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North Dakota () is a
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
in the upper
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a princ ...
of the country. It is named after the
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
and
Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated community * Dakota, Illinois, a town * Dak ...
Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated ...

Sioux
, who historically dominated the territory and remain a large community. North Dakota is bordered by the Canadian provinces of
Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English , capital = Regina, S ...
and
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
to the north and by the U.S. states of
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Minnesota
to the east,
South Dakota South Dakota () (Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakot ...

South Dakota
to the south, and
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
to the west. It is believed to host the geographic center of North America, situated in the town of
Rugby Rugby may refer to: Sports Rugby codes * Rugby football in various forms: ** Rugby league: 13 players per side *** Masters Rugby League *** Mod league *** Rugby league nines *** Rugby league sevens *** Touch (sport) *** Wheelchair rugby league ** ...

Rugby
, and is home to the tallest man-made structure in the Western Hemisphere, the
KVLY-TV mast The KVLY-TV mast (formerly the KTHI-TV mast) is a television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in t ...

KVLY-TV mast
. Of the
50 states The United States, United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 U.S. state, states, a Capital districts and territories#United States, federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major t ...
, North Dakota is the nineteenth largest in area, but with a population of less than 780,000 as of 2020, it is the fourth least populous and fourth most sparsely populated. The capital is Bismarck while the largest city is Fargo, which accounts for nearly a fifth of the state's population; both cities are among the fastest-growing in the U.S., although half of all residents live in rural areas. The state is part of the
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of in . It is located west of the and east of the , much of it covered in , and . It is the southern and main part of the , which also include the ...
region, with broad
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
s,
steppe File:Steppe of western Kazakhstan in the early spring.jpg, Steppe in Kazakhstan In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may ...

steppe
, temperate
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ' woods), a low-density forming open s with plenty of sunlight and li ...

savanna
,
badlands Badlands are a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of ...

badlands
, and farmland being defining characteristics. What is now North Dakota was inhabited for thousands of years by various Native American tribes, including the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara along the
Missouri River The Missouri River is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its ...
; the
Ojibwa The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
and
Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are a North American Indigenous people. They live primarily in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canad ...

Cree
in the northeast; and several Sioux groups (the
Assiniboine The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people ( when singular, Assiniboines / Assiniboins when plural; Ojibwe: ''Asiniibwaan'', "stone Sioux"; also in plural Assiniboine or Assiniboin), also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda ...
, Yankton,
Wahpeton
Wahpeton
, and Teton) across the rest of the state. European explorers and traders first arrived in the early 18th century, mostly in pursuit of lucrative furs. The United States acquired the region in the early 19th century, gradually settling it amid growing resistance by increasingly displaced natives. The
Dakota Territory The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States and the founding of the United States: Kingdom of Great Britain, British claims are indicated in red and pink, while Spanish claims are in orange and yellow. ...
, established in 1861, became central to
American pioneers 300px, American pioneers building the flatboat ''Adventure galley '' at Sumrill's Ferry on the Youghiogheny River during March 1788. American pioneers were European American European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are America ...
, with the
Homestead Act of 1862 The Homestead Acts were several laws in the United States by which an applicant could acquire ownership of government land or the public domain, typically called a Homestead (buildings), homestead. In all, more than of public land, or nearly ...
precipitating significant population growth and development. The traditional fur trade declined in favor of farming, particularly of wheat; the subsequent Dakota Boom from 1878 to 1886 saw giant farms stretched across the rolling prairies, with the territory becoming a key breadbasket and regional economic engine. The
Northern Pacific The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States The Western United States (also called the American West, the Far West, and the West) is the List of regions of t ...
and Great Northern railway companies competed for access to lucrative grain centers; farmers banded together in political and socioeconomic alliances that were core to the broader
Populist Movement Populism refers to a range of political stances that emphasise the idea of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite". The term developed in the 19th century and has been applied to various politicians, parties, and moveme ...
of the Midwest. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 2, 1889, along with neighboring
South Dakota South Dakota () (Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakot ...

South Dakota
, as the 39th and 40th states. President
Benjamin Harrison Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 March 13, 1901) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, , and a great-grandson of , a who signed the . Harrison was born o ...

Benjamin Harrison
shuffled the statehood papers before signing them so that no one could tell which became a state first; consequently, the two states are officially numbered in alphabetical order. Statehood marked the gradual winding down of the pioneer period, with the state fully settled by around 1920. Subsequent decades saw a rise in radical agrarian movements and economic cooperatives, of which one legacy is the
Bank of North Dakota The Bank of North Dakota (BND) is a state-owned, state-run financial institution based in Bismarck, North Dakota, Bismarck, North Dakota. It is the only government-owned general-service bank in the United States. The bank was established to promot ...
, the only state-run bank in the U.S. Beginning in the mid 20th century, North Dakota's rich
natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewabl ...
s became more critical to economic development; into the 21st century,
oil extraction on an oil well , such as this one located south of Midland, Texas, is a common sight in West Texas An oil well is a boring (earth), boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface. Usually some natural gas ...
from the
Bakken formation The Bakken Formation () is a rock unit from the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian age occupying about of the subsurface of the Williston Basin, underlying parts of Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The formation was initiall ...
in the northwest has played a major role in the state's prosperity. Such development has led to unprecedented population growth and reduced unemployment, with North Dakota having the second lowest unemployment rate in the U.S. (after
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
). It subsequently ranks highly in metrics such as health care, quality of life, and public safety.


History


Pre-colonial history

Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of years before the coming of Europeans. The known tribes included the Mandan people (from around the 11th century),Wood, W. Raymond and Thomas D. Thiessen: ''Early Fur Trade On The Northern Plains. Canadian Traders Among the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians, 1738–1818.'' Norman and London, 1987, p. 5. while the first
Hidatsa The Hidatsa are a Siouan languages, Siouan people. They are enrolled in the Federally recognized tribe, federally recognized Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. Hidatsa la ...
group arrived a few hundred years later. They both assembled in villages on tributaries of the Missouri River in what would become west-central North Dakota.
Crow Indians
Crow Indians
traveled the plains from the west to visit and trade with the related Hidatsas after the split between them, probably in the 17th century. Later came divisions of the
Dakota people The Dakota (pronounced , Dakota language Dakota (''Dakhótiyapi, Dakȟótiyapi''), also referred to as Dakhota, is a Siouan languages, Siouan language spoken by the Dakota people of the Sioux tribes. Dakota is closely related to and mutually i ...
: the
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
, the
Santee Santee may refer to: People * Santee Dakota, a subgroup of the Dakota people, of the U.S. Great Plains * Santee (South Carolina), a Native American people of South Carolina Places * Lake Santee, Indiana, a reservoir and census-designated place * ...
and the
Yanktonai The Dakota (pronounced , Dakota language: ''Dakȟóta/Dakhóta'') are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribe and First Nations band government in North America. They compose two of the three main s ...
. The
Assiniboine The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people ( when singular, Assiniboines / Assiniboins when plural; Ojibwe: ''Asiniibwaan'', "stone Sioux"; also in plural Assiniboine or Assiniboin), also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda ...
and the Plains Cree undertook southward journeys to the village Indians, either for trade or for war. The in present-day Wyoming and Montana may have carried out attacks on Indian enemies as far east as the Missouri. A group of
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...

Cheyenne
s lived in a village of earth lodges at the lower
Sheyenne River The Sheyenne River is one of the major tributaries of the Red River of the North, meandering U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed June 8, 2011 across eastern North Dakota, Uni ...
( Biesterfeldt Site) for decades in the 18th century. Due to attacks by Crees, Assiniboines and Chippewas armed with fire weapons, they left the area around 1780 and crossed Missouri some time after. A band of the few lived east of Missouri River and met the uprooted Cheyennes before the end of the century. They soon followed the Cheyennes across Missouri and lived among them south of
Cannonball River The Cannonball River ( lkt, Íŋyaŋwakağapi Wakpá) is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately long, in southwestern North Dakota in the United States. It rises in the Little Missouri National Grassland, in the badlands north of Amidon ...
. Eventually, the Cheyenne and the Sutaio became one tribe and turned into mounted buffalo hunters with ranges mainly outside North Dakota. Before the middle of the 19th century, the
Arikara Arikara (), also known as Sahnish,
''Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation.'' (Retrieved Sep 29, 2011)
entered the future state from the south and joined the Mandan and Hidatsa. With time, a number of Indians entered into treaties with the United States. Many of the treaties defined the territory of a specific tribe.


European exploration and colonization

The first European to reach the area was the
French-Canadian French Canadians (referred to as Canadiens mainly before the twentieth century ; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French people, French colonists who settled in Canada (New France) ...
trader Pierre Gaultier, sieur de La Vérendrye, who led an exploration and trading party to the
Mandan The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries primarily in what is now North Dakota North Dakota () is a state in the Upper Midwest region of the United States The United States of America ...

Mandan
villages in 1738 guided by Assiniboine Indians. From 1762 to 1802, the region formed part of
Spanish Louisiana Spanish Louisiana ( es, link=no, la Luisiana) was a governorate and administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1801 that consisted of a vast territory in the center of North America North America is a cont ...
.


Settlement and statehood

European Americans settled in Dakota Territory only sparsely until the late 19th century, when railroads opened up the region. With the advantage of grants of land, they vigorously marketed their properties, extolling the region as ideal for agriculture. Congress passed an omnibus bill for statehood for North Dakota,
South Dakota South Dakota () (Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakot ...

South Dakota
,
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
, and
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...
, titled the Enabling Act of 1889, on February 22, 1889 during the administration of President
Grover Cleveland Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897. Cleveland is the only president in American ...

Grover Cleveland
. His successor,
Benjamin Harrison Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 March 13, 1901) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, , and a great-grandson of , a who signed the . Harrison was born o ...

Benjamin Harrison
, signed the proclamations formally admitting North Dakota and South Dakota to the Union on November 2, 1889. The rivalry between the two new states presented a dilemma of which was to be admitted first. Harrison directed Secretary of State
James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830January 27, 1893) was an American statesman and Republican Party (United States), Republican politician who represented Maine in the United States House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives f ...
to shuffle the papers and obscure from him which he was signing first. The actual order went unrecorded, thus no one knows which of the Dakotas was admitted first. However, since ''North Dakota'' alphabetically appears before ''South Dakota'', its proclamation was published first in the Statutes At Large.


20th and 21st centuries

Unrest among wheat farmers, especially among Norwegian
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigrants
, led to a populist political movement centered in the
Non Partisan League The Nonpartisan League (NPL) was a political organization founded in 1915 in the United States by Arthur C. Townley, former organizer (party), organizer for the Socialist Party of America. On behalf of small farmers and merchants, the Nonpartisan ...
("NPL") around the time of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. The NPL ran candidates on the Republican ticket (but merged into the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
). It tried to insulate North Dakota from the power of out-of-state banks and corporations. In addition to founding the state-owned
Bank of North Dakota The Bank of North Dakota (BND) is a state-owned, state-run financial institution based in Bismarck, North Dakota, Bismarck, North Dakota. It is the only government-owned general-service bank in the United States. The bank was established to promot ...
and
North Dakota Mill and Elevator 200px, Logo of the North Dakota Mill and Elevator The North Dakota Mill and Elevator is the largest flour mill A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and Wheat middlings, mid ...
(both still in existence), the NPL established a state-owned railroad line (later sold to the
Soo Line Railroad The Soo Line Railroad is the primary United States Rail transport, railroad subsidiary of the Canadian Pacific Railway , one of seven U.S. Class I railroads, controlled through the Soo Line Corporation. Although it is named for the Minneapolis, S ...
). Anti-corporate laws virtually prohibited a corporation or bank from owning title to land zoned as farmland. These laws, still in force today, after having been upheld by state and federal courts, make it almost impossible to foreclose on farmland, as even after foreclosure, the property title cannot be held by a bank or mortgage company. Furthermore, the Bank of North Dakota, having powers similar to a Federal Reserve branch bank, exercised its power to limit the issuance of subprime mortgages and their collateralization in the form of derivative instruments, and so prevented a collapse of housing prices within the state in the wake of 2008's financial crisis. The original North Dakota State Capitol in Bismarck burned to the ground on December 28, 1930. It was replaced by a
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
-faced
art-deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war origin ...
skyscraper that still stands today. A round of federal investment and construction projects began in the 1950s, including the
Garrison Dam Garrison Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam in Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countr ...
and the
Minot Minot ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most widely known for the Minot Air Force Base, Air Force base approximately north of th ...
and Grand Forks bases. Western North Dakota saw a boom in oil exploration in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as rising petroleum prices made development profitable. This boom came to an end after petroleum prices declined. In recent years, the state has had lower rates of unemployment than the national average, and increased job and population growth. Much of the growth has been based on development of the Bakken oil fields in the western part of the state. Estimates as to the remaining amount of oil in the area vary, with some estimating over 100 years' worth. For decades, North Dakota's annual murder and violent crime rates were regularly the lowest in the United States. In recent years, however, while still below the national average, crime has risen sharply. In 2016, the violent crime rate was three times higher than in 2004, with the rise occurring mostly in the late 2000s, coinciding with the oil boom era. This happened at a time when the national violent crime rate declined slightly. Workers in the oil boom towns have been blamed for much of the increase.


Geography

North Dakota is located in the
Upper Midwest The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for produci ...
region of the United States. It lies at the center of the
North American continent North America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...
and borders
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
to the north. The geographic center of North America is near the town of
Center Center or centre may refer to: Mathematics *Center (geometry) In geometry, a centre (or center) (from Ancient Greek language, Greek ''κέντρον'') of an object is a point in some sense in the middle of the object. According to the speci ...
. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, and Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource. It is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth. North Dakota also has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and quickly became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000s, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more heavily on farming than the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories process farm products or manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state's merchants also rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota. They stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota harvests more than 90 percent of the nation's canola and flaxseed. It is also the country's top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, honey, lentils, oats, peas, and sugar beets. Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870s because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870s, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming also began during the 1870s. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley. The farms made such enormous profits they were called bonanza farms. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota, rapidly increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people who once lived in the territory. The Sioux called themselves Dakota or Lakota, meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State. This nickname honors the
International Peace Garden The International Peace Garden is a park A park is an area of naturally occurring, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are urban green ...

International Peace Garden
, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is also called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels (Richardson's ground squirrel) that live in the central part of the state. North Dakota is in the U.S. region known as the
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of in . It is located west of the and east of the , much of it covered in , and . It is the southern and main part of the , which also include the ...
. The state shares the
Red River of the North The Red River (french: rivière Rouge or , American English: Red River of the North) is a river in the north-central United States and central Canada. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux River, Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail River, ...

Red River of the North
with
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Minnesota
to the east.
South Dakota South Dakota () (Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakot ...

South Dakota
is to the south,
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
is to the west, and the Canadian provinces of
Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English , capital = Regina, S ...
and
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
with a stone marker in
Rugby, North Dakota Rugby is a city in, and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Hungary and the Uni ...

Rugby, North Dakota
marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of , of which is land, North Dakota is the 19th largest state. The western half of the state consists of the hilly
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of in . It is located west of the and east of the , much of it covered in , and . It is the southern and main part of the , which also include the ...
as well as the northern part of the
Badlands Badlands are a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of ...

Badlands
, which are to the west of the
Missouri River The Missouri River is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its ...
. The state's high point,
White Butte White Butte is the highest natural point in the U.S. state of North Dakota. At an elevation of 3,506 ft (1,069 m), it is a prominent butte in Slope County, North Dakota, Slope County, in the Badlands of the southwestern part of the state. It ...
at , and
Theodore Roosevelt National Park Theodore Roosevelt National Park is an American national park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota. The park honors President of the United States, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt and is the only Am ...

Theodore Roosevelt National Park
are in the Badlands. The region is abundant in
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
s including
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
,
crude oil Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

crude oil
and
lignite Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langu ...

lignite
coal. The
Missouri River The Missouri River is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its ...
forms
Lake Sakakawea Lake Sakakawea is a large reservoir in the West North Central States, north central United States, impounded in 1953 by Garrison Dam, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dam located in the Missouri River basin in central North Dakota. Named for the Sh ...
, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the
Garrison Dam Garrison Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam in Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countr ...
. The central region of the state is divided into the Drift Prairie and the Missouri Plateau. The eastern part of the state consists of the flat
Red River Valley The Red River Valley is a region in central North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to ...
, the bottom of glacial
Lake Agassiz Lake Agassiz was a very large glacial lake in central North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontine ...
. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering flowing northward into
Lake Winnipeg Lake Winnipeg (french: Lac Winnipeg, oj, ᐑᓂᐸᑲᒥᐠᓴᑯ˙ᑯᐣ, italics=no, Weenipagamiksaguygun) is a very large, relatively shallow lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surro ...
, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is also found in the east. Most of the state is covered in
grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, extent, or any other specific or geographic ...

grassland
; crops cover most of eastern North Dakota but become increasingly sparse in the center and farther west. Natural trees in North Dakota are found usually where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, and along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta. This diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants.


Climate

North Dakota has a
continental climate Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), within large landmasses where prevailing winds In meteorology Mete ...
with warm summers and cold winters. The temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being roughly equal distance from the North Pole and the Equator.


Demographics


Population

At the 2020 United States census North Dakota's population was 779,094 on April 1, 2020, a 15.83% increase since the
2010 United States census The United States Census of 2010 was the twenty-third United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in ...
. This makes North Dakota the U.S. state with the largest percentage in population growth since 2011. North Dakota is the fourth least-populous state in the country; only
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
,
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
, and
Wyoming Wyoming () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. The List of U.S. states and territories by area, 10th largest state by area, it is also the List of U.S. states and territories b ...
have fewer residents. From fewer than 2,000 people in 1870, North Dakota's population grew to near 680,000 by 1930. Growth then slowed, and the population has fluctuated slightly over the past seven decades, hitting a low of 617,761 in the 1970 census, with 642,200 in the 2000 census. Except for
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, the North Dakota population has a lesser percentage of minorities than in the nation as a whole. As of 2011, 20.7% of North Dakota's population younger than age1 were minorities. The
center of population In demographics, the center of population (or population center) of a region is a geographical point that describes a centerpoint of the region's population. There are several different ways of defining such a "center point", leading to differ ...
of North Dakota is in Wells County, near Sykeston.


Race and ethnicity

''Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number''. * Since 2016, data for births of
White Hispanic White Latin Americans, or European Latin Americans, are Latin Americans Latin Americans ( es, Latinoamericanos; pt, Latino-americanos; ) are the citizens of the Latin American countries. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to ...
origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Throughout the mid-19th century, Dakota Territory was still dominated by Native Americans; warfare and disease reduced their population at the same time Europeans and Americans were settling in the area. Throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century, North Dakota, along with most of the Midwest U.S., experienced a mass influx of newcomers from both the eastern United States and immigrants from Europe. North Dakota was a known popular destination for immigrant farmers and general laborers and their families, mostly from
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
,
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. Much of this settlement gravitated throughout the western side of the
Red River Valley The Red River Valley is a region in central North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to ...
, as was similarly seen in South Dakota and in a parallel manner in Minnesota. This area is well known for its fertile lands. By the outbreak of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
, this was among North America's richest farming regions. But a period of higher rainfall ended, and many migrants weren't successful in the arid conditions. Many family plots were too small to farm successfully. From the 1930s until the end of the 20th century, North Dakota's population gradually declined, interrupted by a couple of brief increases. Young adults with university degrees were particularly likely to leave the state. With the advancing process of mechanization of agricultural practices, and environmental conditions requiring larger landholdings for successful agriculture, subsistence farming proved to be too risky for families. Many people moved to urban areas for jobs. Since the late 20th century, one of the major causes of migration from North Dakota is the lack of skilled jobs for college graduates. Expansion of economic development programs has been urged to create skilled and high-tech jobs, but the effectiveness of such programs has been open to debate. During the first decade of the 21st century, the population increased in large part because of jobs in the oil industry related to development of
tight oil:''For another use of the term "shale oil", meaning synthetic crude oil derived from oil shale, see shale oil''. Tight oil (also known as shale oil, shale-hosted oil or light tight oil, abbreviated LTO) is light crude oil contained in petroleum ...
(shale oil) fields. Elsewhere, the Native American population has increased as some reservations have attracted people back from urban areas. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the racial and ethnic composition of North Dakota was 88.7%
non-Hispanic white Non-Hispanic Whites (also referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief ''Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary'' Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of ''Anglo'' ...
, 5.4%
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, 1.2%
Black or African American Black is a color which results from the absence or complete Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorption of visible spectrum, visible light. It is an achromatic color, without hue, like white and gray. It is often used symbolically or fig ...
, 1.0%
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
, 0.1%
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic and ethnic/racial term to describe the inhabitants and diaspora of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania Oceania (, , ...
, 0.5% some other race, and 0.2% from two or more races. At the 2019
American Community Survey The American Community Survey (ACS) is a demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, such as ancestry, citizenship, educati ...
, North Dakota's racial and ethnic makeup was 83.6% non-Hispanic white, 2.9% Black or African American, 5.0% Native American and Alaska Native, 1.4% Asian, 0.4% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 0.1% some other race, 2.7% multiracial, and 4.0% Hispanic or Latin American of any race. North Dakota is one of the top resettlement locations for refugees proportionally. According to the U.S. Office of Refugee Resettlement, in 2013–2014 "more than 68 refugees" per 100,000 North Dakotans were settled in the state. In fiscal year 2014, 582 refugees settled in the state. Fargo Mayor Mahoney said North Dakota accepting the most refugees per capita should be celebrated given the benefits they bring to the state. In 2015, Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota, the state's only resettlement agency, was "awarded $458,090 in federal funding to improve refugee services".
Immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 3,323 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 21,110 people. Of the residents of North Dakota in 2009, 69.8% were born in North Dakota, 27.2% were born in a different state, 0.6% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 2.4% were born in another country. The age and gender distributions approximate the national average. In 2019, 4.1% were foreign-born residents.


Languages

In 2010, 94.86% (584,496) of North Dakotans over 5 years old spoke
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
as their
primary language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), g ...
. 5.14% (31,684) of North Dakotans spoke a language other than English. 1.39% (8,593) spoke
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
, 1.37% (8,432) spoke
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, and 0.30% (1,847) spoke
Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian language, including the t ...
. Other languages spoken included
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
(0.19%),
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
and
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
(both 0.15%), and
Native American languages Over a thousand are spoken by the . These languages cannot all be demonstrated to be related to each other and are classified into a hundred or so (including a large number of s), as well as a number of extinct languages that are due to a lac ...
and (both 0.13%). In 2000, 2.5% of the population spoke German in addition to English, reflecting early 20th century immigration.


Religion

The
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's el ...

Pew Research Center
determined 77% of the adult population was
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
in 2014. In contrast with many southern U.S. states,
mainline Protestant The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical Evangelicalism (), evan ...
ism was the largest form of Protestantism practiced (28%). The largest mainline Protestant denomination in North Dakota was the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and the
United Methodist Church The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a worldwide mainline Protestant The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contras ...

United Methodist Church
was the second largest. Evangelical Protestants, forming the second largest Protestant branch (22%), were also dominated by Lutherans; the
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States , footnotes = The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (LCMS), also known as the Missouri Synod, is a traditional, confessional Lutheran Christian denomination, denomination in the ...
was the largest Evangelical denomination. Among the Christian population of North Dakota, the Roman Catholic Church was the single largest Christian denomination. Non-Christian religions accounted for 3% of the adult population, with
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
being the largest non-Christian religion. Other faiths such as Unitarians and
New Age New Age is a range of spiritual or religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religi ...
rs collectively made up 1% of the practicing population. At the 2014 survey, 20% were unaffiliated with any religion, and 2% of North Dakotans were atheist; 13% of the population practiced nothing in particular. The largest church bodies by number of adherents in 2010 were the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
with 167,349; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 163,209; and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod with 22,003. In 2006, North Dakota had the most churches per capita of any state. Additionally, North Dakota had the highest percentage of church-going population of any state in 2006. A 2001 survey indicated 35% of North Dakota's population was
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
, and 30% was
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
. Other religious groups represented were Methodists (7%),
Baptists Baptists form a major branch of Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Cath ...
(6%), the
Assemblies of God The Assemblies of God (AG), officially the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, is a group of over 144 autonomous self-governing national groupings of churches that together form the world's largest Pentecostal Pentecostalism or Classical Pente ...
(3%),
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
s (1.27%), and
Jehovah's Witnesses Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious ...
(1%). Christians with unstated or other denominational affiliations, including other
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. ...
and
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, often informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism ...
(LDS Church), totaled 3%, bringing the total Christian population to 86%. There were an estimated 920 Muslims and 730 Jews in the state in 2000. Three percent of respondents answered "no religion" on the survey, and 6% declined to answer.


Economy

Agriculture is North Dakota's largest industry, although petroleum,
food processing Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes with ...
, and technology are also major industries. Its growth rate is about 4.1%. According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis the economy of North Dakota had a gross domestic product of $55.180 billion in the second quarter of 2018. The per capita income was $34,256, when measured from 2013 to 2017 by the United States Department of Commerce. The three-year
median household income The median income is the income amount that divides a population into two equal groups, half having an income above that amount, and half having an income below that amount. It may differ from the mean (or average) income. The income that occurs ...
from 2013 to 2017 was $61,285. According to Gallup data, North Dakota led the U.S. in job creation in 2013 and has done so since 2009. The state has a Job Creation Index score of 40, nearly 10 points ahead of its nearest competitors. North Dakota has added 56,600 private-sector jobs since 2011, creating an annual growth rate of 7.32 percent. According to statistics released on March 25, 2014 by the
Bureau of Economic Analysis The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the United States Department of Commerce The United States Department of Commerce is an executive department The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the Federal g ...
, North Dakota's personal income grew 7.6 percent in 2013 to $41.3 billion. The state has recorded the highest personal income growth among all states for the sixth time since 2007. North Dakota's personal income growth is tied to various private business sectors such as agriculture, energy development, and construction. Just over 21% of North Dakota's total 2013 gross domestic product (GDP) of $49.77 billion comes from natural resources and mining. North Dakota is the only state with a
state-owned State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a clo ...
bank, the
Bank of North Dakota The Bank of North Dakota (BND) is a state-owned, state-run financial institution based in Bismarck, North Dakota, Bismarck, North Dakota. It is the only government-owned general-service bank in the United States. The bank was established to promot ...
in Bismarck, and a state-owned
flour mill A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and Wheat middlings, middlings. The term can refer to either the Mill (grinding), grinding mechanism or the building that holds it. Grist ...

flour mill
, the
North Dakota Mill and Elevator 200px, Logo of the North Dakota Mill and Elevator The North Dakota Mill and Elevator is the largest flour mill A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and Wheat middlings, mid ...
in Grand Forks. These were established by the NPL before World War II. As of 2012, Fargo is home to the second-largest campus of
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
with 1,700 employees, and
Amazon.com Amazon.com, Inc. ( ) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
employs several hundred in Grand Forks. , the state's
unemployment Unemployment, according to the (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), is people above a specified age (usually 15) not being in paid or but currently available for work during the . Unemployment is measured by the unemplo ...
rate is among the lowest in the nation at 2.4 percent. It has not reached five percent since 1987. At end of 2010, the state per capita income was ranked 17th in the nation, the biggest increase of any state in a decade from rank 38th. The reduction in the unemployment rate and growth in per capita income is attributable to the
oil boom An oil boom is a period of large inflow of income as a result of high global oil prices or large oil production in an economy. Generally, this short period initially brings economic benefits, in terms of increased GDP growth, but might later lead ...
in the state. Due to a combination of oil-related development and investing in technology and service industries, North Dakota has had a budget surplus every year since the 2008 market crash. Since 1976, the highest that North Dakota's unemployment rate has reached is just 6.2%, recorded in 1983. Every U.S. state except neighboring South Dakota has had a higher unemployment rate during that period.


Agriculture

North Dakota's earliest industries were
fur trading The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characte ...
and agriculture. Although less than 10% of the population is employed in the agricultural sector, it remains a major part of the state's economy. With industrial-scale farming, it ranks 9th in the nation in the value of crops and 18th in total value of agricultural products sold. Large farms generate the most crops. The share of people in the state employed in agriculture is comparatively high: , only two to three percent of the population of the United States is directly employed in agriculture. North Dakota has about 90% of its land area in farms with of cropland, the third-largest amount in the nation. Between 2002 and 2007, total cropland increased by about a million acres (4,000 km2); North Dakota was the only state showing an increase. Over the same period, were shifted into soybean and corn monoculture production, the largest such shift in the United States.United States Department of Agriculture (December 2009)
''2007 Census of Agriculture''
. 1. Part 51. pp. 276–293, pp. 345–355, p. 434, pp. 474–489.
Agriculturalists are concerned about too much monoculture, as it makes the economy at risk from insect or crop diseases affecting a major crop. In addition, this development has adversely affected habitats of wildlife and birds, and the balance of the ecosystem. The state is the largest producer in the U.S. of many cereal grains, including
barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogn ...

barley
(36% of U.S. crop),
durum wheat Durum wheat (), also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (''Triticum durum'' or ''Triticum turgidum'' subsp. ''durum''), is a tetraploid species of wheat Wheat is a grass widely Agriculture, cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a ...
(58%), hard red spring wheat (48%),
oat The oat (''Avena sativa''), sometimes called the common oat, is a of grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and ). While oats are suitable for human consumption as and , one of the m ...
s (17%), and combined wheat of all types (15%). It is the second leading producer of
buckwheat Buckwheat (''Fagopyrum esculentum''), or common buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its pseudocereal, grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. The name "buckwheat" is used for several other species, such as ''Fagopyrum tataricum'', a domesticated ...

buckwheat
(20%). , corn became the state's largest crop produced, although it is only 2% of total U.S. production. The
Corn Belt The Corn Belt is a region of the Midwestern United States The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four Census Bureau Region, census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region ...

Corn Belt
extends to North Dakota but is more on the edge of the region instead of in its center. Corn yields are high in the southeast part of the state and smaller in other parts of the state. Most of the cereal grains are grown for livestock . The state is the leading producer of many oilseeds, including 92% of the U.S.
canola Canola oil is a vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil. There are both Edible oil, edible and industrial forms produced from the seed of any of several cultivars of the plant family ...

canola
crop, 94% of
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimum'', in the family Linaceae. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate climates. Textiles made from flax are known in Wes ...

flax
seed, 53% of
sunflower seed The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower ''Helianthus'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as ...
s, 18% of
safflower Safflower, ''Carthamus tinctorius'', is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant 240px, Peas are an annual plant. An annual plant is a plant that completes its biological life cycle, life cycle, from germination to the produ ...

safflower
seeds, and 62% of
mustard seed Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about in diameter and may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are an important spice SPICE ("Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Em ...
. Canola is suited to the cold winters and it matures fast. Processing of canola for oil production produces canola meal as a by-product. The by-product is a high-protein animal feed.
Soybeans The soybean, soy bean, or soya bean (''Glycine max'') is a species of legume A legume () is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. When used as a dry grain, the seed is also called a pulse. Leg ...

Soybeans
are also an increasingly important crop, with additional planted between 2002 and 2007. Soybeans are a major crop in the eastern part of the state, and cultivation is common in the southeast part of the state. Soybeans were not grown at all in North Dakota in the 1940s, but the crop has become especially common since 1998. In North Dakota soybeans have to mature fast, because of the comparatively short
growing season A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and the amount of daylight. The growing season is that portion of the year in which local conditions (i.e. rainfall, temperature, daylight) permit normal plant morphology#Grow ...
. Soybeans are grown for livestock feed. North Dakota is the second leading producer of
sugarbeet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production. In plant breeding it is known as the Altissima cultivar group of the common beet (''Beta vulgaris''). Together with ...

sugarbeet
s, which are grown mostly in the
Red River Valley The Red River Valley is a region in central North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to ...
. The state is also the largest producer of honey, dry edible peas and beans,
lentil The lentil (''Lens culinaris'' or ''Lens esculenta'') is an edible legume A legume () is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. When used as a dry grain, the seed is also called a pulse. Legumes ...
s, and the third-largest producer of potatoes. North Dakota's Top Agricultural Commodities (according to the USDA )


Energy

The
energy industry The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy In , energy is the that must be to a or to perform on the body, or to it. Energy is a ; the law of states that energy can ...
is a major contributor to the economy. North Dakota has both coal and oil reserves.
Shale gas 400px, Total natural gas rig count in the US (including conventional gas drilling) Shale gas is natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of ...
is also produced. Lignite coal reserves in Western North Dakota are used to generate about 90% of the electricity consumed, and electricity is also exported to nearby states. North Dakota has the second largest lignite coal production in the U.S. However, lignite coal is the lowest grade coal. There are larger and higher grade coal reserves (
anthracite Anthracite, also known as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a lustre (mineralogy)#Submetallic lustre, submetallic luster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest energy density of all types of ...

anthracite
,
bituminous coal Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt. It is of higher quality than lignite and Sub-bituminous coal, Sub-bituminous coal, but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation ...

bituminous coal
and subbituminous coal) in other U.S. states. Oil was discovered near in 1951, generating of oil a year by 1984. Recoverable oil reserves have jumped dramatically recently. The oil reserves of the
Bakken Formation The Bakken Formation () is a rock unit from the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian age occupying about of the subsurface of the Williston Basin, underlying parts of Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The formation was initiall ...
may hold up to of oil, 25 times larger than the reserves in the
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR or Arctic Refuge) is a national wildlife refuge National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service ...

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
. A report issued in April 2008 by the U.S. Geological Survey estimates the oil recoverable by current technology in the Bakken formation is two orders of magnitude less, in the range of to , with a mean of . The northwestern part of the state is the center of the
North Dakota oil boomThe North Dakota oil boom refers to the period of rapidly expanding oil extraction from the Bakken formation in the state of North Dakota that lasted from the discovery of Parshall Oil Field in 2006, and peaked in 2012, but with substantially less gr ...
. The Williston, ,
Stanley Stanley may refer to: People * Stanley (name) Stanley is a toponymic surname dating from the 11/12th century contraction of ''Stan'' (a form of "Stone") and ''wikt:leigh, Leigh'' (meadow), later also being used as a masculine given name. Pers ...
and
Minot Minot ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most widely known for the Minot Air Force Base, Air Force base approximately north of th ...
- communities are having rapid growth that strains housing and local services. , the state is the 2nd-largest oil producer in the U.S., with an average of per day. The
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of in . It is located west of the and east of the , much of it covered in , and . It is the southern and main part of the , which also include the ...
region, which includes the state of North Dakota, has been referred to as "the Saudi Arabia of wind energy". Development of wind energy in North Dakota has been cost effective because the state has large rural expanses and wind speeds seldom go below .


Tourism

North Dakota is considered the least visited state, owing, in part, to its not having a major tourist attraction. Nonetheless, tourism is North Dakota's third largest industry, contributing more than $3 billion into the state's economy annually. Outdoor attractions like the 144-mile (232-km) Maah Daah Hey Trail and activities like fishing and hunting attract visitors. The state is known for the Lewis & Clark Trail and being the winter camp of the Corps of Discovery. Areas popular with visitors include
Theodore Roosevelt National Park Theodore Roosevelt National Park is an American national park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota. The park honors President of the United States, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt and is the only Am ...

Theodore Roosevelt National Park
in the western part of the state. The park often exceeds 475,000 visitors each year. Regular events in the state that attract tourists include '' Norsk Høstfest'' in
Minot Minot ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most widely known for the Minot Air Force Base, Air Force base approximately north of th ...
, billed as North America's largest
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
n festival; the Medora Musical; and the North Dakota State Fair. The state also receives a significant number of visitors from the neighboring Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, particularly when the exchange rate is favorable. International tourists now also come to visit the Oscar-Zero Missile Alert Facility.


Health care

North Dakota has six level-II
trauma center Trauma Center may refer to: * Trauma center, a type of hospital that cares for patients suffering from major traumatic injuries *Trauma Center (TV series), ''Trauma Center'' (TV series), a 1983 American medical drama *Trauma Center (video game seri ...
s, 44
hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized Medical Science, health science and Allied Healthcare, auxiliary healthcare staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospit ...

hospital
s, 52 rural health
clinic A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a health facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients. Clinics can be privately operated or publicly managed and funded. They typically cover the primary care needs ...

clinic
s, and 80
nursing home A nursing home is a facility for the residential careResidential care refers to long-term care given to adults or children who stay in a residential setting rather than in their own home or family home. There are various residential care opti ...

nursing home
s. Major provider networks include Sanford, St. Alexius,
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian ...
, and Altru. Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Dakota is the largest medical insurer in the state. North Dakota expanded
Medicaid Medicaid in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . Th ...
in 2014, and its
health insurance exchange In the United States, health insurance marketplaces, also called health exchanges, are organizations in each state through which people can purchase Health insurance in the United States, health insurance. People can purchase health insurance that ...
is the federal site, HealthCare.gov. North Dakota law requires pharmacies, other than hospital dispensaries and pre-existing stores, to be majority-owned by pharmacists. Voters rejected a proposal to change the law in 2014.


Culture


American Indian Nations

In the 21st century, North Dakota has an increasing population of Native Americans, who in 2010 made up 5.44% of the population. By the early 19th century the territory was dominated by Siouan-speaking peoples, whose territory stretched west from the Great Lakes area. The word "Dakota" is a Sioux (Lakota/Dakota) word meaning "allies" or "friends". The primary historic tribal nations in or around North Dakota, are the Lakota and the Dakota (" The Great Sioux Nation" or "Oceti Sakowin", meaning the seven council fires), the
Blackfoot The Blackfoot Confederacy, ''Niitsitapi'' or ''Siksikaitsitapi'' (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or " Blackfoot-speaking real people"), is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Black ...

Blackfoot
, the
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...

Cheyenne
, the
Chippewa {{Commons cat, Ojibwa Anishinaabe groups Algonquian peoples Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic Chippewa Great Lakes tribes First Nations in Alberta First Nations in Saskatchewan First Nat ...

Chippewa
(known as
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
in Canada), and the
Mandan The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries primarily in what is now North Dakota North Dakota () is a state in the Upper Midwest region of the United States The United States of America ...

Mandan
. There are six
Indian reservations An Indian reservation is an area of land tenure In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land. It determines who can use land, for how long and under what ...

Indian reservations
in North Dakota--
Spirit Lake Tribe The Spirit Lake Tribe (in Santee Dakota, Santee Dakota language, Dakota: ''Mni Wakan Oyate'', formerly known as Devils Lake Sioux Tribe) is a federally recognized tribe based on the Spirit Lake Dakota Indian reservation, Reservation located in east- ...
,
Standing Rock Indian Reservation The Standing Rock Reservation ( lkt, Íŋyaŋ Woslál Háŋ) lies across the border between North Dakota, North and South Dakota in the United States, and is inhabited by ethnic "Hunkpapa Lakota, Hunkpapa and Sihasapa bands of Lakota Oyate and ...
,
Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate The Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation, formerly Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe/Dakota Nation, is a federally recognized tribe comprising two bands and two subdivisions of the ''Isanti'' or Santee Dakota people. They are on th ...
,
Fort Berthold Indian Reservation The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation is a U.S. Indian reservation An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land tenure, land managed by a federally recognized tribe (Native American), Native American tribe under the Bu ...
,
Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation (Ojibwe language Ojibwe , also known as Ojibwa , Ojibway or Otchipwe,R. R. Bishop Baraga, 1878''A Theoretical and Practical Grammar of the Otchipwe Language''/ref> is an Indigenous languages of the Americas, in ...
, and The Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation.


Pow wows

Social gatherings known as " powwows" (or wacipis in Lakota/Dakota) continue to be an important part of Native American culture and are held regularly throughout the state. Throughout Native American history, powwows were held, usually in the spring, to rejoice at the beginning of new life and the end of the winter cold. These events brought Native American tribes together for singing and dancing and allowed them to meet with old friends and acquaintances, as well as to make new ones. Many powwows also held religious significance for some tribes. Today, powwows are still a part of the Native American culture and are attended by Natives and non-Natives alike. In North Dakota, the United Tribes International Powwow held each September in the capital of Bismarck, is one of the largest powwows in the United States. A
pow wow A pow wow (also powwow or pow-wow) is a sacred social gathering held by many Indigenous peoples of the Americas, North American indigenous communities. A modern pow wow is a specific type of event for Native American people to meet and dance, ...

pow wow
is an occasion for parades and Native American dancers in regalia, with many dancing styles presented. It is traditional for male dancers to wear regalia decorated with beads, quills, and eagle feathers; male grass dancers wear colorful fringe regalia, and male fancy dancers wear brightly colored feathers. Female dancers dance much more subtly than male dancers. Fancy female dancers wear cloth, beaded moccasins, and jewelry, while the jingle dress dancer wears a dress made of metal cones. Inter-tribal dances during the powwow, allow everyone (even spectators) can take part in the dancing.


Norwegian and Icelandic influences

Around 1870 many European immigrants from Norway settled in North Dakota's northeastern corner, especially near the Red River.
Icelanders Icelanders ( is, Íslendingar) are a North Germanic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set ...
also arrived from Canada. was a town of many
Norwegians Norwegians ( no, nordmenn) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct ...
when it was founded; they worked on family farms. They started Lutheran churches and schools, greatly outnumbering other denominations in the area. This group has unique foods such as ''
lefse Lefse () is a traditional soft Norwegian flatbread A flatbread is a bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparen ...

lefse
'' and ''
lutefisk ''Lutefisk'' (Norwegian language, Norwegian, in Northern and parts of Central Norway, in Southern Norway; sv, lutfisk ; fi, lipeäkala ; literally "lye fish") is dried fish, dried Whitefish (fisheries term), whitefish (normally cod, but co ...

lutefisk
''. The continent's largest Scandinavian event, '' Norsk Høstfest'', is celebrated each September in Minot's North Dakota State Fair Center, a local attraction featuring art, architecture, and cultural artifacts from all five Nordic countries. The Icelandic State Park in Pembina County and an annual Icelandic festival reflect immigrants from that country, who are also descended from Scandinavians. Old World folk customs have persisted for decades in North Dakota, with the revival of techniques in weaving, silver crafting, and wood carving. Traditional turf-roof houses are displayed in parks; this style originated in Iceland. A
stave church A stave church is a wooden once common in north-western . The name derives from the building's structure of construction, a type of where the load-bearing posts are called ''stafr'' in (''stav'' in modern ). Two related church building ty ...
is a landmark in Minot.
Norwegian-Americans Norwegian Americans (Bokmål: Norskamerikanere, Nynorsk: Norskamerikanarar) are Americans with ancestral roots in Norway. Norwegian immigrants went to the United States primarily in the latter half of the 19th century and the first few decades ...
constitute nearly one-third or 32.3% of Minot's total population and 30.8% of North Dakota's total population.


Germans from Russia

Ethnic Germans who had settled in Russia for several generations since the reign of
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...
grew dissatisfied in the nineteenth century because of economic problems and because of the revocation of religious freedoms for
Mennonites Mennonites are members of certain Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), ...
and
Hutterite Hutterites (german: link=no, Hutterer), also called Hutterian Brethren (German: ), are a Communalism, communal ethnoreligious group, ethnoreligious branch of Anabaptists, who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Refo ...
s, in particular the revocation of exemption from military service in 1871. Most Mennonites and Hutterites migrated to America in the late 1870s. By 1900, about 100,000 had immigrated to the U.S., settling primarily in North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, and Nebraska. The south-central part of North Dakota became known as "the German-Russian triangle". By 1910, about 60,000 ethnic Germans from Russia lived in Central North Dakota. These individuals were Lutherans, Mennonites, Hutterites and Roman Catholics who had kept most of their German customs of the time when their ancestors immigrated to Russia. They were committed to agriculture. Traditional iron cemetery grave markers are a famous art form practiced by ethnic Germans.


Fine and performing arts

North Dakota's major
fine art In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. In the aesthe ...

fine art
museums and venues include the Chester Fritz Auditorium, Empire Arts Center, the Fargo Theatre, North Dakota Museum of Art, and the Plains Art Museum. The Bismarck-Mandan Symphony Orchestra, Fargo-Moorhead Symphony Orchestra, Greater Grand Forks Symphony Orchestra, Minot Symphony Orchestra and Great Plains Harmony Chorus are full-time professional and semi-professional musical ensembles who perform concerts and offer educational programs to the community.


Entertainment

North Dakotan musicians of many genres include
blues Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in Plantation-era songs, African-American work songs, and Spiritual (music), spirituals. Blues ...

blues
guitarist
Jonny Lang Jon Gordon Langseth Jr. (born January 29, 1981), known as Jonny Lang, is an American blues Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from root ...

Jonny Lang
,
country music Country (also called country and western) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed b ...

country music
singer
Lynn Anderson Lynn Rene Anderson (September 26, 1947 – July 30, 2015), was an American country music, country singer and television personality. Her list of signature songs, signature recording crossover (music), crossover hit, "Rose Garden (Billy Joe Royal ...
,
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre ...
and
traditional pop Traditional pop (also known as classic pop and pre-rock and roll pop) is Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *West ...
singer and songwriter
Peggy Lee Norma Deloris Egstrom (May 26, 1920 – January 21, 2002), known professionally as Peggy Lee, was an American jazz and popular music singer, songwriter, composer, and actress, over a career spanning seven decades. From her beginning as a vocalist ...

Peggy Lee
,
big band A big band is a type of musical ensemble A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might incl ...

big band
leader
Lawrence Welk Lawrence Welk (March 11, 1903 – May 17, 1992) was an American musician, accordionist, bandleader, and television impresario, who hosted the television program '' The Lawrence Welk Show'' from 1951 to 1982. His style came to be known to his ...

Lawrence Welk
, and pop singer
Bobby Vee Robert Thomas Velline (April 30, 1943 – October 24, 2016), known professionally as Bobby Vee, was an American singer, songwriter and musician who was a teen idol A teen idol is a celebrity with a large teenage fan base. Teen idols are ...

Bobby Vee
. The state is also home to
Indie rock Indie rock is a genre of rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and ...
June Panic (of Fargo, signed to
Secretly Canadian Secretly Canadian is an American independent record label based in Bloomington, Indiana with offices in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Austin, London, Paris, Amsterdam, and Berlin. Secretly Canadian is a label included in Secretly Group, which al ...
).
Ed Schultz Edward Andrew Schultz (January 27, 1954 – July 5, 2018) was an American television and radio host, a political commentator A pundit is a person who offers to mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communication) ...

Ed Schultz
was known around the country until his death in July 2018 as the host
progressive talk radio Progressive talk radio is a talk radio Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues and consisting entirely or almost entirely of original spoken word content rather than outside music. Most shows are regularly hosted ...
show, ''
The Ed Schultz Show ''The Ed Schultz Show'' was a progressive talk radio Progressive talk radio is a talk radio Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues and consisting entirely or almost entirely of original spoken word content rat ...
'', and ''
The Ed Show ''The Ed Show'' was an hour-long weekday news commentary program on MSNBC that aired from 2009 to 2015. The program was hosted by Ed Schultz, who also hosted the nationally syndicated radio program ''The Ed Schultz Show'' from 2004 to 2014. The sh ...
'' on
MSNBC MSNBC is an American news News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different Media (communication), media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, or through ...
.
Shadoe Stevens Shadoe Stevens (; ) is an United States, American radio host, voiceover actor, and television personality. He was the host of ''American Top 40'' from 1988 to 1995. He currently hosts the internationally syndicated radio show, ''Top of the World,' ...
hosted ''
American Top 40 ''American Top 40'' (commonly abbreviated to ''AT40'') is an internationally radio syndication, syndicated, independent song countdown radio programming, radio program created by Casey Kasem, Don Bustany, Tom Rounds and Ron Jacobs (broadcaster), R ...
'' from 1988 to 1995.
Josh Duhamel Joshua David Duhamel (; born November 14, 1972) is an American actor and former fashion model. After various modeling work, he made his acting debut as Leo du Pres on the ABC daytime soap opera ''All My Children ''All My Children'' (often sh ...
is an
Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the television industry. It is considered one of the four major entertainment awards in the United States, the others being the Grammy The Grammy Award (stylized ...
-winning actor known for his roles in ''
All My Children ''All My Children'' (often shortened to ''AMC'') is an American television soap opera that aired on American Broadcasting Company, ABC from January 5, 1970, to September 23, 2011, and on The Online Network (TOLN) from April 29 to September 2, 201 ...
'' and ''
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambi ...
''. Nicole Linkletter and
CariDee English CariDee English (born September 23, 1984) is an American fashion model A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products (notably fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression, at a particular per ...
were winning contestants of Cycles 5 and 7, respectively, of ''
America's Next Top Model ''America's Next Top Model'' (abbreviated ''ANTM'' and ''Top Model'') is an American reality television Reality television is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) wit ...
''.
Kellan Lutz Kellan Christopher Lutz (born March 15, 1985) is an American actor and model. He made his film debut in '' Stick It'' (2006), and was best known for playing Emmett Cullen in ''The Twilight Saga'' film series (2008–2012). He has since played Po ...

Kellan Lutz
has appeared in movies such as ''
Stick It ''Stick It'' is a 2006 American teen film, teen comedy-drama film starring Jeff Bridges, Missy Peregrym and Vanessa Lengies written and directed by ''Bring It On (film), Bring It On'' writer Jessica Bendinger; the film marks her List of directori ...

Stick It
'', ''
Accepted ''Accepted'' is a 2006 American comedy film directed by Steve Pink and written by Adam Cooper, Bill Collage and Mark Perez. The plot follows a group of high school graduates who create their own fake college after being rejected from the colleg ...
'', '' Prom Night'', and ''
Twilight Twilight is the of the lower when the Sun is not directly visible because it is below the . Twilight is produced by in the upper atmosphere, illuminating the lower atmosphere so that is neither completely lit nor completely dark. The w ...
''.


Cuisine


Sports

Bismarck was home of the
Dakota Wizards The Dakota Wizards were an American professional basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court A court is any person or institution, often as a ...
of the
NBA Development League The NBA G League, or simply the G League, is the National Basketball Association's (NBA) official List of minor sports leagues, minor league basketball organization. The league was known as the National Basketball Development League (NBDL) from ...
, and currently hosts the Bismarck Bucks of the
Indoor Football League The Indoor Football League (IFL) is a professional indoor American football league created in 2008 out of the merger between the Intense Football League and United Indoor Football. It has one of the largest number of currently active teams among ...
. North Dakota has two NCAA Division I teams, the
North Dakota Fighting Hawks The North Dakota Fighting Hawks (formerly known as the Fighting Sioux) are the sport, athletic teams that represent the University of North Dakota (UND), located in the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Originally in th ...
and
North Dakota State Bison The North Dakota State Bison is the name of the athletic teams of North Dakota State University (NDSU), which is located in the city of Fargo, North Dakota Fargo is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, sea ...
, and two Division II teams, the Mary Marauders and
Minot State Beavers The Minot State Beavers are the intercollegiate athletic teams of Minot State University (MSU), located in Minot, North Dakota. The Beavers currently in the process of transitioning from the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) ...
. Fargo is home to the
USHL The United States Hockey League (USHL) is the top junior ice hockey league sanctioned by USA Hockey. The league consists of 14 active teams located in the Midwestern United States, for players between the ages of 16 and 21. The USHL is strictl ...
ice hockey Ice hockey is a contact Contact may refer to: Interaction Physical interaction * Contact (geology)A geological contact is a boundary which separates one rock body from another. A contact can be formed during deposition, by the intrusio ...

ice hockey
team the
Fargo Force The Fargo Force is a Junior ice hockey#Tier I, Tier I junior ice hockey team in the Western Conference of the United States Hockey League (USHL). The Force have won one league championship in 2018 and was awarded USHL Organization Of The Year for ...
. Fargo is also the home of the
Fargo-Moorhead RedHawks The Fargo-Moorhead RedHawks are a professional baseball team based in Fargo, North Dakota Fargo is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrat ...
of the
American AssociationAmerican Association may refer to one of the following professional baseball leagues: * American Association (19th century), a major league active from 1882 to 1891 * American Association (20th century), a minor league active from 1902 to 1962 and 1 ...
. The North Dakota High School Activities Association features more than 25,000 participants. Outdoor activities such as hunting and fishing are hobbies for many North Dakotans.
Ice fishing Ice fishing is the practice of catching fish with lines and fish hooks or spears through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless ...

Ice fishing
,
skiing Skiing is the use of ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boot Ski boots are used in to p ...

skiing
, and
snowmobiling A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, skimobile, snow scooter, Ski-Doo, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while sus ...
are also popular during the winter months. Residents of North Dakota may own or visit a cabin along a lake. Popular sport fish include
walleye The walleye (''Sander vitreus'', synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and ...

walleye
,
perch Perch is a common name for fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the Chordate#Taxo ...

perch
, and
northern pike The northern pike (''Esox lucius'') is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus ''Esox'' (the pikes). They are typical of brackish water, brackish and fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere (''i.e.'' holarctic in distribution). They are kno ...

northern pike
. The western terminus of the
North Country National Scenic Trail The North Country National Scenic Trail, generally known as the North Country Trail or simply the N.C.T., is a footpath stretching over from Middlebury, Vermont, Middlebury in central Vermont to Lake Sakakawea State Park in central North Dakota ...

North Country National Scenic Trail
is on
Lake Sakakawea Lake Sakakawea is a large reservoir in the West North Central States, north central United States, impounded in 1953 by Garrison Dam, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dam located in the Missouri River basin in central North Dakota. Named for the Sh ...
, where it abuts the Lewis and Clark Trail.


Media

The state has 10 daily newspapers, the largest being ''
The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead ''The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead'' or more recently ''The Forum'' is an American, English language newspaper. It is the major newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about ...
''. Other weekly and monthly publications (most of which are fully supported by advertising) are also available. The most prominent of these is the
alternative weekly An alternative newspaper is a type of that eschews comprehensive coverage of general news in favor of stylized reporting, opinionated s and , into edgy topics and -style feature stories highlighting local people and culture. Its news coverage is m ...
''
High Plains Reader The ''High Plains Reader'' is an alternative newspaper serving the Fargo, North Dakota, Fargo metropolitan area, with an estimated readership of 20,000 to 30,000 weekly between print and online readers. The tabloid was founded in 1994 by Ian Swanso ...
''. The state's oldest radio station, WDAY-AM, was launched on May 23, 1922. North Dakota's three major radio markets center around Fargo, Bismarck, and Grand Forks, though stations broadcast in every region of the state. Several new stations were built in Williston in the early 2010s. North Dakota has 34 AM and 88 FM radio stations.
KFGO KFGO (790 AM broadcasting, AM, "The Mighty 790 & 104.7") is a radio station broadcasting a talk radio, news and talk radio format serving the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. The station is currently owned by Midwest Communications Inc. All the ...
in Fargo has the largest audience.
Broadcast television Broadcast Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notio ...
in North Dakota started on April 3, 1953, when KCJB-TV (now
KXMC-TV KXMC-TV, virtual channel, virtual and very high frequency, VHF digital terrestrial television, digital channel 13, is a dual CBS/The CW Plus, CW+-network affiliate, affiliated television station city of license, licensed to Minot, North Dakota, Uni ...
) in Minot started operations. North Dakota's television
media market A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area (DMA), television market area, or simply market is a region where the population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city ...
s are Fargo- Grand Forks, (117th largest nationally), including the eastern half of the state, and
Minot Minot ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most widely known for the Minot Air Force Base, Air Force base approximately north of th ...
- Bismarck (152nd), making up the western half of the state. There are currently 31 full-power television stations, arranged into 10 networks, with 17 digital subchannels.
Public broadcasting Public broadcasting involves , and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is . In many countries of the world, comes from governments, especially via annual s charged on receivers. Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally ...
in North Dakota is provided by Prairie Public, with statewide
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...
and
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups through the use ...
networks affiliated with
PBS The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster Public broadcasting involves , and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is . In many countries of the world, comes from governments, especially vi ...
and
NPR National Public Radio (NPR, stylized in all lowercase, npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit media organization based in Washington, D.C. NPR is based in two locations: main NPR headquarters in Washington, D.C. (often re ...
. Public access television stations open to community programming are offered on cable systems in Bismarck, Dickinson, Fargo, and Jamestown.


Education


Higher education

The state has 11 public colleges and universities, five tribal community colleges, and four private schools. The largest institutions are
North Dakota State University North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University (NDSU), is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the pu ...
and the
University of North Dakota The University of North Dakota (also known as UND or North Dakota) is a public research university in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Established by the Dakota Territory, Dakota Territorial Assembly in 1883, six years before the establishment of th ...
. The higher education system consists of the following institutions:
North Dakota University SystemImage:Northdakotauniversitysystem.png, 320px The North Dakota University System (NDUS) is the public system of higher education and policy coordination entity in the U.S. state of North Dakota. The system includes all public institutions in the state ...
(public institutions): :*
Bismarck State College Bismarck State College (BSC) is a public college in Bismarck, North Dakota. It is the third largest college in the North Dakota University System with 3,781 students as of September 2016. Established in 1939, it is a comprehensive community col ...
in Bismarck :*
Dickinson State University Dickinson State University (DSU) is a public university in Dickinson, North Dakota. It is part of the North Dakota University System. It was founded in 1918 as Dickinson State Normal School and granted full university status in 1987. History Dick ...
in Dickinson :* Lake Region State College in :*
Mayville State University Mayville State University (MSU or MaSU) is a public university in Mayville, North Dakota. It is part of the North Dakota University System. History Image:Old Main, Mayville State University.jpg, left, 275px, Old Main, Mayville State University F ...
in :*
Minot State University Minot State University (MSU or MiSU) is a public university in Minot, North Dakota. Founded in 1913 as a normal school, Minot State University is the third-largest university in North Dakota, offering undergraduate and graduate degree programs. M ...
in
Minot Minot ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most widely known for the Minot Air Force Base, Air Force base approximately north of th ...
:*
Dakota College at Bottineau Dakota College at Bottineau (DCB) is a Public college, public community college in Bottineau, North Dakota. It offers Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Associate of Arts (AA), and Associate of Science (AS) degrees with a focus on curriculum#United ...
in Bottineau :*
North Dakota State University North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University (NDSU), is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the pu ...
in Fargo :*
North Dakota State College of Science The North Dakota State College of Science (NDSCS) is a public college A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or s ...

North Dakota State College of Science
in Wahpeton & Fargo :*
University of North Dakota The University of North Dakota (also known as UND or North Dakota) is a public research university in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Established by the Dakota Territory, Dakota Territorial Assembly in 1883, six years before the establishment of th ...
in Grand Forks :*
Valley City State University Valley City State University (VCSU) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational gov ...
in Valley City :*
Williston State College Williston State College (WSC) is a Public college, public community college in Williston, North Dakota. It is part of the North Dakota University System. Founded in 1961, WSC provides general, vocational, and technical education. For most of its h ...
in Williston Tribal institutions: :* Cankdeska Cikana Community College in Fort Totten :* Fort Berthold Community College in
New Town New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
:*
Sitting Bull College Sitting Bull College is a Public college, public Tribal colleges and universities, tribal Land-grant university, land-grant college in Fort Yates, North Dakota. It was founded in 1973 by the Standing Rock Sioux tribe of the Standing Rock Indian R ...
in
Fort Yates Fort Yates is a city in Sioux County, North Dakota North Dakota () is a U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous U ...
:* Turtle Mountain Community College in Belcourt :*
United Tribes Technical College United Tribes Technical College (UTCC) is a Private college, private Tribal colleges and universities, tribal Land-grant university, land-grant community college in Bismarck, North Dakota. In 2012, UTTC had an enrollment 885 students, 635 full-tim ...
in Bismarck Private institutions: :*
University of Mary The University of Mary (UMary or simply Mary) is a Private university, private, Benedictines, Benedictine university near Bismarck, North Dakota. It was established in 1959 as Mary College. The university is the largest degree-granting institutio ...
in Bismarck :*
University of Jamestown , mottoeng = Light and Truth , established = , type = Private university , religious_affiliation = Christianity, Christian , endowment = $36.1 million , staff = , faculty = , president = Dr. ...
in Jamestown :*
Rasmussen College Rasmussen University is a private for-profit university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards aca ...
in Fargo :* Trinity Bible College in Ellendale


Primary and secondary education

There were 142 schools in North Dakota cities and 4,722 one room schools in the state in 1917. The urban schools had 36,008 students, and 83,167 students attended the one room schools. 1,889 of the one room schools closed between 1929 and 1954. In 1954 North Dakotan cities had 513 schools while 2,447 one room schools were in the state. At that time the urban schools had 94,019 students while the one room schools had 25,212 students. The Nation's Report Card ranks North Dakota fifteenth in the country in K-12 education based on standardized test scores.


Emergency services

The North Dakota Department of Emergency Services provides 24/7 communication and coordination for more than 50 agencies. In addition, "it administers federal disaster recovery programs and the Homeland Security Grant Program". In 2011, the Department selected Geo-Comm, Inc. "for the Statewide Seamless Base Map Project", which will facilitate "identifying locations 9–1–1 callers" and route emergency calls based on locations. In 1993 the state adopted the Burkle addressing system numbering rural roads and buildings to aid in the delivery of emergency services.


Transportation

Transportation in North Dakota is overseen by the
North Dakota Department of Transportation The North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT) is a part of the government of the U.S. state of North Dakota. NDDOT oversees the state's transportation system. This includes planning both new construction and reconstruction projects on roads ...

North Dakota Department of Transportation
. The major
Interstate highways The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highway network. A controlled-access highway is a type of highway that has b ...
are
Interstate 29 Interstate 29 (I-29) is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern United States. I-29 runs from Kansas City, Missouri, at a junction with Interstate 35 and Interstate 70, to the Canada–U.S. border near Pembina, North Dakota, where it connects wit ...
and
Interstate 94 Interstate 94 (I-94) is an east–west Interstate Highway connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes, also called the Great Lakes of North Ameri ...
, with I-29 and I-94 meeting at Fargo, with I-29 oriented north to south along the eastern edge of the state, and I-94 bisecting the state from east to west between Minnesota and Montana. A unique feature of the North Dakota Interstate Highway system is virtually all of it is paved in concrete, not blacktop, because of the extreme weather conditions it must endure.
BNSF The BNSF Railway is the largest freight railroad hauled container freight train on the West Coast Main Line, United Kingdom Rail freight transport is the use of rail transport, railroads and train pulling passenger cars in Nevad ...

BNSF
and the
Canadian Pacific Railway descending from Rogers Pass (British Columbia), Rogers Pass The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) , known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996 and simply Canadian Pacific, is a historic Canada, Canadian Class I railway incorporated in 1881. The ra ...
operate the state's largest rail systems. Many branch lines formerly used by BNSF and Canadian Pacific Railway are now operated by the Dakota, Missouri Valley and Western Railroad and the Red River Valley and Western Railroad. North Dakota's principal airports are the
Hector International Airport Hector International Airport is a civil-military public airport three miles (5 km) northwest of Fargo, in Cass County, North Dakota, United States. The busiest airport in North Dakota, it is owned by the City of Fargo Municipal Airport Au ...
(FAR) in Fargo,
Grand Forks International Airport Grand Forks International Airport is a public airport five miles (8 km) northwest of Grand Forks, in Grand Forks County, North Dakota North Dakota () is a state in the Upper Midwest region of the United States The United St ...
(GFK),
Bismarck Municipal Airport Bismarck Municipal Airport is in Burleigh County, North Dakota, United States, three miles southeast of the City of Bismarck, North Dakota, which owns it. The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 FAA airport categories, cate ...
(BIS), Minot International Airport (MOT) and Williston Basin International Airport (XWA) in Williston. 's
Empire Builder The ''Empire Builder'' is an Amtrak long-distance passenger train that operates three times a week between Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coord ...
runs through North Dakota, making stops at Fargo (2:13 am westbound, 3:35 am eastbound), Grand Forks (4:52 am westbound, 12:57 am eastbound),
Minot Minot ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most widely known for the Minot Air Force Base, Air Force base approximately north of th ...
(around 9 am westbound and around 9:30 pm eastbound), and four other stations. It is the descendant of the famous line of the same name run by the Great Northern Railway, which was built by the tycoon and ran from St. Paul to
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a port, seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the county seat, seat of King County, Washington, King County, Washington (state), Washington. With a 2020 population of 737,015, it is the largest city in bo ...

Seattle
. Intercity bus service is provided by
Greyhound The Greyhound is a dog breed, breed of dog, a sighthound which has been bred for coursing game and greyhound racing. It is also referred to as an English Greyhound. Since the rise in large-scale adoption of retired racing Greyhounds, the breed h ...
and
Jefferson Lines Jefferson Lines (JL or JLI) is a regional intercity bus company operating in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primari ...
.
Public transit Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport for passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public unlike private transport, typically ...
in North Dakota includes daily fixed-route bus systems in Fargo, Bismarck-Mandan, Grand Forks, and Minot,
paratransit buses engaged in paratransit services. One is picking up a person who uses a wheelchair A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, problems related to old age, or disability. These c ...
service in 57 communities, along with multi-county rural transit systems.


Law and government

As with the federal government of the United States, political power in North Dakota state government is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The Constitution of North Dakota and the North Dakota Century Code form the formal law of the state; the ''North Dakota Administrative Code'' incorporates additional rules and policies of state agencies.


Executive

The executive branch is headed by the elected
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
. The current governor is
Doug Burgum Douglas James Burgum (born August 1, 1956) is an American entrepreneur and politician serving as the 33rd and current Governor of North Dakota since 2016. He is a member of the Republican Party. Burgum joined Great Plains Software in 1983 and ...

Doug Burgum
, a
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
who took office December 15, 2016, after his predecessor,
Jack Dalrymple John Stewart Dalrymple III (born October 16, 1948) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 32nd Governor of North Dakota The Governor of North Dakota is the head of the executive branch The executive is the branch of gov ...

Jack Dalrymple
did not seek reelection. The current
Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota The Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota is a political office in North Dakota. The Lieutenant Governor's duty is to preside as President of the Senate, and is responsible for legislative relations, the state budget and agribusiness development. In ...
is
Brent Sanford Brent Sanford (born December 23, 1971) is an American politician serving as the 38th and current Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota since 2016. A member of the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, he previously was Mayor of Watford ...
, who is also the
President of the Senate President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative a ...
. The offices of governor and lieutenant governor have four-year terms, which are next up for election in 2024. The governor has a cabinet consisting of appointed leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are secretary of state,
attorney general In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionar ...
,
state auditor State auditors (also state comptrollers or state controllers) are executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bure ...
, and state treasurer.


Legislative

The
North Dakota Legislative Assembly The North Dakota Legislative Assembly is the state legislature A state legislature is a Legislature, legislative branch or body of a State (country subdivision), political subdivision in a Federalism, federal system. Two federations literally u ...
is a
bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
body consisting of the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
and the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
. The state has 47 districts, each with one senator and two representatives. Both senators and representatives are elected to four-year terms. The state's legal code is named the North Dakota Century Code.


Judicial

North Dakota's court system has four levels, one of which is dormant. Municipal courts serve the cities. Decisions from municipal courts are generally appealable to district court. Most cases start in the district courts, which are courts of general jurisdiction. There are 42 district court judges in seven judicial districts. Appeals from final district court decisions are made to the
North Dakota Supreme Court The North Dakota Supreme Court is the highest court of law in the state of North Dakota North Dakota () is a state in the Upper Midwest region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United Sta ...
. An intermediate court of appeals was provided for by statute in 1987, but the North Dakota Court of Appeals has only heard 65 cases since its inception. The North Dakota Court of Appeals is essentially dormant, but capable of meeting if the North Dakota Supreme Court's case load necessitates the reestablishment of intermediate review.


Indian tribes and reservations

Historically, North Dakota was populated by the
Mandan The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries primarily in what is now North Dakota North Dakota () is a state in the Upper Midwest region of the United States The United States of America ...

Mandan
,
Hidatsa The Hidatsa are a Siouan languages, Siouan people. They are enrolled in the Federally recognized tribe, federally recognized Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. Hidatsa la ...
,
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
, and
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
, and later by the Sanish and
Métis The Métis (; ) are Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous peoples in Canada and parts of the United States who are unique in being of mixed Indigenous and European (primarily French) ancestry. In Canada, they are considered a distinct ...
. Today, five federally recognized tribes within the boundaries of North Dakota have independent, sovereign relationships with the federal government and territorial reservations: *
Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation The Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation (MHA Nation), also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan The Mandan are a Plains Indians, Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries primarily in what is now North Dakota ...
,
Fort Berthold Reservation The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation is a U.S. Indian reservation in western North Dakota that is home for the federally recognized Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes. The reservation includes lands on b ...
; *
Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate The Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation, formerly Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe/Dakota Nation, is a federally recognized tribe comprising two bands and two subdivisions of the ''Isanti'' or Santee Dakota people. They are on th ...
,
Lake Traverse Indian Reservation The Lake Traverse Indian Reservation is the homeland of the Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate, a branch of the Santee Dakota group of Native Americans. Most of the reservation covers parts of five counties in northeastern South Dakota South Dakota () ...
; *
Standing Rock Sioux The Standing Rock Reservation ( lkt, Íŋyaŋ Woslál Háŋ) lies across the border between North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. ''North'' ...
,
Standing Rock Indian Reservation The Standing Rock Reservation ( lkt, Íŋyaŋ Woslál Háŋ) lies across the border between North Dakota, North and South Dakota in the United States, and is inhabited by ethnic "Hunkpapa Lakota, Hunkpapa and Sihasapa bands of Lakota Oyate and ...
; *
Spirit Lake Tribe The Spirit Lake Tribe (in Santee Dakota, Santee Dakota language, Dakota: ''Mni Wakan Oyate'', formerly known as Devils Lake Sioux Tribe) is a federally recognized tribe based on the Spirit Lake Dakota Indian reservation, Reservation located in east- ...
, Spirit Lake Reservation; and *
Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians ( Ojibwe language: ''Mikinaakwajiw-ininiwag'') is a Native American tribe of Ojibwa and Métis peoples, based on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation in Belcourt, North Dakota. The tribe has 30,000 ...
, Turtle Mountain Reservation.


Federal

North Dakota's
United States Senators The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Rep ...
are
John Hoeven John Henry Hoeven III ( ; born March 13, 1957) is an American banker and politician serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, senior United States Senate, U.S. Senator from North Dakota since 2011. A Republican Party (United States), R ...

John Hoeven
( R) and
Kevin Cramer Kevin John Cramer (born January 21, 1961) is an American politician who has served as the junior United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the United States House ...
(R). The state has one
at-large At-large is a description for members of a governing body who are elect An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold public office.
congressional district Congressional districts, also known as electoral districts, legislative districts, wards, and electorates in other nations, are divisions of a larger administrative region that represent the population of a region in the larger congressional body. ...
represented by
Representative Representative may refer to: Politics *Representative democracy, type of democracy in which elected officials represent a group of people *House of Representatives, legislative body in various countries or sub-national entities *Legislator, someone ...
Kelly Armstrong Kelly Michael Armstrong (born October 8, 1976) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the U.S. Representative for North Dakota's at-large congressional district since 2019. A member of the Republican Party Republican Party is a name use ...

Kelly Armstrong
( R). Federal court cases are heard in the
United States District Court for the District of North Dakota The United States District Court for the District of North Dakota (in case citations, D.N.D.) is the United States District Court or the Federal district court, whose jurisdiction is the state of North Dakota. The court is headquartered out of Bis ...
, which holds court in Bismarck, Fargo, Grand Forks, and
Minot Minot ( ) is a city in and the county seat of Ward County, North Dakota, Ward County, North Dakota, United States, in the state's north-central region. It is most widely known for the Minot Air Force Base, Air Force base approximately north of th ...
. Appeals are heard by the
Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals Eighth is ordinal form of the number 8, eight. Eighth may refer to: * One eighth, or ⅛, a fraction (mathematics), fraction, one of eight equal parts of a whole * Eighth note (quaver), a musical note played for half the value of a quarter note (c ...
based in
St. Louis, Missouri St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. With more than six million residents, it is the List of U.S. states and territor ...

St. Louis, Missouri
.


Politics

MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
's Election Performance Index ranked North Dakota #1 in overall election administration policy and performance in the 2018, 2014, 2012, 2010, and 2008 elections. The major political parties in North Dakota are the Democratic-NPL and the
Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about polit ...
. , the Constitution Party and the
Libertarian Party Many countries and subnational political entities have libertarian parties. Although these parties may describe themselves as libertarian, their ideologies differ considerably and not all of them support all elements of libertarianism Liber ...
are also organized parties in the state. At the state level, the governorship has been held by the Republican Party since 1992, along with a majority of the state legislature and statewide officers. Dem-NPL showings were strong in the 2000 governor's race, and in the 2006 legislative elections, but the League has not had a major breakthrough since the administration of former state governor George Sinner. The Republican Party presidential candidate usually carries the state; in 2004,
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Unit ...

George W. Bush
won with 62.9% of the vote. Of all the Democratic presidential candidates since 1892, only
Grover Cleveland Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897. Cleveland is the only president in American ...

Grover Cleveland
(1892, one of three votes),
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th from 1913 to 1921. A member of the , Wilson served as the and as the before winning the . As President, Wilson chang ...

Woodrow Wilson
(1912 and 1916),
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932 and 1936), and
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) received
Electoral College An electoral college is a set of Voting, electors who are selected to elect a candidate to particular offices. Often these represent different organizations, political parties or Legal entity, entities, with each organization, political party or ...
votes from North Dakota. On the other hand, Dem-NPL candidates for North Dakota's federal Senate and House seats won every election between 1982 and 2008, and the state's federal delegation was entirely Democratic from 1987 to 2011. However, both of the current U.S. Senators,
John Hoeven John Henry Hoeven III ( ; born March 13, 1957) is an American banker and politician serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, senior United States Senate, U.S. Senator from North Dakota since 2011. A Republican Party (United States), R ...

John Hoeven
and
Kevin Cramer Kevin John Cramer (born January 21, 1961) is an American politician who has served as the junior United States Senator The United States Senate is the Upper house, upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the United States House ...
, are Republicans, as is the sole House member,
Kelly Armstrong Kelly Michael Armstrong (born October 8, 1976) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the U.S. Representative for North Dakota's at-large congressional district since 2019. A member of the Republican Party Republican Party is a name use ...

Kelly Armstrong
.


State taxes

North Dakota has a slightly
progressive income tax Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform. Based on the idea of progress in which advancements in science, technology, economic development and social organization ...
structure; the five brackets of state
income tax An income tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelate ...
rates are 1.1%, 2.04%, 2.27%, 2.64%, and 2.90% as of 2017. In 2005 North Dakota ranked 22nd highest by per capita state taxes. The
sales tax A sales tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelate ...
in North Dakota is 5% for most items. The state allows municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 1.75% supplemental sales tax in Grand Forks.
Excise taxes file:Lincoln Beer Stamp 1871.JPG, upright=1.2, 1871 U.S. Revenue stamp for 1/6 barrel of beer. Brewers would receive the stamp sheets, cut them into individual stamps, cancel them, and paste them over the bung of the beer barrel so when the barrel ...
are levied on the purchase price or market value of aircraft registered in North Dakota. The state imposes a
use tax A use tax is a type of tax levied in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists ...
on items purchased elsewhere but used within North Dakota. Owners of
real property In England, English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called Land improvement, improvements or Fixture (property law), fixtures) integr ...
in North Dakota pay
property tax A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax An ''ad valorem'' tax (Latin language, Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property. It is typically imposed at the time of a ...
to their county, municipality, school district, and special taxing districts. The
Tax Foundation The Tax Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research instit ...
ranks North Dakota as the state with the 20th most "business friendly" tax climate in the nation.
Tax Freedom Day Tax Freedom Day is the first day of the year on which a nation as a whole has theoretically earned enough income to pay its taxes. Every dollar that is officially considered income by the government is counted, and every payment to the government t ...
arrives on April 1, 10 days earlier than the national Tax Freedom Day. In 2006, North Dakota was the state with the lowest number of returns filed by taxpayers with an
adjusted gross income In the Income tax in the United States, United States income tax system, adjusted gross income (AGI) is an individual's total gross income minus specific deductions. It is used to calculate taxable income, which is AGI minus allowances for personal ...
of over $1M—only 333.IRS—Tax Stats at a Glance


Notable people

*
Lynn Anderson Lynn Rene Anderson (September 26, 1947 – July 30, 2015), was an American country music, country singer and television personality. Her list of signature songs, signature recording crossover (music), crossover hit, "Rose Garden (Billy Joe Royal ...
, country music singer. *
Sam Anderson Sam Anderson (born May 13, 1945 or April 2, 1947) is an American actor. He is best known for his character roles such as Sam Gorpley on '' Perfect Strangers'', Holland Manners on '' Angel'', dentist Bernard Nadler on ''Lost (TV series), Lost'' a ...

Sam Anderson
, actor. * Carmen Berg, Playboy Playmate, July 1987. * Brian Bohrer, minister and author. *
Paula Broadwell Paula Dean Broadwell (née Kranz; born November 9, 1972) is an American writer, academic and former military officer. She served in the US Army on active and reserve duty for over 20 years, including time as a military school undergraduate, with e ...

Paula Broadwell
, American writer, academic and former military officer * James F. Buchli, former
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. federal government responsible for the civilian Li ...

NASA
astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a List of human spaceflight programs, human spaceflight program to serve as a ...

astronaut
. * Quentin N. Burdick, former
U.S. Senator The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Rep ...
, third longest-serving Senator among current members of this body. *
Warren Christopher Warren Minor Christopher (October 27, 1925March 18, 2011) was an American lawyer, diplomat and politician. During Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton (; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42 ...

Warren Christopher
, former U.S. Secretary of State, diplomat and lawyer. * Shannon Curfman, American blues-rock guitarist and singer. *
Angie Dickinson Angeline Dickinson (née Brown; born September 30, 1931) is an American actress. She began her career on television, appearing in many anthology series during the 1950s, before gaining her breakthrough role in '' Gun the Man Down'' (1956) with Ja ...

Angie Dickinson
,
Golden Globe The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 87 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association The Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non ...

Golden Globe
-winning television and film actress. *
Josh Duhamel Joshua David Duhamel (; born November 14, 1972) is an American actor and former fashion model. After various modeling work, he made his acting debut as Leo du Pres on the ABC daytime soap opera ''All My Children ''All My Children'' (often sh ...
,
Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the television industry. It is considered one of the four major entertainment awards in the United States, the others being the Grammy The Grammy Award (stylized ...

Emmy Award
-winning actor and former male fashion model. * Carl Ben Eielson,
aviator An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using eit ...
,
bush pilot Bush flying refers to aircraft operations carried out in the bush. Bush flying involves operations in rough terrain where there are often no prepared landing strips or runways, frequently necessitating that bush planes be equipped with abnormally la ...
and
explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to scienc ...

explorer
. *
CariDee English CariDee English (born September 23, 1984) is an American fashion model A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products (notably fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression, at a particular per ...
, winner of Cycle 7 on ''
America's Next Top Model ''America's Next Top Model'' (abbreviated ''ANTM'' and ''Top Model'') is an American reality television Reality television is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) wit ...
''. Host of '' Pretty Wicked''. *
Louise Erdrich Louise Erdrich ( ; born Karen Louise Erdrich, June 7, 1954) is an American author, writer of novels, poetry, and children's books featuring Native American characters and settings. She is an enrolled member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa ...
, Native American author of novels, poetry, and
children's books Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human being between the stages of childbirth, birth and puberty, or between the Development of the human body, developmental period of infancy and puberty. The legal definition of ''child'' generall ...
. *
Darin Erstad Darin Charles Erstad (; born June 4, 1974) is an American former professional baseball player and the former head coach of the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers Nebraska Cornhuskers baseball, baseball team. Prior to , he had played with the Los A ...

Darin Erstad
, MLB all-star and World Series Champion. *
Travis Hafner Travis Lee Hafner (; born June 3, 1977) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly ...
, Former MLB
Designated Hitter In baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams, typically of nine players each, that take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher play ...
for the
Cleveland Indians The Cleveland Guardians are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a play ...

Cleveland Indians
. * , former
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. federal government responsible for the civilian Li ...

NASA
astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a List of human spaceflight programs, human spaceflight program to serve as a ...

astronaut
. * Clint Hill,
United States Secret Service The United States Secret Service (USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Homeland Security charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting U.S. political leaders, their families, and v ...
agent who was in the presidential motorcade during the
assassination of John F. Kennedy Assassination is the act of deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of stateb ...
. *
Virgil Hill Virgil Eugene Hill (born January 18, 1964) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1984 to 2007, and in 2015. He is a two-weight world champion, having held the World Boxing Association, WBA light heavyweight title twice, from ...
, former WBA World Cruiserweight champion and Olympic boxer. *
Phil Jackson Philip Douglas Jackson (born September 17, 1945) is an American former professional basketball player, coach, and executive in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A power forward (basketball), power forward, Jackson played 12 seasons in ...

Phil Jackson
, former
basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, ...

basketball
coach who won 11
NBA The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, m ...
championships in his coaching career. * David C. Jones, 9th chairman of the U.S.
Joint Chiefs of Staff The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is the body of the most senior uniformed leaders within the , that advises the , the , the and the on military matters. The composition of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is defined by and consists of a (CJCS), a ...
. *
Gordon Kahl Gordon Wendell Kahl (January 8, 1920 – June 3, 1983) was an American member of the far right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political ...
, tax protester best known for the Medina shootout in 1983. *
Chuck Klosterman Charles John Klosterman (born 1972) is an American author and essayist whose work focuses on American popular culture The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western origin, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos t ...
, writer, journalist, critic, humorist, and essayist whose work often focuses on
pop culture Pop or POP may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music * Pop music Pop is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom. The terms ''popular music'' and ''p ...
. *
Louis L'Amour Louis Dearborn L'Amour (; March 22, 1908 – June 10, 1988) was an American novelist and short-story writer. His books consisted primarily of Western fiction, Western novels (though he called his work "frontier stories"); however, he also wrote ...
, author of primarily
Western fiction Western fiction is a genre of literature set in the American Old West The American frontier, also known as the Old West or the Wild West, includes the geography, history, folklore, and culture in the forward wave of American expansion that ...
. *
Jonny Lang Jon Gordon Langseth Jr. (born January 29, 1981), known as Jonny Lang, is an American blues Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from root ...

Jonny Lang
, Grammy-winning
blues Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in Plantation-era songs, African-American work songs, and Spiritual (music), spirituals. Blues ...

blues
guitarist and singer. *
Peggy Lee Norma Deloris Egstrom (May 26, 1920 – January 21, 2002), known professionally as Peggy Lee, was an American jazz and popular music singer, songwriter, composer, and actress, over a career spanning seven decades. From her beginning as a vocalist ...

Peggy Lee
,
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre ...
and
traditional pop Traditional pop (also known as classic pop and pre-rock and roll pop) is Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *West ...
singer and songwriter. * Nicole Linkletter, winner of Cycle 5 on "
America's Next Top Model ''America's Next Top Model'' (abbreviated ''ANTM'' and ''Top Model'') is an American reality television Reality television is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) wit ...
". *
Kellan Lutz Kellan Christopher Lutz (born March 15, 1985) is an American actor and model. He made his film debut in '' Stick It'' (2006), and was best known for playing Emmett Cullen in ''The Twilight Saga'' film series (2008–2012). He has since played Po ...

Kellan Lutz
, actor who portrays Emmett Cullen in ''
Twilight Twilight is the of the lower when the Sun is not directly visible because it is below the . Twilight is produced by in the upper atmosphere, illuminating the lower atmosphere so that is neither completely lit nor completely dark. The w ...
'' and ''
New Moon In , the new moon is the first , when the and have the same . At this phase, the lunar disk is not visible to the , but its presence may be detected because it stars behind it. The original meaning of the term 'new moon', which is still so ...
''. Former male fashion model. *
Roger Maris Roger Eugene Maris (September 10, 1934 – December 14, 1985) was an American professional baseball right fielder. He is best known for setting a new Major League Baseball (MLB) single-season home run record with 61 home runs in 1961; the record r ...
,
right fielder A right fielder, abbreviated RF, is the outfielder in baseball or softball who plays defense in right field. Right field is the area of the outfield to the right of a person standing at home plate and facing towards the pitcher's mound. In the n ...
in
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization and the oldest major professional sports league in the world. , a total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball—15 teams in the National League (NL) and 15 in the Ame ...
and former single season home run record holder. * Connor McGovern, professional football player for the
Denver Broncos The Denver Broncos are a professional American football franchise based in Denver. The Broncos compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) AFC West, West division. The team is ...
and the
New York Jets The New York Jets are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American fo ...
. *
Cara Mund Cara Mund ( ; born December 8, 1993) is an American beauty pageant titleholder from Bismarck, North Dakota. In June 2017, she was crowned Miss North Dakota 2017. On September 10, 2017, she was crowned Miss America 2018 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, ...

Cara Mund
,
Miss America 2018 Miss America 2018 was the 91st Miss America pageant, though the Miss America Organization celebrated its 97th anniversary in 2017. This discrepancy is due to no national pageants being held from 1928-1932 or in 1934 because of financial problems as ...
. * Thomas McGrath, poet and political activist. * Michael H. Miller, 61st Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy * Griffin Neal, professional football player for the
New Orleans Saints The New Orleans Saints are a professional American football team based in New Orleans. The Saints compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member of the league's National Football Conference (NFC) NFC South, South division. Since 1975 ...

New Orleans Saints
. *
Mancur Olson Mançur Lloyd Olson Jr. (; January 22, 1932 – February 19, 1998) was an American and who taught at the . His most influential contributions were in , and in the role which , , , , and rights play in . Education and career Olson graduated fr ...
, economist. * , participant in 3rd season of ''
American Idol ''American Idol'' is an American singing Reality competition, competition television series created by Simon Fuller, produced by Fremantle (company), Fremantle North America and 19 Entertainment, and distributed by Fremantle North America. It i ...

American Idol
'', singer, model and actor. *
Sakakawea Sacagawea (; also Sakakawea or Sacajawea; May – December 20, 1812 or April 9, 1884)Sacagawea
" National Cowg ...
, who joined
Lewis and Clark Lewis may refer to: Names * Lewis (given name) Lewis () is a masculine English-language given name. It was coined as an anglicisation Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the pra ...

Lewis and Clark
on their expedition. *
Ed Schultz Edward Andrew Schultz (January 27, 1954 – July 5, 2018) was an American television and radio host, a political commentator A pundit is a person who offers to mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communication) ...

Ed Schultz
, host of ''
The Ed Schultz Show ''The Ed Schultz Show'' was a progressive talk radio Progressive talk radio is a talk radio Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues and consisting entirely or almost entirely of original spoken word content rat ...
''. *
Eric Sevareid Arnold Eric Sevareid (November 26, 1912 – July 9, 1992) was an American author and CBS news journalist from 1939 to 1977. He was one of a group of elite war correspondents who were hired by CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow and nicknamed " Murrow's&n ...
,
CBS CBS is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...

CBS
news journalist. *
Ann Sothern Ann Sothern (born Harriette Arlene Lake; January 22, 1909 – March 15, 2001) was an American actress who worked on stage, radio, film, and television, in a career that spanned nearly six decades. Sothern began her career in the late 1920s ...
, film and television actress. * Richard St. Clair, Harvard-educated composer of modern classical music. *
Shadoe Stevens Shadoe Stevens (; ) is an United States, American radio host, voiceover actor, and television personality. He was the host of ''American Top 40'' from 1988 to 1995. He currently hosts the internationally syndicated radio show, ''Top of the World,' ...
, host of ''
American Top 40 ''American Top 40'' (commonly abbreviated to ''AT40'') is an internationally radio syndication, syndicated, independent song countdown radio programming, radio program created by Casey Kasem, Don Bustany, Tom Rounds and Ron Jacobs (broadcaster), R ...
''. *
Bobby Vee Robert Thomas Velline (April 30, 1943 – October 24, 2016), known professionally as Bobby Vee, was an American singer, songwriter and musician who was a teen idol A teen idol is a celebrity with a large teenage fan base. Teen idols are ...

Bobby Vee
, pop music singer. *
Lawrence Welk Lawrence Welk (March 11, 1903 – May 17, 1992) was an American musician, accordionist, bandleader, and television impresario, who hosted the television program '' The Lawrence Welk Show'' from 1951 to 1982. His style came to be known to his ...

Lawrence Welk
, musician,
accordion Accordions (from 19th-century German ''Akkordeon'', from ''Akkord''—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free reed aerophone, free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred ...

accordion
player,
bandleader A bandleader is the leader of a music group such as a rock or pop band or jazz quartet. The term is most commonly used with a group that plays popular music as a small combo or a big band, such as one which plays jazz Jazz is a music genre ...
, and television
impresario An impresario (from the Italian ''impresa'', "an enterprise or undertaking") is a person who organizes and often finances concerts, plays, or opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles ar ...
. *
Carson Wentz Carson James Wentz (born December 30, 1992) is an American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a re ...

Carson Wentz
, professional football player for the
Indianapolis Colts The Indianapolis Colts are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular Americ ...
.


See also

* Index of North Dakota-related articles * Outline of North Dakota * '''' * ''''


References


Bibliography

* Arends, Shirley Fischer. ''The Central Dakota Germans: Their History, Language, and Culture.'' (1989). 289 pp. * Berg, Francie M., ed. ''Ethnic Heritage in North Dakota.'' (1983). 174 pp. * Blackorby, Edward C. ''Prairie Rebel: The Public Life of William Lemke'' (1963), a radical leader in 1930
online edition
* Collins, Michael L. ''That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883–1898'' (1989). * Cooper, Jerry and Smith, Glen. ''Citizens as Soldiers: A History of the North Dakota National Guard.'' (1986). 447 pp. * Crawford, Lewis F. ''History of North Dakota'' (3 vol 1931), excellent history in vol 1; biographies in vol. 2–3 * Danbom, David B. ''"Our Purpose Is to Serve": The First Century of the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station.'' (1990). 237 pp. * Eisenberg, C. G. ''History of the First Dakota-District of the Evangelical-Lutheran Synod of Iowa and the Other States.'' (1982). 268 pp. * Ginsburg, Faye D. ''Contested Lives: The Abortion Debate in an American Community'' (1989). 315 pp. the issue in Fargo * Hargreaves, Mary W. M. ''Dry Farming in the Northern Great Plains: Years of Readjustment, 1920–1990.'' (1993). 386 pp. * Howard, Thomas W., ed. ''The North Dakota Political Tradition.'' (1981). 220 pp. * Hudson, John C. ''Plains Country Towns.'' (1985). 189 pp. geographer studies small towns * Junker, Rozanne Enerson. ''The Bank of North Dakota: An Experiment in State Ownership.'' (1989). 185 pp. * Lamar, Howard R. ''Dakota Territory, 1861–1889: A Study of Frontier Politics'' (1956). * Lounsberry, Clement A. ''Early history of North Dakota'' (1919) excellent history by an editor of ''Bismarck Tribune''; 645p
online edition
* Lysengen, Janet Daley and Rathke, Ann M., eds. ''The Centennial Anthology of "North Dakota History: Journal of the Northern Plains"'' (1996). 526 pp. articles from state history journal covering all major topics in the state's history * Morlan, Robert L. ''Political Prairie Fire: The Nonpartisan League, 1915–1922.'' (1955). 414 pp. NPL comes to power briefly * Peirce, Neal R. ''The Great Plains States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Nine Great Plains States'' (1973
excerpt and text ssearch
chapter on North Dakota * Robinson, Elwyn B., D. Jerome Tweton, and David B. Danbom. ''History of North Dakota'' (2nd ed. 1995) standard history, by leading scholars; extensive bibliography ** Robinson, Elwyn B. ''History of North Dakota'' (1966
First edition online
* Schneider, Mary Jane. ''North Dakota Indians: An Introduction.'' (1986). 276 pp. * Sherman, William C. and Thorson, Playford V., eds. ''Plains Folk: North Dakota's Ethnic History.'' (1988). 419 pp. * Sherman, William C. ''Prairie Mosaic: An Ethnic Atlas of Rural North Dakota.'' (1983). 152 pp. * Smith, Glen H. ''Langer of North Dakota: A Study in Isolationism, 1940–1959.'' (1979). 238 pp. biography of influential conservative Senator * Snortland, J. Signe, ed. ''A Traveler's Companion to North Dakota State Historic Sites.'' (1996). 155 pp. * Stock, Catherine McNicol. ''Main Street in Crisis: The Great Depression and the Old Middle Class on the Northern Plains.'' (1992). 305pp
online edition
* Tauxe, Caroline S. ''Farms, Mines and Main Streets: Uneven Development in a Dakota County.'' (1993). 276 pp. coal and grain in Mercer County * Tweton, D. Jerome and Jelliff, Theodore B. ''North Dakota: The Heritage of a People.'' (1976). 242 pp. textbook history * Wilkins, Robert P. and Wilkins, Wynona Hachette. ''North Dakota: A Bicentennial History.'' (1977) 218 pp. popular history * Wishart, David J. ed. ''Encyclopedia of the Great Plains'', University of Nebraska Press, 2004,
complete text online
900 pages of scholarly articles * Young, Carrie. ''Prairie Cooks: Glorified Rice, Three-Day Buns, and Other Reminiscences.'' (1993). 136 pp.


Primary sources

* Benson, Bjorn; Hampsten, Elizabeth; and Sweney, Kathryn, eds. ''Day In, Day Out: Women's Lives in North Dakota.'' (1988). 326 pp. * Maximilian, Prince of Wied. ''Travels in the Interior of North America in the rears 1832 to 1834'' (Vols. XXII-XXIV of "Early Western Travels, 1748–1846", ed. by Reuben Gold Thwaites; 1905–1906). Maximilian spent the winter of 1833–1834 at Fort Clark. * the University of North Dakota, Bureau of Governmental Affairs, ed., ''A Compilation of North Dakota Political Party Platforms, 1884–1978.'' (1979). 388 pp. * WPA. ''North Dakota: A Guide to the Northern Prairie State'' (2nd ed. 1950), the classic guid
online edition


External links

*
USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of North Dakota

North Dakota State Guide, from the Library of Congress



North Dakota State Facts
USDA The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, ...

NETSTATE Geography
* * {{coord, 47.4501, -100.4659, dim:300000_region:US-ND_type:adm1st, name=State of North Dakota, display=title 1889 establishments in the United States Midwestern United States States and territories established in 1889 States of the United States U.S. states with multiple time zones Contiguous United States