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The Nile Delta ( ar, دلتا النيل, or simply , ) is the
delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet * Delta Air Lines, an Ame ...

delta
formed in
Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى '; ''Tsakhet'') is the northernmost region In geography, regions are areas that are ...
where the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubi ...

Nile
River spreads out and drains into the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; : Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the in after and , in , and a major economic centre. With a total population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the ...

Alexandria
in the west to
Port Said Port Said ( ar, بورسعيد, Būrsaʿīd, ) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal. With an approximate population of 603,787 (2010), it is the List of citie ...

Port Said
in the east, it covers of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich
agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generat ...

agricultural
region. From north to south the delta is approximately in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , : ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the and of . The , with a population of 21.3 million, is the 2nd and in the , and the in the world. Cairo is associated with , as the famous and the ancient city of are ...

Cairo
.


Geography

From north to south, the delta is approximately in length. From west to east, it covers some of coastline. The delta is sometimes divided into sections, with the Nile dividing into two main
distributaries A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the stream bed, bed and Bank (geography), banks of a Channel (geography), channel. The flow of a stream is controlled by t ...
, the
Damietta Damietta ( ar, دمياط ', ; cop, ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ, Tamiati) is a harbor, port city and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former Diocese, bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta b ...

Damietta
and the
Rosetta Rosetta or Rashid (; ar, رشيد ' ; french: Rosette  ; cop, ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ ''Rashit'', Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from a ...

Rosetta
, flowing into the Mediterranean at port cities with the same name. In the past, the delta had several distributaries, but these have been lost due to flood control, silting and changing relief. One such defunct distributary is
Wadi Tumilat Wadi Tumilat (Old Egyptian The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A l ...
. The
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
is east of the delta and enters the coastal
Lake Manzala Lake Manzala ( ar, بحيرة المنزلة ''baḥīrat manzala''), also Manzaleh, is a brackish lake, sometimes called a lagoon, in northeastern Egypt on the Nile Delta near Port Said Port Said ( ar, بورسعيد ' ) is a city that lies ...
in the north-east of the delta. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons:
Lake Burullus
Lake Burullus
, Lake Idku and Lake Mariout. The Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta (arc-shaped), as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above. Some scholars such as Aristotle have written that the delta was constructed for agricultural purposes due to the drying of the region of Egypt. In modern day, the outer edges of the delta are eroding, and some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the
Aswan Dam The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is the world's largest , which was built across the in , , between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous initially completed in 1902 downstream. Bas ...

Aswan Dam
, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, and large amounts of fertilizers are now used.
Topsoil Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top . It has the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms and is where most of the Earth's biology, biological soil activity occurs. Topsoil is composed of mineral partic ...
in the delta can be as much as in depth.


History

People have lived in the Nile Delta region for thousands of years, and it has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years. The delta was a major constituent of Lower Egypt, and there are many archaeological sites in and around the delta. Artifacts belonging to ancient sites have been found on the delta's coast. The
Rosetta Stone The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele inscribed with three versions of a Rosetta Stone decree, decree issued in Memphis, Egypt, in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V Epiphanes. The top and middle texts are in Eg ...

Rosetta Stone
was found in the delta in 1799 in the port city of Rosetta (an anglicized version of the name
Rashid Rashid or Rachid ( ar, راشد ) and Rasheed ( ar, رشيد ), which means "rightly guided", may refer to: *Rashid (name), also Rachid and Rasheed, people with the given name or surname *Rached, a given name and surname *Rashad, a surname Place ...

Rashid
). In July 2019 a small Greek temple, ancient granite columns, treasure-carrying ships, and bronze coins from the reign of
Ptolemy II ; egy, Userkanaenre wikt:mry-jmn, Meryamun#Clayton06, Clayton (2006) p. 208 , predecessor = Ptolemy I Soter , successor = Ptolemy III Euergetes , horus = ''ḥwnw-ḳni'Khunuqeni''The brave youth , nebty = ''wr-pḥtj ...
, dating back to the third and fourth centuries BC, were found at the sunken city of
Heracleion Heracleion ( grc, Ἡράκλειον), also known by its Egyptian name Thonis (, , ) and sometimes called Thonis-Heracleion, was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated ...
, colloquially known as Egypt's Atlantis. The investigations were conducted by Egyptian and European divers led by the underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio. They also uncovered a devastated historic temple (the city's main temple) underwater off Egypt's north coast. In January 2019 archaeologists led by Mostafa Waziri working in the Kom Al-Khelgan area of the Nile Delta discovered tombs from the
Second Intermediate Period The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now th ...
and burials from the
Naqada II The Gerzeh culture, also called Naqada II, refers to the archaeological stage at Gerzeh (also Girza or Jirzah), a prehistoric Egypt The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from the earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynas ...
era. The burial site contained the remains of animals,
amulet An amulet, also known as a , is an object believed to confer protection upon its possessor. The word "amulet" comes from the Latin word amuletum, which Pliny's ''Natural History'' describes as "an object that protects a person from trouble". Anyt ...

amulet
s and scarabs carved from
faience , Italy, which gave its name to the type Faience or faïence (; ) is the general English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It ...
, round and oval pots with handles, flint knives, broken and burned pottery. All burials included skulls and skeletons in the bending position and were not very well-preserved.


Ancient branches of the Nile

Records from ancient times (such as by
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
) show that the delta had seven
distributaries A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the stream bed, bed and Bank (geography), banks of a Channel (geography), channel. The flow of a stream is controlled by t ...
or branches, (from east to west): *the Pelusiac, *the Tanitic, *the Mendesian, *the Phatnitic (or Phatmetic), *the Sebennytic, *the Bolbitine, and *the Canopic (also called the Herakleotic and the Agathodaemon) There are now only two main branches, due to flood control, silting and changing relief: the Damietta (corresponding to the Phatnitic) to the east, and the Rosetta (corresponding to the Bolbitine) in the western part of the Delta. The Delta used to flood annually, but this ended with the construction of the
Aswan Dam The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is the world's largest , which was built across the in , , between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous initially completed in 1902 downstream. Bas ...

Aswan Dam
.


Population

About 39 million people live in the Delta region. Outside of major cities, population density in the delta averages or more.
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; : Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the in after and , in , and a major economic centre. With a total population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the ...

Alexandria
is the largest city in the delta with an estimated population of more than 4.5 million. Other large cities in the delta include
Shubra El Kheima Shubra El Kheima, ( ar, شبرا الخيمة, ) is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, fourth-largest city in Egypt after Cairo, Giza and Alexandria. It is located in the Qalyubia Governorate along the northern edge of the Cairo Governorate. I ...
,
Port Said Port Said ( ar, بورسعيد, Būrsaʿīd, ) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal. With an approximate population of 603,787 (2010), it is the List of citie ...

Port Said
,
El Mahalla El Kubra El Mahalla El Kubra ( ar, المحلة الكبرى, , , ) – commonly shortened to ' – is the largest city of the Gharbia Governorate and in the Nile Delta, with a population of 535,278 as of 2012. It is a large industrial and agricultural cit ...
, ,
Tanta Tanta ( ar, طنطا ' , ) is a city in Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the n ...
, and
Zagazig Zagazig ( ar, الزقازيق '  , rural: ) is a city in Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى '; ''Ts ...
.


Wildlife

During autumn, parts of the Nile River are red with
lotus flowers ''Nelumbo nucifera'', also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, or simply lotus, is one of two extant taxon, extant species of aquatic plant in the Family (Biology), family Nelumbonaceae. It is often colloquially called a water lily. Lotus pla ...

lotus flowers
. The Lower Nile (North) and the Upper Nile (South) have plants that grow in abundance. The Upper Nile plant is the Egyptian lotus, and the Lower Nile plant is the Papyrus Sedge (''
Cyperus papyrus ''Cyperus papyrus'', papyrus, papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant or Nile grass, is a species of aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and n ...

Cyperus papyrus
''), although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, and is becoming quite rare. Several hundred thousand water birds winter in the delta, including the world's largest concentrations of
little gull The little gull (''Hydrocoloeus minutus'' or ''Larus minutus''), is a small gull that breeds in northern Europe and across the Palearctic. The genus name ''Hydrocoloeus'' is from Ancient Greek , "water", and , a sort of web-footed bird. The specif ...

little gull
s and s. Other birds making their homes in the delta include
grey heron The grey heron (''Ardea cinerea'') is a long-legged predator Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and eats another organism, its prey. It is one of a family of common List of feeding behaviours, feedi ...

grey heron
s,
Kentish plover The Kentish plover (''Charadrius alexandrinus'') is a small cosmopolitan shorebird Waders or shorebirds are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, ...

Kentish plover
s, ,
cormorant Phalacrocoracidae is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain ...

cormorant
s,
egret Egrets are herons that have white or buff plumage, developing fine plumes (usually milky white) during the breeding season. Egrets are not a biologically distinct group from herons and have the same build. Biology Many egrets are members of t ...

egret
s and
ibis The ibises () (collective plural ibis; classical plurals ibides and ibes) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains. "Ibis" derives from the Latin and Ancient Greek word for ...

ibis
es. Other animals found in the delta include
frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely Carnivore, carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order (biology), order Anura (literally ''without tail'' in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" ''Triadobat ...

frog
s,
turtle Turtles are an Order (biology), order of reptiles known as Testudines, characterized by a turtle shell, shell developed mainly from their ribs. Modern turtles are divided into two major groups, the Pleurodira, side-necked turtles and Cryptodi ...

turtle
s,
tortoise Tortoises () are reptiles of the family Testudinidae of the order Testudines (Latin: tortoise). They are particularly distinguished from other Turtle, turtles (which includes the order Chelonia) by being exclusively land-dwelling, while many (t ...

tortoise
s,
mongoose A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domes ...

mongoose
s, and the .
Nile crocodile The Nile crocodile (''Crocodylus niloticus'') is a large crocodilia Crocodilia (or Crocodylia, both ) is an Order (biology), order of mostly large, predatory, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic reptiles, known as crocodilians. They f ...

Nile crocodile
s and
hippopotamus The hippopotamus ( ; ''Hippopotamus amphibius''), also called the hippo, common hippopotamus or river hippopotamus, is a large, mostly herbivore, herbivorous, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic mammal and ungulate native to sub-Sahara ...

hippopotamus
, two animals which were widespread in the delta during antiquity, are no longer found there. Fish found in the delta include the
flathead grey mullet The flathead grey mullet (''Mugil cephalus'') is an important food fish species in the mullet family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by ...
and soles.


Climate

The Delta has a
hot desert climate The desert climate or arid climate (in the Köppen climate classification ''BWh'' and ''BWk''), is a climate which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little ...
( Köppen: BWh) as the rest of Egypt, but its northernmost part, as is the case with the rest of the
northern coast of Egypt Image:Porto Marina 4.JPG, 300px, Hotels of Porto Marina, one of Egypt's famous local tourist destinations The Northern Coast of Egypt ( ar, الساحل الشمالي, "'", North Coast, commonly shortened to "'", "The Coast" or "The Egyptian Co ...
which is the wettest region in the country, has relatively moderate temperatures, with highs usually not surpassing in the summer. Only of rain falls on the delta area during an average year, and most of this falls in the winter months. The delta experiences its hottest temperatures in July and August, with a maximum average of . Winter temperatures are normally in the range of at nights to in the daytime. With cooler temperatures and some rain, the Nile Delta region becomes quite humid during the winter months.


Sea level rise

Egypt's Mediterranean coastline experiences significant loss of land to the sea, in some places amounting to a year. The low-lying Nile Delta area in particular is vulnerable to
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloqui ...

sea level rise
associated with
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been , but the current changes are more rapid than any known events in Earth's history. The main cau ...

global warming
. This effect is exacerbated by the lack of sediments being deposited since the construction of the
Aswan Dam The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is the world's largest , which was built across the in , , between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous initially completed in 1902 downstream. Bas ...

Aswan Dam
. If the polar ice caps were to melt, much of the northern delta, including the ancient port city of
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; : Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the in after and , in , and a major economic centre. With a total population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the ...

Alexandria
, could disappear under the Mediterranean. A rise in sea level could affect about 6.6% of the total land cover area in the Nile Delta region. At sea level rise, an estimated 887 thousand people could be at risk of flooding and displacement and about of vegetation, wetland, cropland, and of urban area land could be destroyed, flooding approximately . Some areas of the Nile Delta's agricultural land have been rendered saline as a result of sea level rise; farming has been abandoned in some places, while in others sand has been brought in from elsewhere to reduce the effect. In addition to agriculture, the delta's
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...

ecosystem
s and tourist industry could be negatively affected by global warming. Food shortages resulting from climate change could lead to seven million "climate refugees" by the end of the 21st century. Nevertheless, environmental damage to the delta is not currently one of Egypt's priorities. The delta's coastline has also undergone significant changes in
geomorphology incised into shale at the foot of the North Caineville Plateau, Utah, within the pass carved by the Fremont River (Utah), Fremont River and known as the Blue Gate. Grove Karl Gilbert, GK Gilbert studied the landscapes of this area in great detail, ...

geomorphology
as a result of the reclamation of coastal dunes and lagoons to form new agricultural land and
fish farm upright=1.3, Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture) at Loch Ainort, Isle of Skye">mariculture.html" ;"title="Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture">Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture) at Loch Ainort, Isle of Skye, Scotland Fish farming or ...

fish farm
s as well as the expansion of coastal urban areas.


Governorates and large cities

The Nile Delta forms part of these 10
governorates A governorate is an administrative division of a country. It is headed by a governor. As English-speaking nations tend to call regions administered by governors either State (administrative division), states or provinces, the term ''governorate'' i ...

governorates
: *
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; : Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the in after and , in , and a major economic centre. With a total population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the ...
*
Beheira Beheira Governorate ( ar, محافظة البحيرة ', , "the governorate of the Lake") is a coastal governorates of Egypt, governorate in Egypt. Located in the northern part of the country in the Nile Delta, its capital is Damanhur. Overview B ...

Beheira
* Kafr el Sheikh * Gharbiya * Minufiya * Qalyubiya *
Dakahlia Dakahlia Governorate ( ar, محافظة الدقهلية ', ) is an Egyptian governorates of Egypt, governorate lying northeast of Cairo. Its area is approximately 3,500 km². Its capital is Mansoura, Egypt, Mansoura. History Archaeology ...
*
Damietta Damietta ( ar, دمياط ', ; cop, ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ, Tamiati) is a harbor, port city and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former Diocese, bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta b ...
* Sharqiyah *
Port Said Port Said ( ar, بورسعيد, Būrsaʿīd, ) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal. With an approximate population of 603,787 (2010), it is the List of citie ...
Large cities located in the Nile Delta: *
Abusir Abusir ( ar, ابو صير  ; Egyptian language, Egyptian ''pr wsjr''; cop, ⲃⲟⲩⲥⲓⲣⲓ ', "the House or Temple of Osiris"; grc, Βούσιρις) is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality – specifically, an ext ...
*
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; : Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the in after and , in , and a major economic centre. With a total population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the ...

Alexandria
*
Avaris Avaris (; Egyptian: ḥw.t wꜥr.t, sometimes ''hut-waret''; grc, Αὔαρις, Auaris; el, Άβαρις, Ávaris) was the Hyksos Hyksos (; Egyptian language, Egyptian ''wikt:ḥqꜣ, ḥqꜣ(w)-wikt:ḫꜣst, ḫꜣswt'', Egyptological pr ...
*
Bilbeis Belbeis ( ar, بلبيس  ; Bohairic cop, Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲉⲥ/Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲏⲥ ') is an ancient fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized ...
*
Bubastis Bubastis ( Bohairic Coptic: ''Poubasti''; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...
*
Canopus Canopus () is the brightest star in the southern constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological ...
*
Damanhur Damanhur ( ar, دمنهور ', ; Egyptian language, Egyptian: ''Dmỉ-n-Ḥr.w''; cop, ⲡϯⲙⲓⲛ̀ϩⲱⲣ '; ; grc, Ἑρμοῦ πόλις μικρά ') is a city in Lower Egypt, and the capital of the Beheira Governorate. It is located ...
*
Desouk Desouk ( ar, دسوق ', ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. Lon ...

Desouk
*
Damietta Damietta ( ar, دمياط ', ; cop, ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ, Tamiati) is a harbor, port city and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former Diocese, bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta b ...

Damietta
*
El Mahalla El Kubra El Mahalla El Kubra ( ar, المحلة الكبرى, , , ) – commonly shortened to ' – is the largest city of the Gharbia Governorate and in the Nile Delta, with a population of 535,278 as of 2012. It is a large industrial and agricultural cit ...
* Kafr El Sheikh *
Leontopolis Leontopolis was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egypti ...
*
Mendes Mendes ( grc-gre, Μένδης, '' gen''.: Μένδητος), the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locate ...
* Mit Abu El Kom *
Mansoura Mansoura (', , rural: ) is a city in Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Western Asia, southwest corner of Asia by ...

Mansoura
*
Naucratis Naucratis or Naukratis ( grc-gre, Ναύκρατις, "Naval Command"; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Afr ...

Naucratis
*
Pelusium Pelusium ( cop, Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ/Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲏ, Peremoun, or , ''Sin''; ar, الفرما, al-Faramā; arz, تل الفرما, Tell el-Farama) was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِص ...
*
Port Said Port Said ( ar, بورسعيد, Būrsaʿīd, ) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal. With an approximate population of 603,787 (2010), it is the List of citie ...

Port Said
*
Rosetta Rosetta or Rashid (; ar, رشيد ' ; french: Rosette  ; cop, ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ ''Rashit'', Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from a ...

Rosetta
*
Sais Sais ( grc, Σάϊς, cop, Ⲥⲁⲓ) or Sa El Hagar ( ar, صا الحجر) was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a of , concentrated along the lower reaches of the , situated in the place that is now the country . Ancient Egyptia ...
*
Tanis Tanis; egy, ḏꜥn.t ; ar, صان الحجر, Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar; ; cop, ϫⲁⲛⲓ or or is the Greek name for ancient Egyptian ''ḏꜥn.t'', an important archaeological site in the north-eastern Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, د ...
*
Tanta Tanta ( ar, طنطا ' , ) is a city in Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the n ...
*
Zagazig Zagazig ( ar, الزقازيق '  , rural: ) is a city in Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى '; ''Ts ...


References


External links

*
"The Nile Under Control"
— ''1937 article on controlling the flow of the Nile.''
Adaptationlearning.net: UN project for managing sea level rise risks in the Nile Delta
* {{Authority control *Delta River deltas of Africa Landforms of Egypt Landforms of the Mediterranean Flooded grasslands and savannas Freshwater ecoregions of Africa Ecoregions of Egypt Eastern Mediterranean