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The North Atlantic Treaty, also referred to as the Washington Treaty, is the
treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...

treaty
that forms the legal basis of, and is implemented by, the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
(NATO). The treaty was signed in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, on 4 April 1949.


Background

The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 by a committee which was chaired by US diplomat
Theodore Achilles Theodore Carter Achilles (December 29, 1905 – April 8, 1986) was an United States, American diplomacy, diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to Peru, Ambassador to Peru. Biography Achilles was born 29 December 1905 in Rochester, New ...
. Earlier secret talks had been held at the Pentagon between 22 March and 1 April 1948, of which Achilles said:
The talks lasted about two weeks and by the time they finished, it had been secretly agreed that there would be a treaty, and I had a draft of one in the bottom drawer of my safe. It was never shown to anyone except Jack Hickerson.html" ;"title="John_D._Hickerson.html" ;"title="nowiki/>John D. Hickerson">Hickerson">John_D._Hickerson.html" ;"title="nowiki/>John D. Hickerson">Hickerson I wish I had kept it, but when I left the Department in 1950, I dutifully left it in the safe and I have never been able to trace it in the archives. It drew heavily on the Rio Treaty, and a bit of the Brussels Treaty, which had not yet been signed, but of which we were being kept heavily supplied with drafts. The eventual North Atlantic Treaty had the general form, and a good bit of the language of my first draft, but with a number of important differences.
According to Achilles, another important author of the treaty was John D. Hickerson:
More than any human being Jack was responsible for the nature, content, and form of the Treaty...It was a one-man Hickerson treaty.
As a fundamental component of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty is a product of the US' desire to avoid overextension at the end of World War II, and consequently pursue multilateralism in Europe. It is part of the US' collective defense arrangement with Western European powers, following a long and deliberative process. The treaty was created with an armed attack by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
against
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
in mind, but the mutual self-defense clause was never invoked during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
. Rather, it was invoked for the first and only time in 2001 during
Operation Eagle Assist Operation Eagle Assist was a NATO operation where E-3 Sentry, AWACS aircraft patrolled the skies over the United States following the September 11 attacks. On October 4, about a month after the September 11 attacks, the North Atlantic Council deci ...
in response to the
September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated by the militant terrorist group against the on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial s traveling fro ...
. By signing the North Atlantic Treaty, parties are "determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of the peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law."


Members


Founding members

The following twelve states signed the treaty and thus became the founding members of NATO. The following leaders signed the agreement as
plenipotentiaries A ''plenipotentiary'' (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
of their countries in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
on 4 April 1949: * – Prime Minister and Foreign Minister
Paul-Henri Spaak Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian Socialist politician, diplomat and statesman. Along with Robert Schuman Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (; 29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxe ...
and Ambassador Baron * – Secretary of State for External Affairs
Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
and Ambassador H. H. Wrong * – Foreign Minister
Gustav RasmussenGustav Rasmussen (August 10, 1895 – September 13, 1953) was a Denmark, Danish statesman and diplomat who served as foreign minister of Denmark from 1945 to 1950. He later served as Danish ambassador to Italy. References External links Image of G ...
and Ambassador
Henrik Kauffmann Henrik Kauffmann (26 August 1888 – 5 June 1963) was the Denmark, Danish ambassador to the United States during World War II, who signed over Thule Air Base, part of Greenland to the US. Career Kauffmann started his foreign career by serving as ...
* – Foreign Minister
Robert Schuman Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (; 29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=n ...
and Ambassador
Henri Bonnet Henri Bonnet (26 May 1888 Châteauponsac (Haute-Vienne) – 25 October 1978 Paris) was a French politician, diplomat, and List of French ambassadors to the United States, French ambassador to the United States from 1944 to 1954. The son of J. Th. ...
* – Foreign Minister Bjarni Benediktsson and Ambassador
Thor ThorsThor Thors (26 November 1903 – 11 January 1965) was an Icelandic lawyer, ambassador in the USA, and Iceland's first Permanent Representative at the United Nations. He was the son of Thor Philip Axel Jensen, Thor Jensen, the influential entrepreneur ...
* – Foreign Minister
Carlo Sforza Count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. No ...
and Ambassador
Alberto Tarchiani Alberto Tarchiani (11 November 1885 – 30 November 1964) was an Italian journalist, politician, and diplomat. Born in Rome, Tarchiani studied at Sapienza University of Rome, La Sapienza, at the University of Genoa and at the University of Florenc ...
* – Foreign Minister
Joseph Bech Joseph Bech (17 February 1887 – 8 March 1975)Thewes, Guy"Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché depuis 1848." Service information et presse. Luxembourg: Imprimerie Centrale, 2011. was a Luxembourgish politician and lawyer. He was the 15th Prime Mini ...
and Ambassador * – Foreign Minister
Dirk Stikker Dirk Uipko Stikker (5 February 1897 – 23 December 1979) was a Dutch politician and diplomat of the defunct Liberal State Party (LSP), co-founder of the defunct Freedom Party (Netherlands), Freedom Party (PvdV) and of the People's Party for ...

Dirk Stikker
and Ambassador
Eelco van Kleffens Eelco Nicolaas van Kleffens (17 November 1894 – 17 June 1983) was a Dutch politician and diplomat. Biography Eelco van Kleffens descended from an old Frisian family of public servants. He was the son of Henricus Cato and Jeannette Frésine (V ...

Eelco van Kleffens
* – Foreign Minister Halvard M. Lange and Ambassador Wilhelm von Munthe af Morgenstierne * – Foreign Minister and Ambassador Pedro Teotónio Pereira * – Foreign Secretary
Ernest Bevin Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 – 14 April 1951) was a British statesman, trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. ...

Ernest Bevin
and Ambassador Oliver Franks * – Secretary of State
Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (pronounced ; April 11, 1893October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer. As the 51st U.S. Secretary of State, he set the foreign policy of the Harry S. Truman administration from 1949 to 1953. He was Truman's m ...

Dean Acheson


Later members

The following 18 states joined the treaty after the 12 founding states:


Article 1

Article 1 of the treaty states that member parties "settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered, and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations." Members seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area through preservation of peace and security in accordance with the
Charter of the United Nations The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public internation ...
.


Article 4

The treaty includes Article 4, which calls for consultation over military matters when "the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the parties is threatened." It has been invoked four times by Turkey: in 2003 over the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
, in June 2012 after the shooting down of a Turkish military jet by Syria, in October 2012 after Syrian attacks on Turkey and their counterattacks, and in February 2020 amid increasing tensions as part of the Northwestern Syria offensive. An Article 4 meeting was invoked by
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
,
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countr ...
, and
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
in March 2014 as a response to the extraterritorial
Crimean crisis The Crimean Peninsula Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula located on the northern coast of the Black Sea in ...
. In November 2021 Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia all invoked article 4 following several tens of thousands of illegal migrants entering into the European Union from Belarus into Poland, Lithuania, and a few into Latvia. This was the most recent invoking of article 4 to have been used as of 2021. A NATO meeting is scheduled to take place involving the ongoing 2021 Belarus–European Union border crisis Where member will discuss about what to do about the conflict. NATO plans on sanctioning Belarus for the crisis, and for using
Hybrid Warfare Hybrid warfare is a theory of military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organization Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a State (polity), state so as to ...
against its western neighbors. Turkey announced plans to convoke under Article 4 an extraordinary meeting on 28 July 2015, ostensibly in response to the , which it attributed to
ISIS Isis (; ''Ēse''; ; Meroitic language, Meroitic: ''Wos'' 'a''or ''Wusa'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. Isis was first mentioned in the Ol ...

ISIS
, and other security issues along its southern border.Isil">telegraph.co.uk: "Turkey calls for emergency Nato meeting to discuss Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Isil
and PKK" 26 July 2015
A press statement released by the Alliance declared that "Turkey requested the meeting in view of the seriousness of the situation after the heinous terrorist attacks in recent days, and also to inform allies of the measures it is taking." The US announced through ''The New York Times'' on 27 July that it had already agreed "in general terms on a plan that envisions American warplanes, Syrian insurgents and Turkish forces working together to sweep Islamic State militants from a 60-mile-long strip of northern
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
along the Turkish border... long-range artillery could be used across the border."nytimes.com: "Turkey and U.S. Plan to Create Syria ‘Safe Zone’ Free of ISIS"
27 July 2015
Concerns were expressed that the plan would put allied warplanes closer than ever to areas that Syrian aircraft regularly bomb; the plan did not determine the reaction if Syrian warplanes attack allied personnel on the ground in what is Syrian territory. Turkish Prime minister
Ahmet Davutoglu Ahmad ( ar, أحمد) is a common male Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with ...

Ahmet Davutoglu
said the operations will continue as long as Turkey faces a threat, and discussed the situation with UN secretary-general in a telephone call over the weekend of 26 July. The US said that Turkey "has a right to take action" against the
PKK The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK ( kmr, Partîya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is a Kurdish militant Militant means vigorously active, combative and/or aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in "militant reformers". It comes from th ...
, a Kurdish insurrectionary group that has sought since 1984 autonomy from Turkey. A news report also disclosed prior to the 28 July meeting that Turkey had violated Iraqi airspace in its pursuit of the PKK.


Article 5

The key section of the treaty is Article 5. Its commitment clause defines the '' casus foederis''. It commits each member state to consider an armed attack against ''one'' member state, in Europe or North America, to be an armed attack against ''them all''. It has been invoked only once in NATO history: by the United States after the
September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated by the militant terrorist group against the on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial s traveling fro ...
in 2001. The invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001, when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty. The eight official actions taken by NATO in response to the 9/11 attacks included
Operation Eagle Assist Operation Eagle Assist was a NATO operation where E-3 Sentry, AWACS aircraft patrolled the skies over the United States following the September 11 attacks. On October 4, about a month after the September 11 attacks, the North Atlantic Council deci ...
and
Operation Active Endeavour Operation Active Endeavour was a maritime operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It operated in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and a ...
, a naval operation in the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
which was designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction, as well as enhancing the security of shipping in general. Active Endeavour began on 4 October 2001. In April 2012, Turkish Prime Minister considered invoking Article 5 of the NATO treaty to protect Turkish national security in a dispute over the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
. The alliance responded quickly and a spokesperson said the alliance was "monitoring the situation very closely and will continue to do so" and "takes it very seriously protecting its members." On 17 April, Turkey said it would raise the issue quietly in the next NATO ministerial meeting. On 29 April, the Syrian foreign ministry wrote that it had received Erdoğan's message, which he had repeated a few days before, loud and clear. On 25 June, the Turkish Deputy Prime Minister said that he intended to raise Article 5 at a specially-convened NATO meeting because of the downing of an "unarmed" Turkish military jet which was "13 sea miles" from Syria over "international waters" on a "solo mission to test domestic radar systems". A Syrian Foreign Ministry spokesman insisted that the plane was "flying at an altitude of 100 meters inside the Syrian airspace in a clear breach of Syrian sovereignty" and that the "jet was shot down by anti-aircraft fire," the bullets of which "only have a range of 2.5 kilometers (1.5 miles)" rather than by radar-guided missile. On 5 August, Erdoğan stated, "The
tomb of Suleyman Shah The Tomb of Suleyman Shah ( ar, ضريح سليمان شاه; tr, Süleyman Şah Türbesi) is, according to Ottoman tradition, the grave (tomb, mausoleum) housing the relics of Suleyman Shah (c. 1178–1236), grandfather of Osman I (d. 1323/4), t ...

tomb of Suleyman Shah
n Syria N, or n, is the fourteenth Letter (alphabet), letter in the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''en'' (pronounced ), plural ''ens''. History ...
and the land surrounding it is our territory. We cannot ignore any unfavorable act against that monument, as it would be an attack on our territory, as well as an attack on NATO land... Everyone knows his duty, and will continue to do what is necessary." NATO Secretary-General Rasmussen later said in advance of the October 2012 ministerial meeting that the alliance was prepared to defend Turkey, and acknowledged that this border dispute concerned the alliance, but underlined the alliance's hesitancy over a possible intervention: "A military intervention can have unpredicted repercussions. Let me be very clear. We have no intention to interfere militarily t present with Syria" On 27 March 2014, recordings were released on YouTube of a conversation purportedly involving then Turkish foreign minister
Ahmet Davutoğlu Ahmet Davutoğlu (; born 26 February 1959) is a Turkish academic, politician and former diplomat who served as the 26th Prime Minister of Turkey and Leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from 2014 to 2016. He previously served as Mi ...
, Foreign Ministry Undersecretary , then
National Intelligence Organization The National Intelligence Organization ( tr, Millî İstihbarat Teşkilatı, MİT) is the state intelligence agency of Turkey. Established in 1965 instead of the National Security Service (Turkey), National Security Service, to gather informati ...

National Intelligence Organization
(MİT) head
Hakan Fidan Hakan Fidan (born 1968) is a retired Turkish army sergeant, teacher, diplomat and the Head of Turkey's National Intelligence Organization (Turkey), National Intelligence Organization. Career After a first degree in management and political scien ...
, and Deputy Chief of General Staff General Yaşar Güler. The recording has been reported as being probably recorded at Davutoğlu's office at the Foreign Ministry on 13 March. Transcripts of the conversation reveal that as well as exploring the options for Turkish forces engaging in
false flag A false flag operation is an act committed with the intent of disguising the actual source of responsibility and pinning blame on another party. The term "false flag" originated in the 16th century as a purely figurative expression to mean " ...
operations inside Syria, the meeting involved a discussion about using the threat to the tomb as an excuse for Turkey to intervene militarily inside Syria. Davutoğlu stated that Erdoğan told him that he saw the threat to the tomb as an "opportunity". Prior to the meeting of Defence Ministers and recently appointed Secretary-General
Jens Stoltenberg Jens Stoltenberg (born 16 March 1959) is a Norwegian politician who has served as the 13th Secretary General of NATO, secretary general of NATO since 2014. A member of the Labour Party (Norway), Labour Party, he previously served as the 34th prim ...

Jens Stoltenberg
at Brussels in late June 2015, it was stated by a journalist, who referenced an off-the-record interview with an official source, that "Entirely legal activities, such as running a pro-Moscow TV station, could become a broader assault on a country that would require a NATO response under Article Five of the Treaty... A final strategy is expected in October 2015." In another report, the journalist reported that "as part of the hardened stance, the UK has committed £750,000 of its money to support a counter-propaganda unit at NATO's headquarters in Brussels."


Article 6

Article 6 states that the treaty covers only member states' territories in Europe and North America, and islands in the North Atlantic north of the
Tropic of Cancer The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...

Tropic of Cancer
, plus
French Algeria French Algeria (french: Alger to 1839, then afterwards; unofficially , ar, الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, refers to the France, French colonisation of Algeria. French rule in the region began in 1830 with t ...
. It was the opinion in August 1965 of the US State Department, the US Defense Department and the legal division of NATO that an attack on the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
of
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
would not trigger the treaty, but an attack on the other 49 would. On 16 April 2003, NATO agreed to take command of the
International Security Assistance Force The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a multinational military mission in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. It was established by United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386, Resolution 1386 pursua ...
(ISAF) in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, which includes troops from 42 countries. The decision came at the request of Germany and the Netherlands, the two states leading ISAF at the time of the agreement, and all nineteen NATO ambassadors approved it unanimously. The handover of control to NATO took place on 11 August, and marked the first time in NATO's history that it took charge of a mission outside the north Atlantic area.David P. Auerswald, and Stephen M. Saideman, eds. ''NATO in Afghanistan: Fighting Together, Fighting Alone'' (Princeton U.P., 2014)


Changes since signing

Three official footnotes have been released to reflect the changes made since the treaty was written: * ''The definition of the territories to which Article 5 applies was revised by Article 2 of the Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the accession of Greece and Turkey signed on 22 October 1951.'' Regarding Article 6: * ''On 16 January 1963, the North Atlantic Council noted that insofar as the former Algerian Departments of France were concerned, the relevant clauses of this Treaty had become inapplicable as from 3 July 1962.'' Regarding Article 11: * ''The Treaty came into force on 24 August 1949, after the deposition of the ratifications of all signatory states.''


See also

*
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
*
Treaty of Brussels The Treaty of Brussels, also referred to as the Brussels Pact, was the founding treaty of the Western Union The Western Union Company is an American worldwide financial services and communications company A company, abbreviated as co., i ...
**
Western Union The Western Union Company is an American multinational financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James ...


Explanatory notes


References


Further reading

* Watry, David M. (2014). ''Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War''. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.


External links


Official text
* {{Authority control * 1949 in military history 1949 in Washington, D.C. April 1949 events Cold War treaties Political charters Treaties concluded in 1949 Treaties entered into force in 1949 Treaties establishing intergovernmental organizations Treaties of Albania Treaties of Belgium Treaties of Bulgaria Treaties of Canada Treaties of Croatia Treaties of Denmark Treaties of Estonia Treaties of Hungary Treaties of Iceland Treaties of Italy Treaties of Latvia Treaties of Lithuania Treaties of Luxembourg Treaties of Montenegro Treaties of Norway Treaties of Poland Treaties of Romania Treaties of Slovakia Treaties of Slovenia Treaties of Spain Treaties of the Czech Republic Treaties of the Estado Novo (Portugal) Treaties of the French Fourth Republic Treaties of the Kingdom of Greece Treaties of the Netherlands Treaties of the United Kingdom Treaties of the United States Treaties of Turkey Treaties of West Germany