HOME

TheInfoList




The North Eastern Province ( so, Gobolka Woqooyi Bari (๐’Œ๐’™๐’๐’™๐’๐’๐’– ๐’“๐’™๐’Ž๐’๐’•๐’˜ ๐’๐’–๐’‡๐’˜)) is one of the former
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
in
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
. It has a land area of 127,358.5 km2, with its capital at
Garissa Garissa ( so, Gaarisa) is the capital of Garissa County, Kenya Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya ( sw, Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa. At , Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. With a population ...
. Previously known as the Northern Frontier District (NFD), the North Eastern Province territory was carved out of the present-day southern
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
during the colonial period. However, during negotiations for Kenya's independence, Britain granted administration of the NFD to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite showing the overwhelming desire of the region's population to join the newly formed Somali Republic. It is and has historically been mostly inhabited by
ethnic Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’†๐’–, ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠูˆู†) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the ...
.Rhoda E. Howard, ''Human Rights in Commonwealth Africa'', (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: 1986), p.95


History

The Northern Frontier District came into being in 1925, when it was carved out of the present-day southern
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
. At the time under British colonial administration, the northern half of Jubaland was ceded to
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
as a reward for the Italians' support of the Allies during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. Britain retained control of the southern half of the territory, which was later called the Northern Frontier District (subsequently renamed the North Eastern Province). On 26 June 1960, four days before granting
British Somaliland British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British Empire, British protectorate in present-day Somaliland. For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by ...
independence, the British government declared that all Somali-inhabited areas of East Africa,
Greater Somalia Greater Somalia ( so, Soomaaliweyn ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’“๐’—๐’•๐’’, ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ ุงู„ูƒุจุฑู‰ ''As-Sลซmal al-Kubra'') is a concept to unite all ethnic Somalis comprising the regions in or near the Horn of Africa The Horn of A ...

Greater Somalia
should be unified in one administrative region. However, after the dissolution of the former British colonies in the region, Britain granted administration of the Northern Frontier District to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite demonstrating the overwhelming desire of the region's population to join the newly formed
Somali Republic The Somali Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, it, Repubblica Somala, ar, ุงู„ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ ) was the name of a sovereign state composing of Somalia Somalia,; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the ...

Somali Republic
, and the fact that the NFD was almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis.Francis Vallat, ''First report on succession of states in respect of treaties: International Law Commission twenty-sixth session 6 May-26 July 1974'', (United Nations: 1974), p.20 In December 1962, at the urging of the Somalia government, the British appointed a commission to ascertain the desires of the inhabitants of the Northern Frontier District regarding its future. The commissioners reported that the inhabitants of five of the six administrative areas of the Northern Frontier District favored union with the Somali Republic. According to the Somali Republic, unification was favored by 88% of the inhabitants. Early in 1963, Britain assured Somalia that no decision would be made regarding the Northern Frontier District without prior consultation with the Republic. However, Britain did not follow the wishes of the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of the Northern Frontier District and cede the territory to the Somalia Republic. Instead, on 8 March 1963, Britain announced the creation of the North East Region out of the Northern Frontier District. Unsatisfied with this solution, the Somali Republic severed diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom on 18 March 1963. On the eve of Kenya's independence in August 1963, British officials belatedly realized that the new Kenyan regime was not willing to give up the Somali-inhabited areas it had just been granted administration of. Led by the Northern Province People's Progressive Party (NPPPP), Somalis in the NFD vigorously sought union with their kin in the Somali Republic to the north. In response, the Kenyan government enacted a number of repressive measures designed to frustrate their efforts in what came to be known as the shifta period: Somali leaders were routinely placed in preventive detention, where they remained well into the late 1970s. The North Eastern Province was closed to general access (along with other parts of Kenya) as a "scheduled" area (ostensibly closed to all outsiders, including members of parliament, as a means of protecting the nomadic inhabitants), and news from it was very difficult to obtain. A number of reports, however, accused the Kenyans of mass slaughters of entire villages of Somali citizens and of setting up large "protected villages"โ€”in effect
concentration camp Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between state ...
s. The government refused to acknowledge the ethnically based irredentist motives of the Somalis, making constant reference in official statements to the ''
shiftaShifta ( Ge'ez: แˆฝแแ‰ณ, or "shufta") is term used in Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ), officially the Federal Democratic Republi ...
'' (bandit) problem in the area. Although the main conflict ended in a cease-fire in 1967, Somalis in the region still identify and maintain close ties with their brethren in Somalia.Godfrey Mwakikagile, ''Kenya: identity of a nation'', (Godfrey Mwakikagile: 2007), p.79. They have traditionally married within their own community and formed a cohesive ethnic network.


Demographics

As of 2009, the North Eastern Province had a population of 2,310,757 residents. These census results were however nullified by the then Planning Minister Wycliffe Oparanya citing inconsistencies in the birth and death rates. On 21 March 2016, the court of appeal in Nairobi, declared the disputed 2009 census results valid. The North Eastern Province is predominantly inhabited by ethnic Somalis. The Somalis who live in North Eastern Province of
Greater Somalia Greater Somalia ( so, Soomaaliweyn ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’“๐’—๐’•๐’’, ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ ุงู„ูƒุจุฑู‰ ''As-Sลซmal al-Kubra'') is a concept to unite all ethnic Somalis comprising the regions in or near the Horn of Africa The Horn of A ...

Greater Somalia
in the present day
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
are close to three million (3,000,000) in the 2019 Kenya National Census with another 400,000
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
refugees in several Kenya refugee camps.


Administration

North Eastern Province has thirteen constituencies represented in the
National Assembly of Kenya National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ...
Now under the
Government of Kenya The Government of the Republic of Kenya (GoK) is the Central government, national government of the republic of Kenya which is composed of Counties of Kenya, 47 Counties, each county with its own semi-autonomous governments. The national governmen ...
whose Regional Commissioner sits in Garissa. The Current Regional Commissioner is Mohamed Birik As the capital of
Garissa County Garissa County ( so, Gobolka Gaarisa) is an administrative County A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh ...
, Garissa is the seat of the County Government of Garissa as well as the County Assembly. The town is represented by
Aden Bare Duale Hon. Aden Bare Duale ( so, Mudane: Aadan Barre Ducaale) is the immediate former Majority Leader of the National Assembly of Kenya under the Jubilee Party. He was elected in 2013 under the United Republican Party (URP) and in 2017 under the Jubilee ...
, a Somali
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
for the
Garissa Township ConstituencyGarissa Township Constituency (formerly Garissa Central/Dujis Constituency) is an Constituencies of Kenya, electoral constituency in Kenya. It is one of six constituencies in Garissa County, and was established for the 1988 Kenyan general election, 1 ...
and who also doubles as the
Leader Leadership, both as a research area and as a practical skill, encompasses the ability of an individual, group or organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English ...

Leader
of the
Majority A majority, also called a simple majority to distinguish it from similar terms (see the "Related terms" section below), is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.See dictionary definitions of "majority" aMerriam-Webster
in the legislature. He was appointed to the position in the 2013 general elections. The county is also home to Ijara, Dadaab, Lagdera, Fafi and Balambala constituencies.
Wajir Wajir ( so, Wajeer) is the capital of the Wajir County Wajir County ( so, Gabolka Wajeer) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, C ...
is the largest county in the former North Eastern Province with approximately an area of 56,000km2. The county has six constituencies. They include Eldas, Tarbaj, Wajir East, Wajir North, Wajir West, and Wajir South.
Mandera County Mandera County ( so, Degmada Mandheera, sw, Kaunti ya Mandera) is the northeasternmost counties of Kenya, county in Kenya. Its capital and largest town is Mandera. The county is bordered by Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east and Wajir C ...
is at the furthermost bordering both the
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
and Ethiopia's
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, แˆฑแˆ›แˆŒ แŠญแˆแˆ, ar, ุงู„ู…ู†ุทู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a regional state A regional state or a regionalised unitary state, is ...

Somali Region
. It has six constituencies just like the rest of the counties in the North Eastern province. These constituencies include Banissa, Lafey, Mandera East, Mandera North, Mandera South, Mandera West and Takaba.


Economy

Livestock and agricultural production is a significant part of the region's economy. Between 2005 and 2007, Garissa cattle producers earned over 1.8 billion shillings in sales in domestic and overseas markets. Construction on a new abattoir also began in October 2007. In terms of livestock imports, most of Garissa's cattle comes from cross-border trade between Somali livestock merchants.Livestock Supply in Kenya
/ref>


Transportation

North Eastern Province is served by the
Wajir Airport Wajir Airport is an international airport in Wajir County, Kenya. Location Wajir Airport is located in Wajir town. Traditionally inhabited by ethnic Borana Oromo people, Borana and later Somali people, Somalis, the area lies near the Jubbada H ...
. It handles about seven flights per day. As of September 2012, civil flights are offered twice a week by Echo. Most flights, however, are cargo. Some charter and military flights are additionally accommodated.History of Wajir Airport
/ref>


Climate and habitat

North Eastern Province has a
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words แผ€ฯ„ฮผฯŒฯ‚ ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
and
hot desert climate The desert climate or arid climate (in the Kรถppen climate classification The Kรถppen climate classification is one of the most widely used systems. It was first published by German-Russian (1846โ€“1940) in 1884, with several later modific ...
( Kรถppen ''BSh'' and ''BWh''). Rain falls infrequently, usually only around April or October, and quite sporadically from year to year. Although the southwestern section of the Somali autonomous region is extremely fertile where the Tana River is located with a lot of
farming Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

farming
. There is a major river called Tana River which is located in the southwestern section of the region. Wildlife in the area include the
lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a large cat The cat (''Felis catus'') is a domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-perma ...

lion
,
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...

elephant
, ,
zebra Zebras (, ) (subgenus ''Hippotigris'') are African equines with distinctive black-and-white striped Animal coat, coats. There are three Extant taxon, living species: the Grรฉvy's zebra (''Equus grevyi''), plains zebra (''E. quagga''), and the ...

zebra
,
hyena Hyenas, or hyaenas (from Ancient Greek , ), are feliformia, feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae . With only four extant species (each in their own genus), it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora and one of the ...

hyena
,
gazelle A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus ''Gazella''. This article also deals with the seven species included in two further genera, ''Eudorcas'' and ''Nanger'', which were formerly considered subgenera of ''Gazella''. A third for ...

gazelle
,
giraffe The giraffe is a tall African mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Fe ...

giraffe
,
leopard The leopard (''Panthera pardus'') is one of the five extant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is ...

leopard
,
cheetah The cheetah (''Acinonyx jubatus'') is a large Felidae, cat native to Africa and central Iran. It is the Fastest animals, fastest land animal, estimated to be capable of running at with the fastest reliably recorded speeds being , and as suc ...

cheetah
, and
ostrich ''Struthio'' is a genus Genus /หˆdส’iห.nษ™s/ (plural genera /หˆdส’en.ษ™r.ษ™/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

ostrich
.
Hippopotamus The hippopotamus ( ; ''Hippopotamus amphibius''), also called the hippo, common hippopotamus or river hippopotamus, is a large, mostly herbivorous A herbivore is an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryo ...

Hippopotamus
and
crocodile Crocodiles (family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. I ...

crocodile
s are mainly located on the river.


Counties


After 2007


See also

*
Greater Somalia Greater Somalia ( so, Soomaaliweyn ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’“๐’—๐’•๐’’, ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ ุงู„ูƒุจุฑู‰ ''As-Sลซmal al-Kubra'') is a concept to unite all ethnic Somalis comprising the regions in or near the Horn of Africa The Horn of A ...

Greater Somalia
* Shakani


References


External links


Somalia-Ethiopia, Kenya Conflict
{{First and second-level administrative divisions of Kenya North Eastern Province (Kenya), Provinces of Kenya Disputed territories in Africa Former provinces 2013 disestablishments in Kenya Somali-speaking countries and territories