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News design is the process of arranging material on a
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...

newspaper
page, according to editorial and graphical guidelines and goals. Main editorial goals include the ordering of news stories by order of importance, while graphical considerations include
readability Readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its content (the complexity of its vocabulary A vocabulary, also known as a wordstock or word-stock, is a ...

readability
and balanced, unobtrusive incorporation of
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize ...

advertising
. News design incorporates principles of
graphic design Graphic design is the profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognis ...
and is taught as part of
journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the "news of the day" and that informs society to at least some degree. The word applies to the journalist, occupation (pro ...

journalism
training in schools and colleges. Overlapping and related terms include
layout Layout may refer to: * Page layout, the arrangement of visual elements on a page ** Comprehensive layout (comp), a proposed page layout presented by a designer to their client * Layout (computing), the process of calculating the position of objec ...

layout
, makeup (formerly
paste up{{Unreferenced, date=April 2008 Paste up is a method of creating or laying out publication pages that predates the use of the now-standard computerized page design desktop publishing programs. Completed, or camera-ready, pages are known as mechanica ...
) and
pagination Pagination, also known as paging, is the process of dividing a document into discrete pages Page most commonly refers to: * Page (paper) A page is one side of a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the va ...

pagination
. The era of modern newspapers begins in the mid-nineteenth century, with the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, and increased capacities for
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cru ...

printing
and
distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis. Distr ...
. Over time, improvements in printing technology, graphical design, and editorial standards have led to changes and improvements in the look and readability of newspapers. Nineteenth-century newspapers were often densely packed with type, often arranged vertically, with multiple headlines for each article. A number of the same technological limitations persisted until the advent of digital
typesetting on a composing stick on a type case. , letter founder, from the 1728 edition of '' Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Cyclopaedia''. . Typesetting is the composition of Written language, text by means of arranging ph ...
and
pagination Pagination, also known as paging, is the process of dividing a document into discrete pages Page most commonly refers to: * Page (paper) A page is one side of a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the va ...

pagination
in late 20th century.


Process

Designers typically use
desktop publishing Desktop publishing (DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout software on a personal ("desktop") personal computer, computer. It was first used almost exclusively for print publications, but now it also assists in the creation of various ...
software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operatio ...

software
to arrange the elements on the pages directly. In the past, before digital pre-press pagination, designers used precise "lay out dummies" to direct the exact layout of elements for each page. A complete layout dummy was required for designating proper column widths by which a
typesetter on a composing stick on a type case. , letter founder, from the 1728 edition of '' Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Cyclopaedia''. . Typesetting is the composition of Written language, text by means of arranging ph ...
would set type, and arrange columns of text. Layout also required the calculation of lengths of copy (text in "
column inch A column inch was the standard measurement of the amount of content in published works that use multiple Column (typography), columns per page. A column inch is a unit of space one column wide by high. A newspaper page Newspaper pages are laid out ...
es"), for any chosen width. Much of the variance and incoherence of early newspapers was because last minute corrections were exclusively handled by typesetters. With photographic printing process, typesetting gave way to
paste-up{{Unreferenced, date=April 2008 Paste up is a method of creating or laying out publication pages that predates the use of the now-standard computerized page design desktop publishing programs. Completed, or camera-ready, pages are known as mechanica ...

paste-up
, whereby columns of type were printed by machines ( phototypesetters) on high-resolution film for paste-up on photographed final prints. These prints in turn were "shot to negative" with a large format production camera —directly to steel-
emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally Miscibility, immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) owing to liquid-liquid phase separation. Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloid ...

emulsion
photographic plates. Though paste-up put an end to cumbersome typesetting, this still required planned layouts and set column widths. Photographic plates are (still) wrapped on printing drums to directly apply ink to
newsprint Newsprint is a low-cost, non-archival paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, drain ...
(paper). In the mid-1990s, the paste-up process gave way to the
direct to plateComputer-to-plate (CTP) is an imaging technology used in modern printing processes. In this technology, an image created in a Desktop Publishing Desktop publishing (DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout Page most commonly refers to ...
process, where computer-paginated files were optically transmitted directly to the photographic plate. Replacing several in-between steps in newspaper production, direct to plate pagination allowed for much more flexibility and precision than before. Designers today still used column grid layouts only with layout software, such as Adobe InDesign or Quark.


Design options

Designers choose photo sizes and headline sizes (both the size of the letters and how much space the headline will take). They may decide what articles will go on which pages, and where on the page, alone or in consultation with editors. They may choose
typefaces A typeface is the design of lettering that can include variations, such as extra bold, bold, regular, light, italic, condensed, extended, etc. Each of these variations of the typeface is a font. There are list of typefaces, thousands of differe ...
for special pages, but newspapers usually have a design style that determines most routine uses.


Notable news designers

John E. Allen in ''Linotype News'' of the 1930s was the first to write extensively about the design of the U.S. press, followed at mid century by Syracuse journalism professor Edmund Arnold, sometimes identified as the father of "modern" newspaper design, and journalist Harold Evans played a key role in British news design later in the century.K.G. Barnhurst, ''Seeing the Newspaper'' (1994).


See also

*
Society for News Design The Society for News Design (SND), formerly known as the Society of Newspaper Design, is an international organization for professionals working in the news News is information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncert ...
*
Photo caption Photo captions, also known as cutlines, are a few lines of text used to explain and elaborate on published photographs. In some cases captions and cutlines are distinguished, where the caption is a short (usually one-line) title/explanation for the ...
*
Page layout In graphic design Graphic design is the profession and academic discipline whose activity consists in projecting visual communications intended to transmit specific messages to social groups, with specific objectives. As opposed to art, whos ...

Page layout


References

* Barnhurst, Kevin G. ''Seeing the Newspaper'' (1994) * Harrower, Tim ''The Newspaper Designer's Handbook'' (2007)
www.newspaperdesign.in


External links

* {{Journalism Copy editing Graphic design Visual journalism