Non-Hispanic Whites (also referred to as Anglo-Americans)
[Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief ''Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary'' Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of ''Anglo'' in English: It is defined as a synonym for ''Anglo-American''--Page 86]
are European Americans
, Middle Eastern Americans
, and North African Americans
that speak English as a native language as defined by the United States Census Bureau
Americans of European ancestry represent ethnic groups and more than half of the white
population are German
, English, Italian
and Polish Americans
In the United States
, this population was first derived from English
(and, to a lesser degree, French
) settlement of the Americas, as well as settlement
by other Europeans such as the Germans
that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States
). Continued growth since the early 19th century is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration
from European countries, especially Germany
, as well as Poland
, and many more countries. It typically refers to an English
-speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers
and the Southwestern states
The first Europeans who came to North America were Norse explorers
around the year 1000, however they ultimately were absorbed and killed off, leaving no permanent settlements behind. Later, Pilgrims
and colonists came in the 1600s along the East Coast
, mainly from England, in search of economic opportunities and religious freedom. Over time emigrants from Europe settled the coastal regions developing a commercial economy. Between one-half and two-thirds of white immigrants to the American colonies
between the 1630s and American Revolution had come as indentured servants
. The total number of European immigrants to all 13 colonies before 1775 was about 500,000; of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners. Of the 450,000 or so European arrivals who came voluntarily, an estimated 48% were indentured.
By the time of American Revolution
there were about 2.5 million whites in the colonies. The white population was largely of English, Irish, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, German, Dutch and French Huguenot
descent at the time. Between the revolution and the 1820s there was relatively little immigration to the U.S. Starting after the 1820s large scale migration to the U.S began and lasted until the 1920s
. Many of the newcomers were Catholics
of Irish, Italian, and Polish descent which lead to a nativist
backlash. Some Americans worried about the growing Catholic population and wanted to maintain America as an Anglo Saxon Protestant
nation. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century European mass emigration to the United States and high birthrates grew the white population. After the American Revolution white Americans settled the entire nation
west of Appalachian Mountains, ultimately displacing the natives
and populating the entire country by the late 19th century. All immigration to the US declined markedly between the mid 1920s until the 1960s due to a combination of immigration laws, The Great Depression
, and The Second World War
. Waves of Jewish, Syrian, and Lebanese immigration also occurred around this time.
white migration to the U.S has been relatively minor compared to other racial and ethnic groups. During the 1990s there was a moderate increase from former communist countries in Eastern Europe
. At the same time birthrates amongst whites have fallen below replacement level.
White Americans have developed their own music, art, cuisine, fashion, and political economy largely based on a combination of traditional European ones. Most religious white Americans are Christian. Many Europeans often Anglicized
their names and over time most Europeans adopted English as their primary language and intermarried with other white groups.
Population stagnation and decline
The falling percentage of non-Hispanic white Americans is due to multiple factors:
1. Immigration. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants in the world with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-white and/or Hispanic origin. Immigration to the U.S. from European countries has been in a steady decline since World War II averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 1950s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 1960s, 20% in the 1970s, 11% in the 1980s, 14% in the 1990s, and 13% in the 2000s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries. The U.S. does receive a small number of non-Hispanic white immigrants, mainly from countries such as Brazil, Canada, Poland, Russia, and the UK.
2. Intermarriage. The USA is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Hispanic whites who married in 2008 married either a non-white or Hispanic. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily white-Hispanic ''of any race'' (41%) as compared to white-Asian (15%), white-black (11%), and other combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and Native Indigenous Americans. The children of such unions would not automatically be classified as white non-Hispanic. Note that one self-identifies his or her racial and/or ethnic category.
3. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Hispanic." There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th black and still be counted as a minority. Also, because this does not apply to Hispanic origin (one is either Hispanic or not, but cannot be both Hispanic ''and'' non-Hispanic), the offspring of Hispanics and non-Hispanics are usually counted as Hispanic. In 2017, the Pew Research Center
reported that high intermarriage rates and declining Latin American immigration has led to 11% of U.S. adults with Hispanic ancestry (5.0 million people) to no longer identify as Hispanic.
First generation immigrants from Spain and Latin America identify as Hispanic at very high rates (97%) which reduces in each succeeding generation, second generation (92%), third generation (77%), and fourth generation (50%).
4. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Hispanic whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Hispanic whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Hispanics have the youngest (27.6). Non-Hispanic blacks (32.9) and non-Hispanic Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites. In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Hispanic white population, non-Hispanic whites died at a faster rate than non-Hispanic white births.
Although non-Hispanic whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they have still been growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Hispanic white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552. This was a growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum
In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history
, Anglo Americans accounted for under half of the births in the country, with 49.6% of total births.
This rebounded to over 50% by 2016 according to the NCHIS and was still over 50% as of 2019. In addition to this, between 2016-2019, the birthrate of hispanics dropped exactly twice as much as that of non-hispanic whites (0.7 vs 0.14). Before 2016, at least, 50% of children under age one had at least one parent of color or at least one parent who is white hispanic
Population by settlement
In 2012, in 37 out of the 50 U.S. states non-Hispanic whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the U.S. overall share of 62.8%; however, the 13 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). Also, note that while the ''total'' non-Hispanic white population has grown since 2000 in 36 out of the 50 states, the ''relative share'' of non-Hispanic whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.
As of 2016, five states are majority minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, Texas, and Nevada.
Historical population by state or territory
* Emigration from Europe
* European Americans
* Stereotypes of White Americans
* White Americans
* White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
* White ethnic
* White Hispanic and Latino Americans
* White Southerners
Category:Middle Eastern American
Category:Ethnic groups in the United States