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Northwest China () is a statistical
region of China This is a list of traditional top-level regions of China. Republic of China (1912–1949) Nationalist government, Nationalist Era regions NRA military regions People's Republic of China in the mainland and ROC on Taiwan (1949–p ...
which includes the
autonomous regions An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
of
Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomo ...

Xinjiang
and
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in the Northwest China, northwest of the China, Pe ...

Ningxia
and the provinces of
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
,
Gansu Gansu (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administra ...

Gansu
and
Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also called Kokonur, is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provinci ...

Qinghai
. It has an area of 3,107,900 km2. The region is characterized by a (semi-)arid
continental climate Continental may refer to: Places * Continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Or ...
. It has a diverse population including significant minorities such as Hui,
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
and Tibetans. Culturally, the region has historically been influenced by the
Silk Road The Silk Road was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, and was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between these regions from the 2nd century BCE to t ...
. In the map presented in the infobox, the regions are not labelled. Xinjiang is the big one in the far Northwest.


Administrative divisions


Cities with urban area over one million in population


Outer Northwest China

Outer Northwest China () refers to small portions of territories of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
that were later annexed by the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it ...
through the
Convention of Peking Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by so ...
,
Treaty of TarbagataiThe Treaty of Tarbagatai (or Chuguchak; ) of 7 October 5 September Old Style, O.S.1864 was a border protocol between Qing dynasty, Qing China and the Russian Empire that defined most of the western extent of their border in central Asia, between ...
,
Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) (), also known as Treaty of Ili (), was a treaty between the Russian Empire and the Qing dynasty that was signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia, on . It provided for the return to China of the eastern part of the ...
and other
unequal treaties Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed between the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dynasties in Chinese history, dyn ...
referred by Chinese interpretation. During Qing rule, the territories formed parts of far-Western
Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomo ...

Xinjiang
, Northwestern
Outer Mongolia Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the i ...
and the entirety of
Tannu Uriankhai Tannu Uriankhai ( tyv, Таңды Урянхай, ; mn, Тагна Урианхай, ''Tagna Urianhai''; russian: Урянхайский край, ''Urjanchajskij kraj'', ; ) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of th ...
. Prior to Qing rule, Outer Northwest China was part of the
Dzungar Khanate The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Inner Asian khanate of Oirats, Oirat Mongols, Mongol origin. At its greatest extent, it covered an area from southern Siberia in the north to present-day Kyrgyzstan in the sout ...
but the region was annexed into the Qing Empire in the aftermath of the
Dzungar–Qing Wars The Dzungar–Qing Wars ( mn, Зүүнгар-Чин улсын дайн, ) were a decades-long series of conflicts that pitted the Dzungar Khanate against the Qing dynasty of China and their Mongolian vassals. Fighting took place over a wide swa ...
. Following the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, e ...
, the region is now divided among two successor states of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...
:
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
and
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = "" ...

Kyrgyzstan
.


See also

*
Ma clique The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui (Muslim Chinese) warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also calle ...
* Tangut *
List of regions of China This is a list of traditional top-level regions of China. Republic of China (1912–1949) Nationalist government, Nationalist Era regions NRA military regions People's Republic of China in the mainland and ROC on Taiwan (1949–p ...
*
China Western Development China Western Development (), also Great Western Development Strategy or the Open Up the West Program, is a policy adopted for the Western China. The policy covers 6 province of China, provinces (Gansu, Guizhou, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan and Yunn ...


References

{{Authority control *
Regions of China {{Cat main, List of regions of China Geography of China Administrative divisions of China Regions of Asia by country, China ...
Western China