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Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
, plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical and cultural region in
Northwestern Europe Northwestern Europe, or Northwest Europe, is a loosely defined subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...
, roughly coextensive with the historical
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
. Normandy comprises mainland Normandy (a part of France) and the
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown Dependencies: the Jersey, Bailiwick of ...

Channel Islands
(mostly the
British Crown Dependencies The Crown dependencies (french: Dépendances de la Couronne; gv, Croghaneyn-crooin) are three island territories off the coast of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of contin ...
). It covers . Its population is 3,499,280. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as
Normans The Normans (: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were a arising in the medieval from the intermingling between settlers and indigenous and . The term is also used to denote emigrants from the duchy who conquered oth ...

Normans
, and the region is the historic homeland of the
Norman language Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known on the island ...
. Large settlements include
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for ...

Rouen
,
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
and Cherbourg. The cultural region of Normandy is roughly similar to the historical Duchy of Normandy, which includes small areas now part of the departments of
Mayenne Mayenne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Mayenne
and
Sarthe 250px, The Château de Boisclaireau, residence of the Castle of Boisclaireau, Gueroust family, Counts of Boisclaireau, in Sarthe. Sarthe () is a departments of France, department of the French region of Pays de la Loire, and the Provinces of Fran ...

Sarthe
. The Channel Islands (French: ''Îles Anglo-Normandes'') are also historically part of Normandy; they cover and comprise two
bailiwick A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ar ...
s:
Guernsey Guernsey (; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais: ''Normand'', Jèrriais: ...

Guernsey
and
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
, which are British Crown Dependencies. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe ...

Viking
s (" Northmen") starting in the 9th century, and confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King
Charles III of France Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English language, English and French language, French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of a Germanic name ''Karl''. The original Anglo-Saxon was ''Churl, Ċea ...

Charles III of France
and the Viking '''' Rollo. For almost 150 years following the
Norman conquest of England The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by having the same person reign as both
Duke of Normandy In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western Kingdom of France, France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles the Simple, Charles III in 911 ...
and
King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the , his ...
.


History


Prehistory

Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times.


Celtic period

Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples. "The Celts, an ancient Indo-Europe ...

Celts
(also known as
Belgae The Belgae () were a large confederation of tribes living in northern , between the , the west bank of the , and northern bank of the river , from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by in his account of his wars in Gaul ...
and
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of peoples of in the and the (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). The area they originally inhabited was known as . Their forms the main branch of th ...
) invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC. When
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...

Julius Caesar
invaded Gaul (58–50 BC), there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The
Romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods:
Roman roads Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Re ...
and a policy of urbanisation.
Classicist Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world traditionally refers to the study of Ancient Greek literature, Classical Greek and Latin literature and the related languages. It also includes Greco-Rom ...
s mention many
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization (cultural), Romanization of Gauls, Gaulish peoples under the rule of the Roman Empire. It was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, Roman culture, language ...
villa with early terraced hillside landscape by Leon Battista Alberti A villa is a type of house that was originally an Ancient Rome, ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa has ...

villa
s in Normandy.


Saxon pirates

In the late 3rd century AD, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languag ...

Saxon
pirates. Christianity also began to enter the area during this period. In 406,
Germanic tribes This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes from various ancient historical documents, beginning in the 2nd ...
began invading from the east, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast. As early as 487, the area between the
River Somme The Somme ( , , ) is a Rivers in France, river in Picardy, northern France. The river is in length, from its source in the high ground of the former at Fonsommes, Fonsomme near Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Saint-Quentin, to the Bay of the Somme, in ...
and the River
Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger, ; la, Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of , it drains , more than a fifth of France's land while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône ...

Loire
came under the control of the
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
lord
Clovis Clovis may refer to: People * Clovis (given name), the early medieval (Frankish) form of the name Louis ** Clovis I (c. 466 – 511), the first king of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler ** Clovis II (c. 634 – c. 657), ...

Clovis
.


Viking period

Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe ...

Vikings
started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century. As early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at , they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, specifically ''Karl der Große''). The French form and the Italian or () come from his nickname ("Charles the Great")., ''Karil' ...

Charlemagne
's empire to take northern France. The was created for the Viking leader Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson or Rollo (also known as Robert of Normandy). Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
age to the king of the West Franks,
Charles the Simple Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was or ...

Charles the Simple
, through the
Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other L ...
. In exchange for his homage and
fealty An oath Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (B ...
, Rollo legally gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had previously conquered. The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking (i.e. " Norseman") origins. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local , intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants and adopted Christianity. They became the
Normans The Normans (: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were a arising in the medieval from the intermingling between settlers and indigenous and . The term is also used to denote emigrants from the duchy who conquered oth ...

Normans
– a
Norman French Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known on the island ...
-speaking mixture of
Norsemen The Norsemen (or Norse people) were a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extin ...
and indigenous
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
,
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples. "The Celts, an ancient Indo-Europe ...

Celts
and
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
. Rollo's descendant
William William is a male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ...

William
became king of England in 1066 after defeating
Harold Godwinson Harold Godwinson ( – 14 October 1066), also called Harold II, was the last crowned Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is be ...
, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the
Battle of Hastings The Battle of Hastings or nrf, Batâle dé Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cu ...

Battle of Hastings
, while retaining the
fiefdom A fief (; la, feudum) was the central element of feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the histor ...
of Normandy for himself and his descendants.


Norman expansion

Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent invasions of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas. Norman families, such as that of
Tancred of Hauteville{{Infobox noble, type , name = Tancred of Hauteville , title = Seigneur of Hauteville-la-Guichard , image =Tancrède de Hauteville.jpg , caption = , alt = , CoA = , ...
,
Rainulf DrengotRainulf Drengot (also Ranulph, Ranulf, or Rannulf; died June 1045) was a Normans, Norman adventurer and mercenary in southern Italy. In 1030 he became the first Aversa#History, count of Aversa. He was a member of the Drengot family. Early life and a ...
and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons
William Iron Arm William I of Hauteville (before 1010 – 1046), known as William Iron Arm,Guillaume Bras-de-fer in French, Guglielmo Braccio di Ferro in Italian and Gugghiermu Vrazzu di Ferru in Sicilian. was a Norman adventurer who was the founder of the ...
, Drogo, and Humphrey,
Robert Guiscard Robert Guiscard (; Modern ; – 17 July 1085) was a Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabi ...

Robert Guiscard
and progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
in 1130. They also carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the
Crusader states The Crusader States, also known as Outremer, were four Roman Catholic realms in the Middle East that lasted from 1098 to 1291. These were created by the leaders of the through and political intrigue. The four states were the (10981150) ...

Crusader states
of
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...

Asia Minor
and the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
. The 14th-century explorer
Jean de Béthencourt Jean de Béthencourt () (1362–1425) was a French explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of ...

Jean de Béthencourt
established a
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
in the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
in 1404. He received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope but recognized
Henry III of Castile Henry III of Castile (4 October 1379 – 25 December 1406), called the Mourner (, ), was the son of John I of Castile, John I and Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Castile, Eleanor of Aragon. He succeeded his father as List of Castilian monarchs, Kin ...
as his overlord, who had provided him with military and financial aid during the conquest.


13th to 17th centuries

In 1204, during the reign of
John of England John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about ...

John of England
, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King
Philip IIPhilip II may refer to: * Philip II of Macedon (382–336 BC) * Philip II (emperor) (238–249), Roman emperor * Philip II, Prince of Taranto (1329–1374) * Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404) * Philip II, Duke of Savoy (1438-1497) * Philip ...

Philip II
. Insular Normandy (the Channel Islands) remained, however, under English control. In 1259,
Henry III of England Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272. The son of John, King of England, King John and Isabella o ...

Henry III of England
recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris. His successors, however, often fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The ''Charte aux Normands'' granted by
Louis X of France Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (french: le Hutin), was List of French monarchs, King of France from 1314 to 1316 and List of Navarrese monarchs, King of Navarre as Louis I ( eu, ...

Louis X of France
in 1315 (and later re-confirmed in 1339) – like the analogous
Magna Carta (Medieval Latin for "Great Charter of Freedoms"), commonly called (also ''Magna Charta''; "Great Charter"), is a Royal charter, royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor, on ...

Magna Carta
granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years’ War (french: link=yes, La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of and during the . It originated from disputed claims to the between the English and the French roy ...
in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterwards, prosperity returned to Normandy until the
Wars of Religion A religious war or holy war ( la, bellum sacrum) is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...
. When many Norman towns (
Alençon Alençon (, , ; nrf, Alençoun) is a commune in Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geo ...
, Rouen,
Caen Caen (, ; nrf, Kaem) is a Communes of France, commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Departments of France, department of Calvados (department), Calvados. The city proper has 108,365 inhabitants (), while its urban area has ...

Caen
,
Coutances Coutances () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs t ...

Coutances
,
Bayeux Bayeux () is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically ho ...

Bayeux
) joined the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of
Calvinism Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Refor ...
following the Reformation was suppressed when
Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...
was imposed following the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
.
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
left the port of
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
in 1604 and founded
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
. Four years later, he founded the City of Québec. From then onwards, Normans engaged in a policy of expansion in North America. They continued the exploration of the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c: from ...
: René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle travelled in the area of the Great Lakes, then on the Mississippi River. Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and his brother Lemoyne de Bienville founded Louisiana, Biloxi, Mississippi, Biloxi, Mobile and New Orleans. Territories located between Québec and the Mississippi Delta were opened up to establish Canada (New France), Canada and Louisiana (New France), Louisiana. Colonists from Normandy were among the most active in New France, comprising
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
, Canada, and Louisiana. Honfleur and
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
were two of the principal Atlantic slave trade, slave trade ports of France.


Modern history

Although agriculture remained important, industries such as weaving, metallurgy, sugar refining, ceramics, and shipbuilding were introduced and developed. In the 1780s, the economic crisis and the crisis of the ''Ancien Régime'' struck Normandy as well as other parts of the nation, leading to the French Revolution. Bad harvests, technical progress and the effects of the Eden Agreement signed in 1786 affected employment and the economy of the province. Normans laboured under a heavy fiscal burden. In 1790 the five departments of Normandy replaced the former province. 13 July 1793, the Norman Charlotte Corday assassinated Jean-Paul Marat, Marat. The Normans reacted little to the many political upheavals which characterized the 19th century. Overall they warily accepted the changes of régime (First French Empire, Bourbon Restoration in France, Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic). Following the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815) there was an economic revival that included the mechanization of textile manufacturing and the introduction of the first trains. With seaside tourism in the 19th century came the advent of the first beach resorts. During the Second World War, following the Second Armistice at Compiègne, armistice of 22 June 1940, continental Normandy was part of the Military Administration in France (Nazi Germany), German occupied zone of France. The Channel Islands were German occupation of the Channel Islands, occupied by German forces between 30 June 1940 and 9 May 1945. The town of Dieppe was the site of the unsuccessful Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces. Allies of World War II, The Allies, in this case involving Britain, the United States, Canada and Free France, coordinated a massive build-up of troops and supplies to support a large-scale invasion of Normandy in the D-Day landings on 6 June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord. The Germans were dug into fortified emplacements above the beaches.
Caen Caen (, ; nrf, Kaem) is a Communes of France, commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Departments of France, department of Calvados (department), Calvados. The city proper has 108,365 inhabitants (), while its urban area has ...

Caen
, Cherbourg, Carentan, Falaise, Calvados, Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in the Invasion of Normandy, Battle of Normandy, which continued until the closing of the so-called Falaise pocket, Falaise gap between Chambois, Orne, Chambois and Mont Ormel. The liberation of
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
followed. This was a significant turning point in the war and led to the restoration of the French Republic. The remainder of Normandy was liberated only on 9 May 1945 at the end of the war, when the Liberation of the German-occupied Channel Islands, Channel Island occupation effectively ended.


Geography

The historical Duchy of Normandy was a formerly independent duchy occupying the lower Seine area, the Pays de Caux and the region to the west through the Pays d'Auge as far as the Cotentin Peninsula and Channel Islands. Western Normandy belongs to the Armorican Massif, while most of the region lies in the Paris Basin. France's oldest rocks are exposed in Jobourg, on the Cotentin peninsula. The region is bounded to the north and west by the English Channel. There are granite cliffs in the west and limestone cliffs in the east. There are also long stretches of beach in the centre of the region. The ''bocage'' typical of the western areas caused problems for the invading forces in the Invasion of Normandy, Battle of Normandy. A notable feature of the landscape is created by the meanders of the Seine as it approaches its estuary. The highest point is the Signal d'Écouves (417 m), in the Armorican Massif. Normandy is sparsely forested: 12.8% of the territory is wooded, compared to a French average of 23.6%, although the proportion varies between the departments. Eure has the most cover, at 21%, while Manche has the least, at 4%, a characteristic shared with the Channel Islands.


Sub-regions


Mainland Normandy

* Avranchin * Bessin * Baupte, Bauptois * Vire, Bocage virois * Alençon, Campagne d'Alençon * Argentan, Campagne d'Argentan * Caen, Campagne de Caen * Falaise pocket, Campagne de Falaise * Le Neubourg, Campagne du Neubourg * Évreux, Campagne de Saint-André (or d’Évreux) * Cotentin * Perche * Domfront, Orne, Domfrontais or Passais * Exmes, Hiémois * Lieuvin * Mortainais * Pays d'Auge, central Normandy, is characterized by excellent agricultural land. * Pays de Bray * Pays de Caux * Le Houlme, Pays d'Houlme * Merey, Eure, Pays de Madrie, area between the Seine and the Eure. * Pays d'Ouche * Roumois et Marais-Vernier * Suisse Normande (Norman Switzerland), in the south, presents hillier terrain. * Val de Saire * Vexin normand


Insular Normandy (Channel Islands)

* The
bailiwick A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ar ...
of
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
* The bailiwick of Guernsey (Fr. ''Bailliage de Guernesey'') The
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown Dependencies: the Jersey, Bailiwick of ...

Channel Islands
are considered culturally and historically a part of Normandy. However, they are British Crown Dependency, Crown Dependencies, and are not part of the modern French Normandy (administrative region), administrative region of Normandy, Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy, France, and other French possessions in 1801, the monarch of the United Kingdom retains the title Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands (except for Chausey) remain Crown dependency, Crown dependencies of the The Crown, British Crown in the present era. Thus the Loyal Toast in the Channel Islands is ''La Reine, notre Duc'' ("The Queen, our Duke"). The British monarch is understood to ''not'' be the Duke with regards to mainland Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris (1259), Treaty of Paris of 1259, the surrender of French possessions in 1801, and the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs.


Rivers

Rivers in Normandy include: * the Seine and its tributaries: ** the Andelle ** the Epte ** the Eure (river), Eure ** the Risle ** the Robec And many coastal rivers: * the Bresle (river), Bresle * the Couesnon, which traditionally marks the boundary between the Duchy of Brittany and the
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
* the Dives (river), Dives * the Orne (river), Orne * the Sée * the Sélune * the Touques (river), Touques * the Veules, the shortest French coastal river * the Vire (river), Vire


Politics


Mainland Normandy

The modern region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 by the merger of Lower Normandy, and Upper Normandy. The new region took effect on 1 January 2016, after the 2015 French regional elections, regional elections in December 2015. The Regional Council (France), Regional Council has 102 members who are elected under a system of proportional representation. The executive consists of a president and vice-presidents. Hervé Morin from the Centre party was elected president of the council in January 2016.


Channel Islands

The Channel Islands are not part of French territory, but are instead Crown dependencies, British Crown dependencies. They are self-governing, each having its own parliament, government and legal system. The head of state of both territories is Elizabeth II and each have an appointed Lieutenant governor, Lieutenant-Governor. The Bailiwick of Guernsey comprises three separate jurisdictions: Guernsey, Alderney and Sark. Administratively, Herm forms part of Guernsey.


Economy

Much of Normandy is predominantly agricultural in character, with cattle breeding the most important sector (although in decline from the peak levels of the 1970s and 1980s). The ''bocage'' is a patchwork of small fields with high hedges, typical of western areas. Areas near the Seine (the former Upper Normandy region) contain a higher concentration of industry. Normandy is a significant cider-producing region, and also produces calvados (spirit), calvados, a distilled cider or apple brandy. Other activities of economic importance are dairy produce, flax (60% of production in France), horse breeding (including two French national stud farms), fishing, seafood, and tourism. The region contains three French nuclear power stations. There is also easy access to and from the UK using the ports of Cherbourg,
Caen Caen (, ; nrf, Kaem) is a Communes of France, commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Departments of France, department of Calvados (department), Calvados. The city proper has 108,365 inhabitants (), while its urban area has ...

Caen
(Ouistreham),
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
and Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, Dieppe. Jersey and Guernsey are often considered to be tax havens, due to having large financial services sectors and low tax rates.


Demographics

In January 2006 the population of French Normandy (including the part of Perche which lies inside the Orne ''departments of France, département'' but excluding the
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown Dependencies: the Jersey, Bailiwick of ...

Channel Islands
) was estimated at 3,260,000 with an average population density of 109 inhabitants per km2, just under the French national average, but rising to 147 for Upper Normandy. The population of the Channel Islands is estimated around 174,000 (2021). The main cities (population given from the 1999 census) are
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for ...

Rouen
(518,316 in the metropolitan area), the capital since 2016 of the province and formerly of Upper Normandy;
Caen Caen (, ; nrf, Kaem) is a Communes of France, commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Departments of France, department of Calvados (department), Calvados. The city proper has 108,365 inhabitants (), while its urban area has ...

Caen
(420,000 in the metropolitan area) and formerly the capital of Lower Normandy;
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
(296,773 in the metropolitan area); and Cherbourg (117,855 in the metropolitan area).


Culture


Flag

The traditional provincial flag of Normandy, ''gules, two leopards passant or'', is used in the region and its predecessors. The three-leopard version (known in the Norman language as ''les treis cats'', "the three cats") is used by some associations and individuals, especially those who support cultural links with the Channel Islands and England. Jersey and Guernsey use three leopards in their national symbols. The leopards represents the strength and courage Normandy has towards the neighbouring provinces. The unofficial anthem of the region is the song "Ma Normandie". File:Flag_of_Normandie.svg, "Two-leopard" version, which is the main one. File:Trois-léopards-drapeau.png, "Three-leopard" version File:Flag of Normandy.svg, Nordic Cross flag, Nordic Cross version File:Flag of Sark.svg, "Two-leopard" flag of Sark File:Arms of William the Conqueror (1066-1087).svg, Coat of arms of the
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
File:Coat of arms of Guernsey.svg, Coat of arms of Guernsey File:Jersey arms on Piquet House in St Helier.jpg, Coat of arms of Jersey


Language

The Norman language, including its insular variations Jèrriais and Guernésiais, is a languages of France, regional language, spoken by a minority of the population on the continent and the islands, with a concentration in the Cotentin Peninsula in the far west (the Cotentinais dialect), and in the Pays de Caux in the East (the Cauchois dialect). Many words and place names demonstrate the Old English and Old Norse language, Norse (Anglo-Scandinavian) influence in this Oïl languages, Oïl language; for example, words : ''mauve'' (seagull), ''fifotte'' (starfish), ''hâ'' (catshark), ''mucre'' (humid, wet), ''(é)griller'' (slide, slip), ''fale'' (throat), etc. place-names : ''-bec'' (stream), ''-fleur'' (river), ''-hou'' (island), ''-tot'' (homestead), ''-dal'' / ''-dalle'' (valley), ''Hogue'' / ''Hougue'' (hill, mound), ''-lon'' / ''-londe'' (grove, wood), ''-vy'' / ''-vic'' (bay, cove), ''-mare'' (pond), ''-beuf'' (booth, cabin), etc. French is the only official language in continental Normandy and English language, English is also an official language in the Channel Islands.


Architecture

Architecturally, Norman cathedrals, abbeys (such as the Abbey of Bec) and castles characterise the former duchy in a way that mirrors the similar pattern of Norman architecture in England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. Domestic architecture in upper Normandy is typified by Half-timbered construction, half-timbered buildings that also recall vernacular English architecture, although the farm enclosures of the more harshly landscaped Pays de Caux are a more idiosyncratic response to socio-economic and climatic imperatives. Much urban architectural heritage was destroyed during the Battle of Normandy in 1944 – post-war urban reconstruction, such as in Le Havre and Saint-Lô, could be said to demonstrate both the virtues and vices of Modernism, modernist and Brutalism, brutalist trends of the 1950s and 1960s. Le Havre, the city rebuilt by Auguste Perret, was added to Unesco's World Heritage List in 2005. Vernacular architecture in lower Normandy takes its form from granite, the predominant local building material. The Channel Islands also share this influence – Chausey was for many years a source of quarried granite, including that used for the construction of Mont Saint-Michel. The south part of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne is filled with bourgeois villas in ''Belle Époque'' style with polychrome façades, bow windows and unique roofing. This area, built between 1886 and 1914, has an authentic “Bagnolese” style and is typical of high-society country vacation of the time. The Chapel of Saint Germanus (''Chapelle Saint-Germain'') at Querqueville with its trefoil floorplan incorporates elements of one of the earliest surviving places of Christian worship in the Cotentin – perhaps second only to the Gallo-Roman baptistry at Port-Bail. It is dedicated to Germanus of Normandy.


Gastronomy

Parts of Normandy consist of rolling countryside typified by pasture for dairy cattle and apple orchards. A wide range of dairy products are produced and exported. Norman cheeses include Camembert (cheese), Camembert, Livarot cheese, Livarot, Pont-l'Évêque cheese, Pont l'Évêque, Brillat-Savarin cheese, Brillat-Savarin, Neufchâtel (cheese), Neufchâtel, Petit suisse (cheese), Petit Suisse and Boursin (cheese), Boursin. Normandy butter and Normandy cream are lavishly used in gastronomic specialties.
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
and Guernsey cattle are famous cattle breeds worldwide, especially to North America. Turbot and oysters from the Cotentin Peninsula are major delicacies throughout France. Normandy is the chief oyster-cultivating, scallop-exporting, and mussel-raising region in France. Normandy is a major cider-producing region (very little wine is produced). Perry is also produced, but in less significant quantities. Apple brandy, of which the most famous variety is calvados (spirit), calvados, is also popular. The mealtime ''trou normand'', or "Norman hole", is a pause between meal courses in which diners partake of a glassful of calvados in order to improve the appetite and make room for the next course, and this is still observed in many homes and restaurants. ''Pommeau'' is an ''apéritif'' produced by blending unfermented cider and apple brandy. Another aperitif is the ''Kir (cocktail), kir normand'', a measure of crème de cassis topped up with cider. ''Bénédictine'' is produced in Fécamp. Other regional specialities include ''tripes à la mode de Caen'', ''andouilles'' and ''andouillettes'', salade cauchoise, salt meadow (''pré salé'') lamb, seafood (mussels, scallops, lobsters, mackerel...), and ''teurgoule'' (spiced rice pudding). Normandy dishes include duckling ''à la rouennaise'', sautéed chicken ''yvetois'', and goose ''en daube''. Rabbit is cooked with morels, or ''à la havraise'' (stuffed with truffled pigs' trotters). Other dishes are sheep's trotters ''à la rouennaise'', casseroled veal, larded calf's liver braised with carrots, and veal (or turkey) in cream and mushrooms. Normandy is also noted for its pastries. Normandy turns out ''douillons'' (pears baked in pastry), ''craquelins'', ''roulettes'' in Rouen, ''fouaces'' in Caen, ''fallues'' in Lisieux, ''sablés'' in Lisieux. It is the birthplace of brioches (especially those from Évreux and Gisors). Confectionery of the region includes
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for ...

Rouen
apple sugar, Isigny caramels,
Bayeux Bayeux () is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically ho ...

Bayeux
mint chews, Falaise berlingots,
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
marzipans, Argentan ''croquettes'', and Rouen macaroons. Normandy is the native land of Taillevent, cook of the kings of France Charles V of France, Charles V and Charles VI of France, Charles VI. He wrote the earliest French cookery book named ''Le Viandier''. ''Confiture de lait'' was also made in Normandy around the 14th century.


Literature

The dukes of Normandy commissioned and inspired epic literature to record and legitimise their rule. Wace, Orderic Vitalis and Stephen of Rouen were among those who wrote in the service of the dukes. After the division of 1204, French literature provided the model for the development of literature in Normandy. Olivier Basselin wrote of the Vaux de Vire, the origin of literary ''vaudeville''. Notable Norman writers include Jean Marot, Rémy Belleau, Guy de Maupassant, Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly, Gustave Flaubert, Octave Mirbeau, and Remy de Gourmont, and Alexis de Tocqueville. The Corneille brothers, Pierre Corneille, Pierre and Thomas Corneille, Thomas, born in Rouen, were great figures of French classical literature. David Ferrand (1591–1660) in his ''Muse Normande'' established a landmark of Norman language literature. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the workers and merchants of
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for ...

Rouen
established a tradition of polemical and satirical literature in a form of language called the ''parler purin''. At the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century a new movement arose in the Channel Islands, led by writers such as George Métivier, which sparked a literary renaissance on the Norman mainland. In exile in Jersey and then Guernsey, Victor Hugo took an interest in the vernacular literature. ''Les Travailleurs de la mer'' is a well-known novel by Hugo set in the Channel Islands. The boom in insular literature in the early 19th century encouraged production especially in La Hague and around Cherbourg, where Alfred Rossel, Louis Beuve and Côtis-Capel became active. The typical medium for literary expression in Norman has traditionally been newspaper columns and almanacs. The novel ''Zabeth'' by André Louis which appeared in 1969 was the first novel published in Norman.


Painting

Normandy has a rich tradition of painting and gave to France some of its most important artists. In the 17th century some major French painters were Normans like Nicolas Poussin, born in Les Andelys and Jean Jouvenet. Romanticism drew painters to the Channel coasts of Normandy. Richard Parkes Bonington and J. M. W. Turner crossed the Channel from Great Britain, attracted by the light and landscapes. Théodore Géricault, a native of Rouen, was a notable figure in the Romantic movement, its famous ''Le Radeau de la Méduse, Radeau de la Méduse'' being considered come the breakthrough of pictorial romanticism in France when it was officially presented at the 1819 Salon. The competing Realist tendency was represented by Jean-François Millet, a native of La Hague. The landscape painter Eugène Boudin, born in Honfleur, was a determining influence on the impressionists and was highly considered by Monet. Breaking away from the more formalised and classical themes of the early part of the 19th century, Impressionist painters preferred to paint outdoors, in natural light, and to concentrate on landscapes, towns and scenes of daily life. Leader of the movement and father of modern painting, Claude Monet is one of the best known Impressionists and a major character in Normandy's artistic heritage. His Fondation Monet in Giverny, house and gardens at Giverny are one of the region's major tourist sites, much visited for their beauty and their water lilies, as well as for their importance to Monet's artistic inspiration. Normandy was at the heart of his creation, from the paintings of Rouen's cathedral to the famous depictions of the cliffs at Étretat, the beach and port at Fécamp and the sunrise at
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
. It was ''Impression, Sunrise'', Monet's painting of Le Havre, that led to the movement being dubbed Impressionism. After Monet, all the main avant-garde painters of the 1870s and 1880s came to Normandy to paint its landscapes and its changing lights, concentrating along the Seine valley and the Norman coast. Landscapes and scenes of daily life were also immortalised on canvas by artists such as William Turner (artist), William Turner, Gustave Courbet, the Honfleur born Eugène Boudin, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Auguste Renoir, Gustave Caillebotte, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Pierre Bonnard, Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. While Monet's work adorns galleries and collections all over the world, a remarkable quantity of Impressionist works can be found in galleries throughout Normandy, such as the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, Museum of Fine Arts in
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for ...

Rouen
, the Musée Eugène Boudin in
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
or the Musée Malraux, André Malraux Museum in
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
. Maurice Denis, one of the leaders and theoricists of the Les Nabis, Nabis movement in the 1890s, was a native of Granville, in the Manche department. The ''Société Normande de Peinture Moderne'' was founded in 1909 by Pierre Dumont (painter), Pierre Dumont, Robert Antoine Pinchon, Yvonne Barbier and Eugène Tirvert. Among members were Raoul Dufy, a native of Le Havre, Albert Marquet, Francis Picabia and Maurice Utrillo. Also in this movement were the Duchamp brothers, Jacques Villon and Marcel Duchamp, considered one of the father of modern art, also natives of Normandy. Jean Dubuffet, one of the leading French artist of the 1940s and the 1950s was born in Le Havre.


Religion

Christian missionaries implanted monastic communities in the territory in the 5th and 6th centuries. Some of these missionaries came from across the English Channel, Channel. The influence of Celtic Christianity can still be found in the Cotentin. By the terms of the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Rollo, a Viking pagan, accepted Christianity and was baptised. The Duchy of Normandy was therefore formally a Christian state from its foundation. The cathedrals of Normandy have exerted influence down the centuries in matters of both faith and politics. Henry II of England, King Henry II of England, did penance at the cathedral of Avranches Cathedral, Avranches on 21 May 1172 and was absolved from the censures incurred by the assassination of Thomas Becket. Mont Saint-Michel is a historic pilgrimage site. Normandy does not have one generally agreed patron saint, although this title has been ascribed to Saint Michael (archangel), Michael, and to Saint Ouen. Many saints have been revered in Normandy down the centuries, including: * St. Aubert, Aubert who's remembered as the founder of Mont Saint-Michel * Saint Marcouf, Marcouf and Laud of Coutances, Laud who are important saints in Normandy * Helier and Samson of Dol who are evangelizers of the Channel Islands * Thomas Becket, an Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Norman whose parents were from Rouen, who was the object of a considerable following in mainland Normandy following his martyrdom * Joan of Arc who was martyred in Rouen, and who is especially remembered in that city * Thérèse de Lisieux whose birthplace in
Alençon Alençon (, , ; nrf, Alençoun) is a commune in Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geo ...
and later home in Lisieux are a focus for religious pilgrims. * Germanus of Normandy Since the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State there is no established church in mainland Normandy. In the
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown Dependencies: the Jersey, Bailiwick of ...

Channel Islands
, the Church of England is the established church.


People

:''See :People from Normandy''


Gallery

File:MSM sunset 02.JPG, Mont Saint-Michel File:Château Gaillard.jpg, Château Gaillard File:Honfleur vieux bassin.jpg,
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
File:Le Havre (skatepark).jpg,
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
File:Arromanches-les-Bains port artificiel Mulberry.jpg, Arromanches, Mulberry Harbour File:Port Racine ©E.Tessier.jpg, Saint-Germain-des-Vaux, Port Racine File:Colombages.jpg, Half-timbered houses in
Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for ...

Rouen
File:Saint-Cenéri-Le-Gerei.jpg, Saint-Céneri-le-Gérei File:Etelan0706ZF - Basse Def..jpg, Château d'Ételan (1494) File:Honfleur Harbour, June 2012.jpg, Decorated boats in
Honfleur Honfleur () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...

Honfleur
harbour File:RouenCathedral Monet 1894.jpg, Rouen Cathedral by Claude Monet File:NormandyCourcelles2JM.jpg, World War II 15 cm TbtsK C/36 German coastal gun. File:Pegasus Bridge, June 1944 B5288.jpg, Pegasus Bridge File:Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial, June 2012.jpg, The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial near Colleville-sur-Mer


See also

*
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
*
Duke of Normandy In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western Kingdom of France, France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles the Simple, Charles III in 911 ...


References


External links

*
Normandie Héritage



Gallery of photos of Normandy
{{Authority control Normandy, Former provinces of France Divided regions Regions of France Historical regions