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The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary
law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterring, rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitating, or punishment, punishing people who viol ...
agency within the
City of New York New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

City of New York
, United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is the largest and one of the oldest police departments in the United States. The NYPD headquarters is at
1 Police Plaza One Police Plaza (often abbreviated as 1PP) is the headquarters of the New York City Police Department (NYPD). The building is located on Park Row in Civic Center, Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core ...
, located on Park Row in
Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs ...

Lower Manhattan
near
City Hall #REDIRECT Town hall #REDIRECT Town hall#REDIRECT Town hall In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre (in the United Kingdom, UK or Australia), guildhall, or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administration ...

City Hall
. The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the ''
New York City Rules The ''Rules of the City of New York'' (RCNY) contains the compiled rules and regulations (delegated legislation In parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or ...
''. The NYC Transit Police and NYC Housing Authority Police Department were fully integrated into the NYPD in 1995. Dedicated units of the NYPD include the
Emergency Service Unit In American law enforcement (municipal, county, or state) the Emergency Service Unit, or E.S.U., is a multi-faceted element within a law enforcement agency’s Special Operations Command. Structure The NYPD is credited with establishing the conc ...
, K9, harbor patrol,
air support In military tactics Military tactics encompasses the art of organizing and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield A battlefield, battleground, or field of battle is the location of a present or historic battle A battle ...
,
bomb squad Bomb disposal is an explosives engineering profession using the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. ''Bomb disposal'' is an all-encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the militar ...
,
counter-terrorism Counterterrorism (also spelled counter-terrorism), also known as anti-terrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and Intelligence agency, intelligen ...
,
criminal intelligence Criminal intelligence is information compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity. The United States Army Military Police Corps The Military Police Corps is the uniformed military pol ...
, anti-
organized crime Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. While organized crime is generally thought of as a form of i ...
,
narcotics The term narcotic (, from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as ...
, public transportation, and
public housing Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is usually owned by a government authorities, government authority, either central or local. Social housing is any rental housing that may be owned and managed by the state ...
units. The NYPD employs around 55,000 people, including almost 35,000 uniformed officers. According to the official
CompStat CompStat—or COMPSTAT (short for COMPuter STATistics, which was the computer file name of the original program)—is a computerization and quantification program used by police departments. It was originally set up by the New York City Police Dep ...
database, the NYPD responded to nearly 500,000 reports of crime and made over 200,000 arrests during 2019. In 2020, it had a budget of . However, the NYPD's actual spending often exceeds its budget. The NYPD has a history of police brutality, corruption, and discrimination on the basis of race, religion and sexuality, which critics argue persists to the present. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have frequently been portrayed in novels, radio, television, motion pictures, and video games.


History

The Municipal Police were established in 1845, replacing an old night watch system. Mayor shepherded the NYPD together. In 1857, it was replaced by a metropolitan force. The NYPD appointed its first black officer in 1911 and the first female officers in 1918. In 1961, highly decorated NYPD officer
Mario Biaggi Mario Biaggi (October 26, 1917 – June 24, 2015) was an American politician, attorney, and police officer. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York (state), New York from 1969 to 1988; he was re-elected ...

Mario Biaggi
, later a US Congressman, became the first police officer in New York State to be made a member of the National Police Officers Hall of Fame. In the mid-1980s, NYPD began to police street-level drug markets much more intensively, leading to a sharp increase in incarceration. In 1992, Mayor David Dinkins created an independent Civilian Complaint Review Board for the NYPD. In response to this, some NYPD officers violently protested and rioted. They blocked traffic on the Brooklyn Bridge, demonstrated at City Hall and shouted racial epithets. The protests were sponsored by the NYPD union. In 1994 the NYPD developed the
CompStat CompStat—or COMPSTAT (short for COMPuter STATistics, which was the computer file name of the original program)—is a computerization and quantification program used by police departments. It was originally set up by the New York City Police Dep ...
computer system for tracking crime geographically, which is now in use by other police departments in the US and Canada. Research is mixed on whether CompStat had an impact on crime rates. The
New York City Transit Police The New York City Transit Police Department was a law enforcement agency A law enforcement agency (LEA), in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the ...
and the
New York City Housing Authority Police Department The New York City Housing Authority Police Department was a law enforcement agency A law enforcement agency (LEA), in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. Englis ...
were merged into the NYPD in 1995. In 2021, the NYPD ceased enforcement of
marijuana Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), ...
crimes other than driving under the influence.


Demographics

As of July 2020, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 35,783. There are also 19,454 civilian employees, including approximately 4,500 auxiliary police officers, 5,500 school safety agents, and 3,500 traffic enforcement agents currently employed by the department. The
Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York The Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York (PBA) is the largest Police unions in the United States, police union representing police officers of the New York City Police Department. It represents about 24,000 of the department's ...
(NYC PBA), the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. Of the entire 35,783-member police force in 2020: 47% are white and 53% are members of minority groups. Of 23,464 officers on patrol: *43% (10,162) are non-Hispanic white *57% (13,302) are Black, Latino (of any race), or Asian or Asian-American. Of 5,289
detective A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency. They often collect information to solve crimes by talking to witnesses and informants, collecting physical evidence, or searching records in databases. This leads them ...

detective
s: *52% (2,771) are non-Hispanic white *48% (2,518) are Black, Latino (of any race), or Asian or Asian-American. Of 4,550
sergeant Sergeant ( ; abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; ...

sergeant
s: *52% (2,379) are non-Hispanic white *48% (2,171) are Black, Latino (of any race), or Asian or Asian-American. Of 1,706
lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...

lieutenant
s: *59% (1,014) are non-Hispanic white *41% (692) are Black, Latino (of any race), or Asian or Asian-American. Of 355
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
s: *62% (219) are non-Hispanic white *38% (136) are Black, Latino (of any race), or Asian or Asian-American. Of 14
police chief A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others' authority within the group. It can be viewed as part of a po ...
s: *57% (8) are non-Hispanic white and *43% (6) are non-white.


Women in the NYPD

On January 1, 2022, Keechant Sewell became the first woman to serve as
Commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the ...
of the NYPD. Juanita N. Holmes, appointed Chief of the Patrol Bureau in 2020, was the first black woman to hold this command and at the time of her appointment, was the highest-ranked uniformed woman in the NYPD.


Place of residence

As a rule, NYPD officers can reside in New York City as well as
Westchester Westchester may refer to: __NOTOC__ Geography *Westchester Station, Nova Scotia, Canada United States *Westchester, Connecticut *Westchester, Florida *Westchester, Illinois *Westchester, Indiana *Westchester, Los Angeles, California *Westchester Co ...
, Rockland,
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
, Putnam,
Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), W ...
and Nassau counties and approximately half of them live outside the city (51% in 2020, up from 42% in 2016.) Legislation has been introduced to require newly hired officer to reside in New York City.


Services

The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the
Emergency Service Unit In American law enforcement (municipal, county, or state) the Emergency Service Unit, or E.S.U., is a multi-faceted element within a law enforcement agency’s Special Operations Command. Structure The NYPD is credited with establishing the conc ...
, K9, harbor patrol,
air support In military tactics Military tactics encompasses the art of organizing and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield A battlefield, battleground, or field of battle is the location of a present or historic battle A battle ...
,
bomb squad Bomb disposal is an explosives engineering profession using the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. ''Bomb disposal'' is an all-encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the militar ...
,
counter-terrorism Counterterrorism (also spelled counter-terrorism), also known as anti-terrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and Intelligence agency, intelligen ...
,
criminal intelligence Criminal intelligence is information compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity. The United States Army Military Police Corps The Military Police Corps is the uniformed military pol ...
, anti-
gang A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be repre ...

gang
, anti-
organized crime Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. While organized crime is generally thought of as a form of i ...
,
narcotics The term narcotic (, from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as ...
, public transportation, and
public housing Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is usually owned by a government authorities, government authority, either central or local. Social housing is any rental housing that may be owned and managed by the state ...
units. The NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in eleven cities internationally. In 2019 the NYPD responded to 482,337 reports of crime, and made 214,617 arrests. There were 95,606 major
felonies A felony is traditionally considered a crime of high seriousness Seriousness (noun; adjective: ''serious'') is an attitude of gravitas, gravity, :wikt:solemnity, solemnity, persistence, and :wikt:earnest, earnestness toward something considered t ...
reported in 2019, compared to over half a million per year when
crime in New York City Crime rates in New York City spiked in the 1980s and early 1990s as the crack epidemic surged, and then dropped from 1991, and, , they are among the lowest of major cities in the United States, but spiked again in 2020. During the 1990s, the New ...
peaked during the
crack epidemic The crack epidemic is a surge of crack cocaine Crack cocaine, commonly known simply as crack, and also known as rock, is a free base Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine In organic chemi ...
of the 1980s and 1990s.


Rank structure

Officers graduate from the Police Academy after five and a half to six months (or sometimes more) of training in various academic, physical, and tactical fields. For the first 18 months of their careers, they are designated as "Probationary Police Officers", or more informally, "rookies". There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory, investigative, and specialist. The supervisory track consists of nine ranks; promotion to the ranks of
sergeant Sergeant ( ; abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; ...

sergeant
,
lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...

lieutenant
, and
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
are made via competitive
civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leader ...
examinations. After reaching the rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief, (bureau) chief and chief of department is at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to
detective A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency. They often collect information to solve crimes by talking to witnesses and informants, collecting physical evidence, or searching records in databases. This leads them ...

detective
is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty.


Badges

Badges in the New York City Police Department are referred to as "shields" (the traditional term), though not all badge designs are strictly . Some officers have used "Pottsy" badges, "dupes," or duplicate badges, as officers are punished for losing their shield by also losing up to ten days' pay. Every rank has a different badge design (with the exception of "police officer" and "probationary police officer") and, upon change in rank, officers receive a new badge. Lower-ranked police officers are identified by their shield numbers, and tax registry number. Lieutenants and above do not have shield numbers and are identified by tax registry number. All sworn members of the NYPD have their ID card photos taken against a red background. Civilian employees of the NYPD have their ID card photos taken against a blue background, signifying that they are not commissioned to carry a firearm. All ID cards have an expiration date.


Organization and structure

The department is administered and governed by the
police commissioner Police commissioner (also known as the commissioner of police) is a senior rank in many police forces of the world. Rank insignia of police commissioner File:RCMP Commissioner.png, Royal Canadian Mounted Police File:Comissari.png, Mossos d'Esqu ...
, who is appointed by the
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...
. Technically, the Commissioner serves a five-year term; as a practical matter, they serve at the mayor's pleasure. The commissioner in turn appoints numerous deputy commissioners. By default, the commissioner and their subordinate deputies are civilians under an oath of office and are not sworn officers. However, a commissioner who comes up from the sworn ranks retains the status and statutory powers of a police officer while serving as commissioner. This affects their police pensions, and their ability to carry a firearm without a pistol permit. Some police commissioners carry a personal firearm, but they also have a full-time security detail. Commissioners and deputy commissioners are administrators who specialize in areas of great importance to the Department, such as counterterrorism, support services, public information, legal matters, intelligence, and information technology. However, as civilian administrators, deputy commissioners are prohibited from taking operational control of a police situation (the commissioner and the first deputy commissioner may take control of these situations, however). Within the rank structure, there are also designations, known as "grades", that connote differences in duties, experience, and pay. However, supervisory functions are generally reserved for the rank of sergeant and above.


Office of the Chief of Department

The Chief of Department serves as the senior sworn member of the NYPD. Kenneth Corey, a longtime NYPD veteran, is the 42nd individual to hold the post. which prior to 1987 was known as the chief of operations and before that as chief inspector.


Bureaus

The department is divided into 20 bureaus, which are typically commanded by a uniformed bureau chief (such as the chief of patrol and the chief of housing) or a civilian deputy commissioner (such as the Deputy Commissioner of Information Technology). The bureaus fit under four umbrellas: Patrol, Transit & Housing, Investigative, and Administrative. Bureaus are often subdivided into smaller divisions and units.


Technology

In the 1990s the department developed a ''
CompStat CompStat—or COMPSTAT (short for COMPuter STATistics, which was the computer file name of the original program)—is a computerization and quantification program used by police departments. It was originally set up by the New York City Police Dep ...
'' system of management which has also since been established in other cities. The NYPD has extensive
crime scene A crime scene is any location that may be associated with a committed crime. Crime scenes contain physical evidence that is pertinent to a criminal investigation. This evidence is collected by crime scene investigator Forensic science, also ...

crime scene
investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units that assist with
computer crime Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer and a computer network, network.Moore, R. (2005) "Cyber crime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime," Cleveland, Mississippi: Anderson Publishing. The computer may have been used in the com ...
investigations. In 2005, the NYPD established a "Real Time Crime Center" to assist in investigations;Michael S. Schmidt
Have a Tattoo or Walk With a Limp? The Police May Know
''New York Times'' (February 18, 2010).
this is essentially a searchable database the pulls information from departmental records, including traffic tickets, court summonses, and previous complaints to reports, as well as arrest reports. The database contains databases to identify individuals based on tattoos, body marks, teeth, and skin conditions, based on police records. NYPD also maintains the
Domain Awareness SystemThe Domain Awareness System is the largest digital surveillance system in the world as part of the Lower Manhattan Security Initiative in partnership between the New York Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially ...
, a network that provides information and analytics to police, drawn from a variety of sources, including a network of 9,000 publicly and privately owned
surveillance cameras Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly tra ...
, license plate readers,
ShotSpotter ShotSpotter Inc. is a publicly traded, Newark, California based company known for its controversial gunfire locator service. ShotSpotter claims they can identify whether or not a gunshot was fired in an area in order to dispatch law enforcement. ...
data, NYPD databases and radiation and chemical sensors. The Domain Awareness System of surveillance was developed as part of
Lower Manhattan Security Initiative The Lower Manhattan Security Initiative (LMSI) is a New York City Police Department initiative overseen by the New York City Police Department Counterterrorism Bureau, Counterterrorism Bureau to increase surveillance efforts in Lower Manhattan, New ...
in a partnership between the NYPD and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
. It allows the NYPD to track surveillance targets and gain detailed information about them. It also has access to data from at least 2 billion license plate readings, 100 million summonses, 54 million 911 calls, 15 million complaints, 12 million detective reports, 11 million arrests and 2 million warrants. The data from the 9,000 CCTV cameras is kept for 30 days. Text records are searchable. The system is connected to 9,000 video cameras around New York City. In 2020, the NYPD deployed a robotic dog, known as Digidog, manufactured by
Boston Dynamics Boston Dynamics is an American engineering and robotics design company founded in 1992 as a Research spin-off, spin-off from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts, Boston Dynamics is owned by the Hyun ...
. The robotic dog has cameras which send back real-time footage along with lights and two-way communication, and it is able to navigate on its own using artificial intelligence. Reaction by locals to Digidog was mixed. Deployment of Digidog led to condemnation from the Surveillance Technology Oversight Project and the
American Civil Liberties Union The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for ...
due to privacy concerns. In response to its deployment, a city councilmember has proposed a law banning armed robots; this would not apply to Digidog as Digidog is not armed and Boston Dynamics prohibits arming of its robots. On April 24, 2021, U.S. Representative
Ritchie Torres Ritchie John Torres (born March 12, 1988) is an American politician from New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in t ...
proposed new federal legislation requiring police departments receiving federal funds to report use of surveillance technology to the
Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North Ame ...
and Congress. The NYPD states that the robot is meant for hostage, terrorism, bomb threat, and hazardous material situations, and that it was properly disclosed to the public under current law. Following continued push back against Digidog, including opposition to the system's $94,000 price tag, the NYPD announced on April 28, 2021 that its lease would be terminated.


Public opinion

The
Quinnipiac University Polling Institute The Quinnipiac University Poll is a public opinion polling center based at Quinnipiac University in Connecticut. It surveys public opinion in Connecticut, Florida, New York (state), New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, and nationally ...
has been regularly measuring public opinion of the NYPD since 1997, when just under 50% of the public approved of the job the NYPD were doing. Approval peaked at 78% in 2002 following the
World Trade Center World Trade Centers are sites recognized by the World Trade Centers Association. World Trade Center may refer to: Buildings * List of World Trade Centers * World Trade Center (2001–present), a building complex that includes five skyscrapers, a ...
terrorist Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
attacks in September 2001, and has ranged between 52 and 72% since. Approval varies by race/ethnicity, with black and Hispanic respondents consistently less likely to say they approve of the job the NYPD are doing than whites. In 2017 the Quinnipiac poll found that New York City voters approve of the way NYPD, in general, does its job by a margin of 67-25%. Approval was 79-15 percent among white voters, 52-37 percent among black voters, and 73-24 percent among Hispanic voters. 86% of voters said crime is a serious problem, 71% said police brutality is a serious problem and 61% said police corruption is a serious problem. A 2020 poll commissioned by
Manhattan Institute for Policy Research The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (renamed in 1981 from the International Center for Economic Policy Studies) is a conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals ...
reported that the public approve of the NYPD 53% to 40% against, again with strong racial differences: 59% of whites and Asians approved, as did 51% of Hispanics, whereas 51% of black residents disapproved.


Corruption and misconduct

The NYPD has a history of
police brutality Police brutality is the excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterr ...

police brutality
,
misconduct Misconduct is wrongful, improper, or unlawful conduct motivated by premeditated or intentional purpose or by obstinate indifference to the consequences of one's acts. It is an act which is forbidden or a failure to do that which is required. Misc ...
, and
corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty ''Diogenes Searching for an Honest Man'', attributed to J. H. W. Tischbein () Honesty or truthfulness is a facet Facets () are flat faces on geometric shapes. The org ...
, as well as discrimination on the basis of race, religion and sexuality. Critics, including from within the NYPD, have accused the NYPD of manipulating crime statistics. In 2009, NYPD officer
Adrian Schoolcraft Adrian Schoolcraft (born 1976) is a former New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity ...
was arrested, abducted by his fellow officers and involuntarily admitted to a psychiatric hospital after he provided evidence of manipulation of crime statistics (intentional under reporting of crimes) and intentional wrongful arrests (to meet arrest quotas). He filed a federal suit against the department, which the city settled before trial in 2015, also giving him back pay for the period when he was suspended. The
Knapp Commission The Commission to Investigate Alleged Police Corruption (known informally as the Knapp Commission, after its chairman Whitman Knapp Percy Whitman Knapp (February 24, 1909 – June 14, 2004) was a United States federal judge, United States Dis ...

Knapp Commission
found in 1970 that the NYPD had systematic corruption problems. The
Civilian Complaint Review Board The NYC Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) is the oversight agency of the New York City Police Department (NYPD), the largest police force in the United States. A board of the Government of New York City, the CCRB is tasked with investigatin ...
is an all-civilian, 13-member panel tasked with investigating misconduct or lesser abuse accusations against NYPD officers, including use of excessive force, abuse of authority, discourtesy and offensive language. Complaints against officers may be filed online, by mail, by phone or in person at any NYPD station. On June 8, 2020, both houses of the New York state assembly passed the
Eric Garner On July 17, 2014, Eric Garner was killed in the New York City borough of Staten Island after Daniel Pantaleo, a New York City Police Department (NYPD) officer, put him in a prohibited chokehold while arresting him. Video footage of the incident ...
Anti-Chokehold Act, which provides that any police officer in the state of New York who injures or kills somebody through the use of "a chokehold or similar restraint" can be charged with a class C felony, punishable by up to 15 years in prison. New York Governor
Andrew Cuomo Andrew Mark Cuomo (; ; born December 6, 1957) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 56th governor of New York The governor of the State of New York is the head of government of the U.S. state of New York (state) ...

Andrew Cuomo
signed the police reforms into law on June 12, 2020, which he described as "long overdue." During the
2020 coronavirus pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing Pandemic#COVID-19, global pandemic of COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The viru ...
, many NYPD officers refused to wear face masks while policing protests related to racial injustice, contrary to the recommendations of health experts and authorities. During the
George Floyd George Perry Floyd Jr. (October 14, 1973 – May 25, 2020) was an African-American man who was murdered by a police officer in Minneapolis Minneapolis () is a city in the U.S. state of Minnesota. With a population of 429,954 as of 2020 ...
protests, ''The New York Times'' reported that more than 60 videos showed NYPD police attacking protesters, many of whom were attacked without cause. Included in these attacks were the '
kettling Kettling (also known as containment or corralling) is a police Riot Control, tactic for Crowd control, controlling large crowds during Demonstration (people), demonstrations or protests. It involves the formation of large cordons of police offi ...
' of protesters, an officer removing the mask of a protester and pepper spraying him, and an incident where police vehicles were driven into a crowd. An investigation by New York City’s Department of Investigation concluded that the NYPD had exercised excessive force during the George Floyd protests. According to a 2021 ''FiveThirtyEight'' analysis, New York City spent at least an average of $170 million annually in settlements related to police misconduct over a ten-year period.


Affiliations

The NYPD is affiliated with the
New York City Police Foundation The New York City Police Foundation was established in 1971 by business and civic leaders as a nonprofit tax-exempt charity that could raise money to spend on projects supporting New York City Police Department, NYPD reform and modernization effort ...
and the
New York City Police Museum The New York City Police Museum (NYCPM) is a museum that has featured the history and contributions of the New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is t ...
. It also runs a Youth Police academy to provide a positive interaction with police officers and to educate young people about the challenges and responsibility of police work. The department also operates the Citizens Police Academy, which educates the public on basic law and policing procedures.


Fallen officers

According to the Officer Down Memorial Page, the NYPD has lost 932 officers in the line of duty since 1849. This figure includes officers from agencies that were later absorbed by or became a part of the modern NYPD, in addition to the NYPD itself. This number also includes 28 officers killed on and off duty by gunfire of other officers on duty. 286 officers have been shot and killed by a criminal. The NYPD lost 23 officers in the
September 11, 2001 attacks The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated Terrorism, terrorist attacks by the militant Islamism, Islamist terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, S ...
, not including another 247 who later died of 9/11-related illnesses. The NYPD has more line of duty deaths than any other American law enforcement agency.


Vehicles


Firearms


On duty

New NYPD officers are allowed to choose from one of three 9mm
service pistol A service pistol, also known as a personal weapon or an ordnance weapon, is any handgun issued to regular military personnel or law enforcement officers. Typically, service pistols are revolvers or semi-automatic pistols issued to Officer (armed ...
s: the
SIG Sauer P226 The SIG Sauer P226 is a full-sized, service-type pistol made by SIG Sauer. This model is sold with a choice of four chambers to choose from: the 9×19mm Parabellum, .40 S&W, .357 SIG, or .22 Long Rifle. It has essentially the same basic design a ...
DAO (Double Action Only), Glock 17 Gen4, and Glock 19 Gen4. All duty handguns are modified to a 12-
pound Pound or Pounds may refer to: Units * Pound (currency) A pound is any of various units of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Im ...
(53 N) NY-2 trigger pull. The Smith & Wesson 5946 was issued to new recruits in the past; however, the pistol has been discontinued. While it is no longer an option for new hires, officers who were issued the weapon may continue to use it. Shotgun-certified officers were authorized to carry
Ithaca 37 The Ithaca 37 (or Model 37) is a pump-action shotgun Pump action or slide action is a repeating firearm A repeating firearm (or repeater for short) is any firearm A firearm is any type of gun designed to be readily carried and used by a ...

Ithaca 37
shotguns, which are being phased out in favor of the newer
Mossberg 590 The Mossberg 500 (M500) is a series of pump action Pump action or slide action is a repeating firearm A repeating firearm, or repeater, is any firearm (either a handgun or long gun) that is capable of being fired repeatedly before having t ...
. Officers and detectives belonging to the NYPD's
Emergency Service Unit In American law enforcement (municipal, county, or state) the Emergency Service Unit, or E.S.U., is a multi-faceted element within a law enforcement agency’s Special Operations Command. Structure The NYPD is credited with establishing the conc ...
, Counter-terrorism Bureau and Strategic Response Group are armed with a range of select-fire weapons and long guns, such as the Colt
M4A1 The M4 carbine is a 5.56×45mm NATO, air-cooled, Gas-operated reloading, gas-operated, Magazine (firearms), magazine-fed, carbine, assault rifle developed in the United States during the 1980s. It is a shortened version of the M16 rifle#M16A2, M ...

M4A1
carbine and similar-pattern Colt
AR-15 An AR-15 style rifle is a lightweight semi-automatic rifle A semi-automatic rifle is a rifle that fires one Cartridge (firearms), round each pull of the Trigger (firearms), trigger. For comparison, a bolt-action rifle requires the user to c ...

AR-15
rifles,
Heckler & Koch MP5 The MP5 (german: Maschinenpistole 5) is a 9×19mm Parabellum, 9x19mm Parabellum submachine gun, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch, Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K) of Oberndorf am Necka ...

Heckler & Koch MP5
submachine gun, and the
Remington Model 700 The Remington Model 700 is a series of bolt-action centerfire rifles manufactured by Remington Arms since 1962. It is a development of the Remington 721, Remington 721 and 722 series of rifles, which were introduced in 1948. The M24 Sniper Weap ...

Remington Model 700
bolt-action rifle.


Off duty

The firearms approved by the NYPD for off-duty carry are the
Glock 26 Glock is a brand of polymer-Receiver (firearms), framed, Recoil operation#Short recoil operation, short recoil-operated, locked-breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Austrian manufacturer Glock Ges.m.b.H., Glock Ges.m.b.H. The ...
, Smith & Wesson 3914 DAO, Smith & Wesson 3953TSW, Smith & Wesson Model 640 (.38 revolver),
Springfield Armory XD The Springfield Armory XD is a series of semi-automatic pistol A semi-automatic pistol is a type of repeating single- chamber handgun (pistol A pistol is a handgun, more specifically one with the chamber (firearms), chamber integr ...
-S, Sig Sauer P365, Smith & Wesson M&P Shield and the Beretta 8000D Mini Cougar.


Discontinued from service

From 1926 until 1986 the standard weapons of the department were the
Smith & Wesson Model 10 The Smith & Wesson Model 10, previously known as the Smith & Wesson .38 Hand Ejector Model of 1899, the Smith & Wesson Military & Police or the Smith & Wesson Victory Model, is a K-frame revolver A revolver (also called a six shooter or a w ...
and the
Colt Official Police The Colt Official Police is a medium frame, double-action revolver with a six-cartridge (firearms), round cylinder (firearms), cylinder, primarily Chamber (firearms), chambered for the .38 Special Cartridge (firearms), cartridge, and manufactured ...
.38 Special revolvers with four-inch barrels. Female officers had the option to choose to carry a three-inch barrel revolver instead of the normal four-inch model due to its lighter weight. Prior to 1994, the standard weapon of the NYPD was the
Smith & Wesson Model 64 The Smith & Wesson Model 64 ''Military and Police'' revolver is the stainless steel version of the Smith & Wesson Model 10, Model 10. Description The Model 64 is a six-shot double-action revolver with fixed sights chambered in .38 Special. It was ...
DAO a .38 Special revolver with a three- or four-inch barrel and the Ruger Police Service Six with a four-inch barrel. This type of revolver was called the Model NY-1 by the department. After the switch in 1994 to semiautomatic pistols, officers who privately purchased
revolver A revolver (also called a six shooter or a wheel gun) is a repeating handgun A handgun is a short-barrelled firearm that can be held and used with one hand. The two most common handgun sub-types in use today are revolvers and semi-automa ...

revolver
s before January 1, 1994, were allowed to use them for duty use until August 31, 2018. They were
grandfathered A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy, grandfathering, or grandfathered in) is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases. Those exempt from the new rule ...
in as approved off-duty guns. Prior to the issuing of the 9mm semi-automatic pistol NYPD detectives and plainclothes officers often carried the
Colt Detective Special The Colt Detective Special is a six-shot, carbon steel Carbon steel is a steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a ...
and/or the
Smith & Wesson Model 36 The Smith & Wesson Model 36 (also known as the Chief's Special) is a revolver chambered for .38 Special. It is one of several models of J-frame revolvers. It was introduced in 1950, and is still in production in the classic blued Model 36 and the ...
"Chief's Special" .38 Special caliber snub-nosed (2-inch) barrel revolvers for their ease of concealment while dressed in civilian clothes. The
Kahr K9 The Kahr K series is a series of semi-automatic pistols manufactured by Kahr Arms. The original weapon in the series, the K9, was introduced in 1995 and features a Trigger (firearms)#Double-action only, double action only (DAO) trigger mechanism w ...
9 mm pistol was an approved off-duty/backup weapon from 1998 to 2011. It was pulled from service because it could not be modified to a 12-pound trigger pull.


See also

*
Law enforcement in New York City Law enforcement in New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine ...
*
New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings The New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings (OATH) is an administrative office of the government of New York City, New York City government. It is a non-mayoral executive agency and is not part of the state judiciary of New York ...
*
Police surveillance in New York City The New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, is the primary law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act ...


References


Further reading

* Darien, Andrew T. ''Becoming New York's Finest: Race, Gender, and the Integration of the NYPD, 1935–1980''. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. * * Miller, Wilbur R. ''Cops and bobbies: Police authority in New York and London, 1830–1870'' (The Ohio State University Press, 1999) * Monkkonen, Eric H. ''Police in Urban America, 1860–1920'' (2004) * Richardson, James F. ''The New York Police, Colonial Times to 1901'' (Oxford University Press, 1970) * Richardson, James F. "To Control the City: The New York Police in Historical Perspective". In ''Cities in American History'', eds. Kenneth T. Jackson and Stanley K. Schultz (1972) pp. 3–13. * Thale, Christopher. "The Informal World of Police Patrol: New York City in the Early Twentieth Century", ''Journal of Urban History'' (2007) 33#2 pp. 183–216.


External links

* *
Police Department
in the
Rules of the City of New York Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and ...
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"With the Sky Police"
''
Popular Mechanics ''Popular Mechanics'' (sometimes PM or PopMech) is a magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear i ...

Popular Mechanics
'', January 1932 article about the NY City Police Air Force and the Keystone-Loening Commuter in service at that time, photos pp. 26–30
NYPD Annual Reports 1912–1923 (digitized books)
from the
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on the
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Historical images from the NYPD Annual Reports, 1923–23
from the
Lloyd Sealy Library The Lloyd George Sealy Library is the campus library at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York (CUNY). Located in Haaren Hall, the library specializes in criminal justice-related materials. Overview The Lloyd Sealy Li ...
Digital Collections {{Authority control 1845 establishments in New York (state) Law enforcement in the New York metropolitan area Municipal police departments of New York (state) Government agencies established in 1845