I of Norway Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway from 995 to 1000. He was the son of Tryggvi Olafsson, king of Viken, Norway, Viken (Vingulmark, and Rånrike), and, according to later sagas, the great-grandson of Harald Fairhair, fi ...
,
Olaf II of Norway Olaf or Olav (, , or British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and com ...
,
Magnus I of Norway Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: ''Magnús Óláfsson''; Norwegian language, Norwegian and Danish language, Danish: ''Magnus Olavsson''; – 25 October 1047), better known as Magnus the Good (Old Norse: ''Magnús góði'', Norwegian language, Norwegi ...
, and
Harald Hardrada Harald Sigurdsson, also known as Harald of Norway (; – 25 September 1066) and given the epithet ''Hardrada'' (; modern no, Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the saga Sagas are prose Prose is a form ...

Harald Hardrada
. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent
canonization Canonization is the declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognized saint, specifically, the official act of a Christianity, Christian communion declaring a person worthy of Cult (religious practice), public cult and entering his ...
of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod. The
Gotland Gotland (, ; ''Gutland'' in the local dialect), also historically spelled Gottland or Gothland (), is Sweden's largest island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habita ...
town of
Visby Visby () is an urban area in Sweden and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County on the island of Gotland with 24,330 inhabitants . Visby is also the episcopal see for the Diocese of Visby. The Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city of ...

Visby
functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof). Later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany also established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges, which made their position more secure.


Novgorod Republic

In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich. The year is seen as the traditional beginning of the
Novgorod Republic The Novgorod Republic (russian: Новгородская республика, Novgorodskaya respublika, ; orv, Новгородскаѧ землѧ, Novgorodskaę zemlę, lit=Novgorodian Land; la, Novogardia or russian: Новгородская ...
. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as
Alexander Nevsky Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky (russian: link=no, Александр Ярославич Невский; ; 13 May 1221 – 14 November 1263), or Alexander Nevskii, served as Prince of Novgorod (1236–40, 1241–56 and 1258-1259), Grand Prin ...

Alexander Nevsky
, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians said. The
city state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...
controlled most of Europe's northeast, from lands east of today's
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
to the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mounta ...
, making it one of the largest states in medieval Europe, although much of the territory north and east of Lakes
Ladoga
Ladoga
and Onega was sparsely populated and never organized politically. One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the ''
posadnik Posadnik (Cyrillic: ''посадник'', (literally: ''по-садник'' - ''pre-sident'') was the mayor in some East Slavic peoples, East Slavic cities or towns. Most notably, the posadnik (equivalent to a stadtholder, Burgomaster, burgomeiste ...
'', or mayor, an official elected by the public assembly (called the
Veche Veche (russian: вече, pl, wiec, uk, віче ''viche'', be, веча ''vecha'', cu, вѣштє ''věšte'') was a popular assembly A popular assembly (or people's assembly) is a gathering called to address issues of importance to par ...
) from among the city's
boyars A boyar or bolyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th ...
, or aristocracy. The
tysyatskyA tysyatsky ( rus, тысяцкий, p=ˈtɨsʲɪt͡skʲɪj, " thousandman"), sometimes translated '' dux'' or '' herzog'', was a military leader in ancient Rus' who commanded a people's volunteer army called a ''thousand'' ( rus, тысяча, tys ...
, or "thousandman", originally the head of the town militia but later a commercial and judicial official, was also elected by the Veche. Another important local official was the
Archbishop of Novgorod The Novgorod and Staraya Russa Diocese (russian: Новгородская и Старорусская епархия) is one of the oldest offices in the Russian Orthodox Church , native_name_lang = ru , image = Moscow July 201 ...
who shared power with the boyars. Archbishops were elected by the Veche or by the drawing of lots, and after their election, were sent to the
metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...
for consecration. While a basic outline of the various officials and the Veche can be drawn up, the city-state's exact political constitution remains unknown. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city together, although where one official's power ended and another's began is uncertain. The prince, although his power was reduced from around the middle of the 12th century, was represented by his ''
namestnik A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A v ...
'', or lieutenant, and still played important roles as a military commander, legislator and jurist. The exact composition of the Veche, too, is uncertain, with some historians, such as
Vasily Klyuchevsky Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky (russian: Василий Осипович Ключевский; in Voskresnskoye Village, Penza Governorate, Russia – , Moscow) was a leading Russian Empire, Russian Imperial historian of the late imperial period. A ...

Vasily Klyuchevsky
, claiming it was democratic in nature, while later scholars, such as
Marxists Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
Valentin Ianin and Aleksandr Khoroshev, see it as a "sham democracy" controlled by the ruling elite. In the 13th century, Novgorod, while not a member of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely ...
, was the easternmost
kontor in King's Lynn is the only surviving Hanseatic League building in England Image:Hansehausantwerpen.jpg, The Oostershuis, headquarters of the Hanseatic League in Antwerp A ''kontor'' () was a foreign trading post of the Hanseatic League. In add ...

kontor
, or
entrepôt An ''entrepôt'' (; ) or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post A trading post, trading station, or trading house, also known as a factory, was an establishment or settlement where goods and services could be traded. Typically t ...
, of the league, being the source of enormous quantities of luxury (
sable The sable (''Martes zibellina'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the la ...

sable
,
ermine Ermine may refer to three species of mustelid The Mustelidae (; from Latin ''mustela'', weasel) are a family of carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals f ...
,
fox Foxes are small to medium-sized, s belonging to several of the family . They have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned , and a long bushy (or ''brush''). Twelve belong to the "true foxes" group of ge ...

fox
,
marmot Marmots are relatively large ground squirrels in the genus ''Marmota'', with 15 species living in Asia, Europe, and North America. These herbivores are active during the summer when often found in groups, but are not seen during the winter when ...

marmot
) and non-luxury furs (squirrel pelts). Throughout the Middle Ages, the city thrived culturally. A large number of birch bark letters have been unearthed in excavations, perhaps suggesting widespread literacy. It was in Novgorod that the
Novgorod Codex The Novgorod Codex (russian: Новгородский кодекс) is the oldest book of the Rus’, unearthed on July 13, 2000 in Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=no, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), ...

Novgorod Codex
, the oldest Slavic book written north of Bulgaria, and the oldest inscription in a Finnic language ( Birch bark letter no. 292) were unearthed. Some of the most ancient Russian chronicles (
Novgorod First Chronicle The Novgorod First Chronicle (russian: Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471 is the most ancient extant Old East Slavic, Old Russian chronicle of the Novgorod Republic, Novgorodian Rus'. I ...
) were written in the scriptorium of the archbishops who also promoted iconography and patronized church construction. The Novgorod merchant
Sadko Sadko (russian: Садко) is the principal character in an East Slavs, East Slavic epic ''bylina''. He was an adventurer, merchant, and ''gusli'' musician from Novgorod. Textual notes "Sadko" is a version of the tale translated by Arthur Ran ...

Sadko
became a popular hero of Russian
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psycholog ...

folklore
. Novgorod was never conquered by the Mongols during the
Mongol invasion of Rus The Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus' was part of the Mongol invasion of Europe The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century occurred from the 1220s into the 1240s. In Eastern Europe, the Mongol Empire, Mongols conquered Volga Bulgaria, ...
. The Mongol army turned back about from the city, not because of the city's strength, but probably because the Mongol commanders did not want to get bogged down in the marshlands surrounding the city. However, the grand princes of Moscow, who acted as tax collectors for the khans of the Golden Horde, did collect tribute in Novgorod, most notably Yury Danilovich and his brother,
Ivan Kalita Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Russian: Ива́н I Данилович Калита; 1 November 1288 – 31 March 1340 or 1341Basil Dmytryshyn, ''Medieval Russia:A source book, 850-1700'', (Academic International Press, 2000), 194.) was Grand Duke o ...

Ivan Kalita
. In 1259,
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
tax-collectors and census-takers arrived in the city, leading to political disturbances and forcing
Alexander Nevsky Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky (russian: link=no, Александр Ярославич Невский; ; 13 May 1221 – 14 November 1263), or Alexander Nevskii, served as Prince of Novgorod (1236–40, 1241–56 and 1258-1259), Grand Prin ...

Alexander Nevsky
to punish a number of town officials (he cut off their noses) for defying him as
Grand Prince of Vladimir Image:Vladimir assumption.jpg, Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir was built in 1158-60 and functioned as the mother church of Russia in the 13th century. The Grand Duke of Vladimir was the ruler of a principality during the era of Kievan Rus' and afte ...
(soon to be the khan's tax-collector in Russia) and his Mongol overlords. In the 14th century, raids by Novgorod
pirate Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

pirate
s, or ushkuiniki, sowed fear as far as
Kazan Kazan ( ; russian: Каза́нь, p=kɐˈzanʲ; tt, Казан IPA: Help:IPA/Tatar, ɑzan is the capital city, capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia. The city lies at the confluence of the Volga and the Kazanka ( ...

Kazan
and
Astrakhan Astrakhan ( rus, Астрахань, p=ˈastrəxənʲ), is the largest city and administrative centreAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of p ...

Astrakhan
, assisting Novgorod in wars with the Grand Duchy of Moscow. During the era of Old Rus' State, Novgorod was a trade hub at the northern end of both the
Volga trade route In the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe si ...
and the " route from the Varangians to the Greeks" along the
Dnieper river } The Dnieper or Dnipro () is one of the major rivers of Europe 400px, Main European drainage divides (red lines) separating catchments (green regions) This page lists the principal rivers of Europe Europe is a continent A co ...
system. A vast array of goods were transported along these routes and exchanged with local Novgorod merchants and other traders. The farmers of
Gotland Gotland (, ; ''Gutland'' in the local dialect), also historically spelled Gottland or Gothland (), is Sweden's largest island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habita ...
retained the Saint Olof trading house well into the 12th century. Later German merchantmen also established tradinghouses in Novgorod. Scandinavian royalty would intermarry with Russian princes and princesses. After the
great schism Great Schism may refer to: * East–West Schism, between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church, beginning in 1054 * Western Schism, a split within the Roman Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1417 See also

* Schism, a divis ...
, Novgorod struggled from the beginning of the 13th century against
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...

Swedish
,
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...

Danish
, and German crusaders. During the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars, the Swedes invaded lands where some of the population had earlier paid tribute to Novgorod. The Germans had been trying to conquer the Baltic region since the late 12th century. Novgorod went to war 26 times with Sweden and 11 times with the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. The German knights, along with Danish and Swedish feudal lords, launched a series of uncoordinated attacks in 1240–1242. Novgorodian sources mention that a Swedish army was defeated in the Battle of the Neva in 1240. The Baltic German campaigns ended in failure after the Battle on Lake Peipus, Battle on the Ice in 1242. After the foundation of the castle of Vyborg, Viborg in 1293 the Swedes gained a foothold in Karelia. On August 12, 1323, Sweden and Novgorod signed the Treaty of Nöteborg, regulating their border for the first time. The city's downfall occurred partially as a result of its inability to feed its large population, making it dependent on the Vladimir-Suzdal region for grain. The main cities in the area,
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
and Tver, used this dependence to gain control over Novgorod. Eventually Ivan III of Russia, Ivan III forcibly annexed the city to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1478. The Veche was dissolved and a significant part of Novgorod's aristocracy, merchants and smaller landholding families was deported to central Russia. The Hanseatic League kontor was closed in 1494 and the goods stored there were seized by Muscovite forces.


Tsardom of Russia

At the time of annexation, Novgorod became the third largest city under Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovy and then the Tsardom of Russia (with 5,300 homesteads and 25–30 thousand inhabitants in the 1550s) and remained so until the famine of the 1560s and the Massacre of Novgorod in 1570. In the Massacre, Ivan the Terrible sacked the city, slaughtered thousands of its inhabitants, and deported the city's merchant elite and nobility to Moscow, Yaroslavl and elsewhere. The last decade of the 16th century was a comparatively favorable period for the city as Boris Godunov restored trade privileges and raised the status of Novgorod bishop. The German trading post was reestablished in 1603. Even after the incorporation into the Russian state Novgorod land retained its distinct identity and institutions, including the customs policy and administrative division. Certain elective offices were quickly restored after having been abolished by Ivan III. During the Time of Troubles, Novgorodians submitted to
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...

Swedish
troops led by Jacob De la Gardie in the summer of 1611. The city was restituted to Muscovy six years later by the Treaty of Stolbovo. The conflict led to further depopulation: the number of homesteads in the city decreased from 1158 in 1607 to only 493 in 1617, with the Sofia side described as 'deserted'. Novgorod only regained a measure of its former prosperity towards the end of the century, when such ambitious buildings as the Cathedral of the Sign and the Vyazhishchsky Monastery, Vyazhischi Monastery were constructed. The most famous of Muscovite patriarchs, Patriarch Nikon, Nikon, was active in Novgorod between 1648 and 1652. The Novgorod Land became one of the Old Believers' strongholds after the Great Russian Schism, Schism. The city remained an important trade centre even though it was now eclipsed by Archangelsk, Novgorodian merchants were trading in the Baltic cities and Stockholm while Swedish merchants came to Novgorod where they had their own trading post since 1627. Novgorod continued to be a major centre of crafts which employed the majority of its population. There were more than 200 distinct professions in 16th century. Bells, cannons and other arms were produced in Novgorod; its silversmiths were famous for the skan' technique used for religious items and jewellery. Novgorod chests were in widespread use all across Russia, including the Tsar's household and the northern monasteries.


Russian Empire

In 1727, Novgorod was made the administrative center of Novgorod Governorate of the Russian Empire, which was detached from Saint Petersburg Governorate (see Administrative divisions of Russia in 1727–1728). This administrative division existed until 1927. Between 1927 and 1944, the city was a part of Leningrad Oblast, and then became the administrative center of the newly formed
Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (russian: Новгоро́дская о́бласть, ''Novgorodskaya oblast'') is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Р ...
.


Modern era

On August 15, 1941, during World War II, the city was occupied by the German Army (Wehrmacht), German Army. Its historic monuments were systematically obliterated. The Red Army Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive#Novgorod–Luga Offensive : 14 January – 15 February 1944, liberated the city on January 19, 1944. Out of 2,536 stone buildings, fewer than forty remained standing. After the war, thanks to plans laid down by Alexey Shchusev, the central part was gradually restored. In 1992, the chief monuments of the city and the surrounding area were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, World Heritage Site list as the Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings. In 1999, the city was officially renamed Veliky Novgorod (literally, Great Novgorod), thus partly reverting to its medieval title "Lord Novgorod the Great". This reduced the temptation to confuse Veliky Novgorod with Nizhny Novgorod, a larger city the other side of Moscow which, between 1932 and 1990, had been renamed Gorky, in honor of Maxim Gorky.


Administrative and municipal status

Veliky Novgorod is the
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of the oblast and, within the subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions, framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Novgorodsky District, even though it is not a part of it.Law #559-OZ As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of federal subject significance, city of oblast significance of Veliky Novgorod—an administrative unit with status equal to that of the administrative divisions of Novgorod Oblast, districts. As a subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions, municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Veliky Novgorod is incorporated as Veliky Novgorod Urban Okrug.Oblast Law #284-OZ


Sights

The city is known for the variety and age of its medieval monuments. The foremost among these is the , built between 1045 and 1050 under the patronage of Vladimir Yaroslavich, the son of Yaroslav the Wise; Vladimir and his mother, Anna Porphyrogenita, are buried in the cathedral. It is one of the best preserved churches from the 11th century. It is also probably the oldest structure still in use in Russia and the first one to represent original features of Russian architecture (austere stone walls, five helmet-like domes). Its frescoes were painted in the 12th century originally on the orders of Bishop Nikita (died 1108) (the "porches" or side chapels were painted in 1144 under Nifont of Novgorod, Archbishop Nifont) and renovated several times over the centuries, most recently in the nineteenth century. The cathedral features famous bronze gates, which now hang in the west entrance, allegedly made in Magdeburg in 1156 (other sources see them originating from Płock in Poland) and reportedly snatched by Novgorodians from the Swedish town of Sigtuna in 1187. More recent scholarship has determined that the gates were most likely purchased in the mid-15th century, apparently at the behest of Archbishop Euthymius II of Novgorod, Euthymius II (1429–1458), a lover of Western art and architectural styles. The Novgorod Kremlin, traditionally known as the ''Detinets'', also contains the oldest palace in Russia (the so-called Chamber of the Facets, 1433), which served as the main meeting hall of the archbishops; the oldest Russian bell tower (mid-15th century), and the oldest Russian clock tower (1673). The Palace of Facets, the bell tower, and the clock tower were originally built on the orders of Archbishop Euphimius II, although the clock tower collapsed in the 17th century and had to be rebuilt and much of the palace of Euphimius II is no longer standing. Among later structures, the most remarkable are a royal palace (1771) and a bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia, representing the most important figures from the country's history (unveiled in 1862). Outside the Kremlin walls, there are three large churches constructed during the reign of Mstislav I of Kiev, Mstislav the Great. Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Novgorod, St. Nicholas Cathedral (1113–1123), containing frescoes of Mstislav's family, graces Yaroslav's Court (formerly the chief square of Novgorod). The Yuriev Monastery (one of the oldest in Russia, 1030) contains a tall, three-domed cathedral from 1119 (built by Mstislav's son, Vsevolod of Pskov, Vsevolod, and Kyurik, the head of the monastery). A similar three-domed cathedral (1117), probably designed by the same masters, stands in the Antoniev Monastery, built on the orders of Anthony of Rome, Antony, the founder of that monastery. There are now some fifty medieval and early modern churches scattered throughout the city and its surrounding areas. Some of them were blown up by the Nazis and subsequently restored. The most ancient pattern is represented by those dedicated to Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, Saints Pyotr and Pavel (on the Swallow's Hill, 1185–1192), to Annunciation (in Myachino, 1179), to Assumption (on Volotovo Church, Volotovo Field, 1180s) and to St. Paraskeva-Piatnitsa (at Yaroslav's Court, 1207). The greatest masterpiece of early Novgorod architecture is the Nereditsa Church, Savior church at Nereditsa (1198). In the 13th century, tiny churches of the three-paddled design were in vogue. These are represented by a small chapel at the Peryn Chapel, Peryn Monastery (1230s) and St. Nicholas' on the Lipnya Islet (1292, also notable for its 14th-century frescoes). The next century saw the development of two original church designs, one of them culminating in :ru:Церковь Фёдора Стратилата на Ручью, St Theodor's church (1360–1361, fine frescoes from 1380s), and another one leading to the Church of the Transfiguration on Ilyina Street, Savior church on Ilyina street (1374, painted in 1378 by Feofan Grek). The Transfiguration Church in Kovalyovo, Savior' church in Kovalevo (1345) was originally frescoed by Serbian masters, but the church was destroyed during the war. While the church has since been rebuilt, the frescoes have not been restored. During the last century of the republican government, some new churches were consecrated to Saints Peter and Paul (on Slavna, 1367; in Kozhevniki, 1406), to Christ's Nativity (at the Cemetery, 1387), to John the Apostle, St. John the Apostle's (1384), to the Twelve Apostles (1455), to St Demetrius (1467), to St. Simeon (1462), and other saints. Generally, they are not thought to be as innovative as the churches from the previous period. Several shrines from the 12th century (i.e., in Opoki) were demolished brick by brick and then reconstructed exactly as they used to be, several of them in the mid-fifteenth century, again under Archbishop Yevfimy II (Euthymius II), perhaps one of the greatest patrons of architecture in medieval Novgorod. Novgorod's conquest by Ivan III of Russia, Ivan III in 1478 decisively changed the character of local architecture. Large commissions were thenceforth executed by Muscovite masters and patterned after cathedrals of Moscow Kremlin: e.g., the Savior Cathedral of Khutyn Monastery (1515), the Cathedral of the Mother of God of the Sign (1688), the St. Nicholas Cathedral of Vyaschizhy Monastery (1685). Nevertheless, the styles of some parochial churches were still in keeping with local traditions: e.g., the churches of Myrrh-bearing Women (1510) and of Saints Boris and Gleb (1586). In Vitoslavlitsy, along the
Volkhov River The Volkhov (russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorodsky District, Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky District, Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia. It connects L ...
and the Myachino Lake, close to the Yuriev Monastery, a museum of wooden architecture was established in 1964. Over twenty wooden buildings (churches, houses and mills) dating from the 14th to the 19th century were transported there from all around the Novgorod region. 11400 graves of the German 1st Luftwaffe Field Division are found at the war cemetery in Novgorod. Also 1900 soldiers of the Spanish Blue Division are buried there. File:Nowgorod 2005 Millenium Monument.jpg, Bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia (1862) File:Nowgorod 2005 w.jpg, Walls of the Novgorod Kremlin File:VNovgorod WWIIMemoral 4211.JPG, War Memorial File:Yaroslavovo Dvorische 01.jpg, View of the Yaroslav's Court File:Novgorod - Oblast Duma and Administration.jpg, Government Building


Transportation


Intercity transport

Novgorod has connections to
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
(531 km) and Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg (189 km) by the Russian Route M10, federal highway M10. There are public buses to
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
and other destinations. The city has direct railway passenger connections with
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
(Leningradsky Rail Terminal, by night trains), St. Petersburg (Moskovsky Rail Terminal (Saint Petersburg), Moscow Rail Terminal and Vitebsk Rail Terminal, by suburban trains), Minsk (Belarus) (Minsk Passazhirsky railway station, by night trains) and Murmansk. The city's former commercial airport Yurievo Airport, Yurievo was decommissioned in 2006, and the area has now been redeveloped into a residential neighbourhood. The still existing Krechevitsy Airport does not serve any regular flights since mid-1990s although there is a plan to turn Krechevitsy Airport, Krechevitsy into a new operational airport by 2025. The nearest international airport is St. Petersburg's Pulkovo Airport, Pulkovo, some north of the city.


Local transportation

Local transportation consists of a network of buses and trolleybuses. The trolleybus network, which currently consists of five routes, started operating in 1995 and is the first trolley system opened in Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union. File:15 050528a.JPG, trolleybus VMZ (Vologodskiy mechanical plant), Skoda-VMZ-14Tr File:Novgorod - Trolleys and a bus at main station.jpg, Trolleybuses ZiU-9 File:Novgorod - Bus at main station 02.jpg, Bus LiAZ-5256


Honors

A minor planet, 3799 Novgorod, discovered by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1979, is named after the city.


Twin towns – sister cities

Veliky Novgorod is Sister city, twinned with: *Bielefeld, Germany *Kohtla-Järve, Estonia *Moss, Norway, Moss, Norway *Nanterre, France *Örebro Municipality, Örebro, Sweden *Rochester, New York, US *Seinäjoki, Finland *Uusikaupunki, Finland *Watford, UK *Zibo, China


See also

*Old Novgorod dialect *Novgorod uprising of 1650


References


Notes


Sources

* * * * *William Craft Brumfield. A History of Russian Architecture (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 2004) *Peter Bogucki. Novgorod (in Lost Cities; 50 Discoveries in World Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1997)


External links

*
Official website of Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod City PortalVeliky Novgorod for touristsThe Faceted Palace of the Kremlin in Novgorod the Great site
* * * * {{Authority control Veliky Novgorod, Archaeological sites in Russia Rus' settlements Capitals of former nations Trading posts of the Hanseatic League Novgorodsky Uyezd World Heritage Sites in Russia