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The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered by the
Nobel Foundation The Nobel Foundation ( sv, Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ...
. Although not one of the
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
s, which were established by
Alfred Nobel's
Alfred Nobel's
will in 1895, it is commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics. The winners of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences are chosen in a similar way, are announced along with the Nobel Prize recipients, and the prize is presented at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. The award was established in 1968 by an endowment "in perpetuity" from Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, to commemorate the bank's 300th anniversary. It is administered and referred to along with the
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
s by the
Nobel Foundation The Nobel Foundation ( sv, Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ...
. Laureates in the Memorial Prize in Economics are selected by the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic co ...
."Nominating and awarding"
in "Prize in Economic Sciences", ''
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic co ...
''. Retrieved July 04, 2017.
It was first awarded in 1969 to Dutch economist
Jan Tinbergen Jan Tinbergen (; ; April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was a Dutch economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from ec ...

Jan Tinbergen
and Norwegian economist
Ragnar Frisch Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (3 March 1895 – 31 January 1973) was a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group ...
"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"."Jan Tinbergen"
(2007), in ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'', accessed November 16, 2007, from ''Encyclopædia Britannica Online'': .
"Ragnar Frisch"
(2007), in ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'', accessed November 16, 2007, from ''Encyclopædia Britannica Online'': .
In 2021 the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was divided between
David Card David Edward Card (born 1956) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connecti ...

David Card
,
Joshua Angrist Joshua David Angrist (born September 18, 1960) is an Israeli-American Israeli Americans ( he, אָמֵרִיקָאִים יִשׂרָאֵליִם lit. ''Ameriqaim Yisra'elim'') are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United St ...
and
Guido Imbens Guido Wilhelmus Imbens (born September 3, 1963) is a Dutch-American economist. He is Professor of Economics at the Stanford Graduate School of Business since 2012. After earning his Ph.D. from Brown University in 1991, he taught at Harvard Univer ...
. Card won one half for his empirical contributions to labour economics, while Angrist and Imbens shared the other half for their methodological contributions to the analysis of causal relationships.


Creation and funding

An endowment "in perpetuity" from Sveriges Riksbank pays the Nobel Foundation's administrative expenses associated with the award and funds the monetary component of the award. Since 2012, the monetary portion of the Prize in Economics has totaled 8 million
Swedish kronor The krona (; plural: ''kronor''; sign A sign is an object Object may refer to: General meanings * Object (philosophy), a thing, being, or concept ** Entity, something that is tangible and within the grasp of the senses ** Object (ab ...
. This is equivalent to the amount given for the original Nobel Prizes.
Assar Lindbeck Carl Assar Eugén Lindbeck (26 January 1930 – 28 August 2020) was a Swedish professor of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, ...

"The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969–2006"
''nobelprize.org'', April 18, 1999. Retrieved November 11, 2007.
"The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007"
press release,
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic co ...
, October 15, 2007. Retrieved November 16, 2007.
Since 2006, Sveriges Riksbank has given the Nobel Foundation an annual grant of 6.5 million Swedish kronor (in January 2008, approx. US$1 million; €0.7 million) for its administrative expenses associated with the award as well as 1 million Swedish kronor (until the end of 2008) to include information about the award on the Nobel Foundation's web site.


Relation to the Nobel Prizes

The Prize in Economics is not one of the Nobel Prizes endowed by
Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist. He held 355 different patents NPOV disputes from March 2021 A patent is a title A title ...

Alfred Nobel
in his will. However, the nomination process, selection criteria, and awards presentation of the Prize in Economic Sciences are performed in a manner similar to that of the original Nobel Prizes."Prize in Economic Sciences"
''
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic co ...
''. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
Laureates are announced with the Nobel Prize laureates, and receive the award at the same ceremony. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the prize "in accordance with the rules governing the award of the Nobel Prizes instituted through his lfred Nobel'swill", which stipulate that the prize be awarded annually to "those who ... shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind".


Award nomination and selection process

According to its official website, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences "administers a researcher exchange with academies in other countries and publishes six scientific journals. Every year the Academy awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the
Crafoord Prize The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. The Prize is awarded in partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedish A ...
and a number of other large prizes". Each September the Academy's Economics Prize Committee, which consists of five elected members, "sends invitations to thousands of scientists, members of academies and university professors in numerous countries, asking them to nominate candidates for the Prize in Economics for the coming year. Members of the Academy and former laureates are also authorised to nominate candidates." All proposals and their supporting evidence must be received before February 1. The proposals are reviewed by the Prize Committee and specially appointed experts. Before the end of September, the committee chooses potential laureates. If there is a tie, the chairman of the committee casts the deciding vote. Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences vote in mid-October to determine the next laureate or laureates of the Prize in Economics. As with the Nobel Prizes, no more than three people can share the prize for a given year; they must still be living at the time of the Prize announcement in October; and information about Prize nominations cannot be disclosed publicly for 50 years. Like the Nobel laureates in
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...
,
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...
, physiology or medicine, and
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...
, each laureate in Economics receives a diploma, gold medal, and monetary grant award document from the
King of Sweden The monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
at the annual Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
, on the anniversary of Nobel's death (December 10).


Laureates

The first prize in economics was awarded in 1969 to
Ragnar Frisch Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (3 March 1895 – 31 January 1973) was a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group ...
and
Jan Tinbergen Jan Tinbergen (; ; April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was a Dutch economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from ec ...

Jan Tinbergen
"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes". Two women have received the prize:
Elinor Ostrom Elinor Claire "Lin" Ostrom (née Awan; August 7, 1933 – June 12, 2012) was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics New institutional economics (NIE) is an economic perspective that attem ...
, who won in 2009, and
Esther Duflo Esther Duflo, FBA (; born 25 October 1972) is a French– American economist who is a professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is ...
, who won in 2019.


Awards to non-economists

In February 1995, following acrimony within the selection committee pertaining to the awarding of the 1994 Prize in Economics to
John Forbes Nash John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations. Nash's work has provided insight ...

John Forbes Nash
, the Prize in Economics was redefined as a prize in social sciences. This made it available to researchers in such topics as political science, psychology, and sociology. Nasar, ''A Beautiful Mind'', p. 372 Moreover, the composition of the Economics Prize Committee changed to include two non-economists. This has not been confirmed by the Economics Prize Committee. The members of the 2007 Economics Prize Committee are still dominated by economists, as the secretary and four of the five members are professors of economics. In 1978, Herbert A. Simon, whose
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
was in
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
, became the first non-economist to win the prize, while
Daniel Kahneman Daniel Kahneman (; he, דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli Americans, Israeli-American psychology, psychologist and economist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral econ ...

Daniel Kahneman
, a professor of psychology and public affairs at
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
is the first non-economist by profession to win the prize.


Controversies and criticisms

Some critics argue that the prestige of the Prize in Economics derives in part from its association with the Nobel Prizes, an association that has often been a source of controversy. Among them is the Swedish human rights lawyer Peter Nobel, a great-grandnephew of
Ludvig Nobel Ludvig Immanuel Nobel ( ; russian: Лю́двиг Эммануи́лович Нобе́ль, Ljúdvig Emmanuílovich Nobél’; sv, Ludvig Emmanuel Nobel ; 27 July 1831 – 12 April 1888) was a Swedish-Russian engineering, engineer, a noted busin ...

Ludvig Nobel
. Nobel accuses the awarding institution of misusing his family's name, and states that no member of the Nobel family has ever had the intention of establishing a prize in economics. He explained that "Nobel despised people who cared more about profits than society's well-being", saying that "There is nothing to indicate that he would have wanted such a prize", and that the association with the Nobel prizes is "a PR coup by economists to improve their reputation". According to
Samuel Brittan Sir Samuel Brittan (29 December 1933 – 12 October 2020) was an English journalist and author. He was the first economics correspondent for the '' Financial Times'', and later a long-time columnist. He was a member of the Academic Advisory Council ...
of the ''
Financial Times The ''Financial Times'' (''FT'') is a daily newspaper printed in broadsheet and published digitally that focuses on business and economic Current affairs (news format), current affairs. Based in London, England, the paper is owned by a Japanese ...
'', both former Swedish minister of finance ( Kjell-Olof Feldt) and Swedish former minister of commerce (
Gunnar Myrdal Karl Gunnar Myrdal ( ; ; 6 December 1898 – 17 May 1987) was a Swedish economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...
) wanted the prize abolished, saying, "Myrdal rather less graciously wanted the prize abolished because it had been given to such reactionaries as Hayek (and afterwards Milton Friedman)." Relatedly, it has been noted that several members of the awarding committee have been affiliated with the
Mont Pelerin Society Mont may refer to: Places * Mont., an abbreviation for Montana Montana () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West region of the United States. It is bordered by Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the e ...
. In his speech at the 1974 Nobel Prize banquet,
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
stated that had he been consulted on the establishment of a Nobel Prize in economics, he would "have decidedly advised against it" primarily because, "The Nobel Prize confers on an individual an authority which in economics no man ought to possess.... This does not matter in the natural sciences. Here the influence exercised by an individual is chiefly an influence on his fellow experts; and they will soon cut him down to size if he exceeds his competence. But the influence of the economist that mainly matters is an influence over laymen: politicians, journalists, civil servants and the public generally." Critics cite the apparent snub of
Joan Robinson Joan Violet Robinson (''née'' Maurice; 31 October 1903 – 5 August 1983) was a British economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and ...
as evidence of the
committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than w ...
's bias towards
mainstream economics Mainstream economics is the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught by universities worldwide, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis for discussion. Also known as orthodox economics, it can be contrasted to he ...
, though heterodox economists like
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
(
Austrian School The Austrian School is a heterodox In religion, heterodoxy (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
) and
Ronald Coase Ronald Harry Coase (; 29 December 1910 – 2 September 2013) was a British economist and author. He was the Clifton R. Musser Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago Law School, where he arrived in 1964 and remained for the rest of hi ...
(associated with
new institutional economics New institutional economics (NIE) is an economic perspective that attempts to extend economics by focusing on the institutions (that is to say the sociology, social and legal Norm (sociology), norms and rules) that underlie economic activity and ...
) have won.
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...

Milton Friedman
was awarded the 1976 prize in part for his work on
monetarism Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation. Monetarist theory asserts that variations in the money supply In macroeconomics, the money ...
. Awarding the prize to Friedman caused international protests. Friedman was accused of supporting the military dictatorship in Chile because of the relation of economists of the University of Chicago to Pinochet, and a controversial six-day trip he took to Chile during March 1975 (less than two years after the coup that deposed President
Salvador Allende Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (, , ; 26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range ...

Salvador Allende
). Friedman himself answered that he never was an adviser to the dictatorship, but only gave some lectures and seminars on inflation and met with officials, including
Augusto Pinochet Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (, also , , ; 25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean Army Captain general#Chile, General, politician and military dictatorship, military dictator who ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990, first as the ...

Augusto Pinochet
, in Chile. Four Nobel Prize laureates
George Wald George Wald (November 18, 1906 – April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who studied pigments in the retina. He won a share of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Haldan Keffer Hartline and Ragnar Granit. Research Image:C ...
,
Linus Pauling Linus Carl Pauling (; February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific t ...

Linus Pauling
,
David Baltimore David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist Francesco Redi, the founder of biology, is recognized to be one of the greatest biologists of all time A biologist is a professional who has specialized knowledge in the field o ...

David Baltimore
and
Salvador Luria Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was an Italian microbiologist A microbiologist (from Greek ) is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in a ...
wrote letters in October 1976 to ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' protesting Friedman's award. The 1994 prize to
John Forbes Nash John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations. Nash's work has provided insight ...

John Forbes Nash
caused controversy within the selection committee because of Nash's history of
mental illness A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing In internal medici ...

mental illness
and alleged
anti-Semitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and ...
. The controversy resulted in a change to the rules governing the committee during 1994: Prize Committee members are now limited to serve for three years. The 2005 prize to
Robert Aumann Robert John Aumann (Hebrew name The term Hebrew name can be used in two ways, either meaning a name of Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic languag ...

Robert Aumann
was criticized by the European press for his alleged use of game theory to justify his stance against the dismantling of Israeli settlements in occupied territories. Due to 1998 recipient
Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen (; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom ( ...

Amartya Sen
’s public criticism of the authoritarian administration of India’s current ruling government of
Bharatiya Janata Party The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major List of political parties in India, political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. It is the current List of ruling political parties by country, ruling politic ...
and the Prime Minister
Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi (; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the List of chief ministers of Gujarat, chief minist ...

Narendra Modi
, supporters of the latter have made multiple viral campaigns over social media that the recipients of the Economics prize should never be considered as Nobel laureates.


Alternative names

The award's official Swedish name is ''Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne''. The Nobel Foundation's translations of the Swedish name into English have varied since 1969:


See also

*
List of economics awards This list of economics awards is an index to articles about notable awards for economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (e ...
*
List of Nobel laureates by country This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country. Listings for ''Economics'' refer to the related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 567 times to 889 recipients, of ...
*
List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field A ''list'' is any set of items. List or lists may also refer to: People * List (surname)List or Liste is a European surname. Notable people with the surname include: List * Friedrich List (1789–1846), German economist * Garrett List (1943 ...
* List of prizes named after people


Citations


General references

*


External links


The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
on Sveriges Riksbank's web site
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
on the web site of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
on the
Nobel Foundation The Nobel Foundation ( sv, Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ...
's web site.
IDEAS/RePEc


– documentary interviews with past laureates of the Nobel Prize for Economics {{Financial economics awards 1969 establishments in Sweden 1969 in economics *Economics Awards established in 1969
Economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...
Economics awards