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New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
that was located on what is now the
East Coast of the United States The East Coast of the United States, also known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast, and the Atlantic Seaboard, is the coast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean ...
. The claimed territories extended from the
Delmarva Peninsula The Delmarva Peninsula, or simply Delmarva, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends ...
to southwestern
Cape Cod Cape Cod is a extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland , in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months. As defined by th ...

Cape Cod
, while the more limited settled areas are now part of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. The colony was conceived by the
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as s ...
(WIC) in 1621 to capitalize on the
North American fur trade#REDIRECT North American fur trade The North American fur trade, an aspect of the international fur trade, was the acquisition, trade, exchange, and sale of animal furs in North America. Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples and Native A ...
. The invasion was slowed at first because of policy mismanagement by the WIC, and conflicts with
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
. The settlement of
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the in America from 1638 to 1655, established during the when was a great military power. New Sweden formed part of the . Settle ...
by the
Swedish South Company The Swedish South Company, also known as the Company of New-Sweden ( Swedish, ', '), was a trading companyTrading companies are business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product ...
encroached on its southern flank, while its eastern border was redrawn to accommodate an expanding
New England Confederation The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a short-lived military alliance of the New England colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth Colony, Plymouth, Saybrook Colony, Saybroo ...
. The colony experienced dramatic growth during the 1650s, and became a major port for trade in the north Atlantic Ocean. The Dutch surrendered
Fort Amsterdam Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan at the confluence of the Hudson River, Hudson and East River, East rivers. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of the colony of New Netherl ...

Fort Amsterdam
on Manhattan island to England in 1664 (formalized in 1667), during the
Second Anglo-Dutch War The Second Anglo-Dutch War or the Second Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667; nl, Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict between Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic partly for control over the seas an ...
. In 1673, the Dutch retook the area but relinquished it under the
Treaty of Westminster (1674) The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized communi ...
that ended the
Third Anglo-Dutch War The Third Anglo-Dutch War, or Third Dutch War ( nl, Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog), was a naval conflict between England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of En ...
the next year. The inhabitants of New Netherland were European colonists, Native Americans, and Africans imported as slave laborers. Not including Native Americans, the colonial population, many of whom were not of Dutch descent, was 1,500 to 2,000 in 1650, and 8,000 to 9,000 at the time of transfer to England in 1674.


Origin

During the 17th century, Europe was undergoing expansive social, cultural, and economic growth known as the
Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 (the Rampjaar, "Disaster Year"), in which Dutch trade, science, and Dutch art, ...
in the Netherlands. Nations vied for domination of lucrative trade routes around the globe, particularly those to Asia. Simultaneously, philosophical and theological conflicts were manifested in military battles throughout the European continent. The
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history ...
had become a home to many intellectuals, international businessmen, and religious refugees. In the Americas, the English had a settlement at
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
, the French had small settlements at
Port Royal Port Royal is a village located at the end of the Palisadoes, at the mouth of Kingston Harbour, in southeastern Jamaica. Founded in 1494 by the Spanish Empire, Spanish, it was once the largest city in the Caribbean, functioning as the centre of ...
and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, and the Spanish were developing colonies to exploit trade in South America and the Caribbean. In 1609, English sea captain and explorer
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process ...
was hired by the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
(VOC) located in Amsterdam to find a
Northeast Passage#REDIRECT Northeast Passage 300px, The Northeast Passage (blue) and an alternative route through the Suez Canal (red) The Northeast Passage (abbreviated as NEP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic point of view, the Arctic ...
to Asia, sailing around Scandinavia and Russia. He was turned back by the ice of the Arctic in his second attempt, so he sailed west to seek a
Northwest Passage The Northwest Passage (NWP) is the Sea lane, sea route between the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archi ...

Northwest Passage
rather than return home. He ended up exploring the waters off the east coast of America aboard the
FlyboatThe flyboat (also spelled fly-boat or fly boat) was a European light vessel of Dutch origin developed primarily as a mercantile cargo carrier, although many served as warships in an auxiliary role because of their agility. These vessels could displac ...
''
Halve Maen ''Halve Maen'' (; en, Half Moon) was a Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC; id, Persatuan Perusahaan Hindia Timur), was a megaco ...

Halve Maen
''. His first landfall was at Newfoundland and the second at
Cape Cod Cape Cod is a extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland , in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months. As defined by th ...

Cape Cod
. Hudson believed that the passage to the Pacific Ocean was between the
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
and
Chesapeake Bay The Chesapeake Bay ( ) is the largest estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zo ...
, so he sailed south to the Bay, then turned northward, traveling close along the shore. He discovered Delaware Bay and began to sail upriver looking for the passage. This effort was foiled by sandy shoals, and the ''Halve Maen'' continued north. After passing
Sandy Hook Image:Wpdms usgs photo sandy hook.jpg, 262px, Sandy Hook, part of the Gateway National Recreation Area Sandy Hook is a Spit (landform), barrier spit in Middletown Township, New Jersey, Middletown Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United S ...
, Hudson and his crew entered
the Narrows __NOTOC__ The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the borough (New York City), boroughs of Staten Island, New York, Staten Island and Brooklyn, New York, Brooklyn in New York City, United States. It connects the Upper New York Bay and Lower ...

the Narrows
into the Upper New York Bay. (The Narrows was documented in 1524 by explorer
Giovanni da Verrazzano Giovanni da Verrazzano ( , , often misspelled Verrazano in English; 1485–1528) was an Italian (Florentine) explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Di ...
, and the modern bridge spanning them is named after him.) Hudson believed that he had found the continental water route, so he sailed up the
major river
major river
that now bears his name. He found the water too shallow to proceed several days later at the site of
Troy, New York Troy is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
. Upon returning to the Netherlands, Hudson reported that he had found a fertile land and an amicable people willing to engage his crew in small-scale bartering of furs, trinkets, clothes, and small manufactured goods. His report was first published in 1611 by Emanuel Van Meteren, the Dutch Consul at London. This stimulated interest in exploiting this new trade resource, and it was the catalyst for Dutch merchant-traders to fund more expeditions. Merchants such as Arnout Vogels sent the first follow-up voyages to exploit this discovery as early as July 1610. In 1611–12, the
Admiralty of Amsterdam The Admiralty of Amsterdam was the largest of the five Dutch admiralties at the time of the Dutch Republic. The administration of the various admiralties was strongly influenced by provincial interests. The territory for which Amsterdam was respo ...
sent two covert expeditions to find a passage to China with the yachts ''Craen'' and ''Vos'', captained by Jan Cornelisz Mey and Symon Willemsz Cat respectively.
Adriaen Block Adriaen (Arjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flem ...
, Hendrick Christiaensen, and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey explored, surveyed, and mapped the area between
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Maryland
and
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * T ...

Massachusetts
in four voyages made between 1611 and 1614. These surveys and charts were consolidated in Block's map, which used the name ''New Netherland'' for the first time; it was also called ''Nova Belgica'' on maps. During this period, there was some trading with the Indian population. Fur trader
Juan (Jan) Rodriguez Juan Rodriguez (Dutch: , Portuguese: ) was one of the first documented non-indigenous inhabitants to live on Manhattan Island. As such, he is considered the first non-native resident of what would eventually become New York New York most commonly ...
was born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent. He arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trading with the Indians as a representative of the Dutch. He was the first recorded non-native inhabitant of New York City.


Development


Chartered trading companies

The immediate and intense competition among Dutch trading companies in the newly charted areas led to disputes in Amsterdam and calls for regulation. The States General was the governing body of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, and it proclaimed on March 17, 1614, that it would grant an exclusive patent for trade between the 40th and 45th parallels. This monopoly would be valid for four voyages, and all four voyages had to be undertaken within three years of the award. The
New Netherland Company Block's Figurative Map of his 1614 voyage, presented to the Estates-General along with the petition of a charter" New Netherland Company () was a chartered company of Dutch merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced b ...
was an alliance of trading companies, and they used
Adrian Block Adriaen (Arjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Netherlands, Dutch private trader, privateer, and ship's captain who is best known for exploring the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts du ...
's map to win a patent that expired on January 1, 1618. The New Netherland Company also ordered a survey of the
Delaware Valley The Delaware Valley is the valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the ...
, and Cornelis Hendricksz of
Monnickendam Monnickendam () is a Town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Orig ...
explored the
''Zuyd Rivier''
''Zuyd Rivier''
(South River) in 1616 from its bay to its northernmost navigable reaches. His observations were preserved in a map drawn in 1616. Hendricksz made his voyages aboard the ''IJseren Vercken'' (Iron Hog), a vessel built in America. Despite the survey, the company was unable to secure an exclusive patent from the States General for the area between the 38th and 40th parallels. The States General issued patents in 1614 for the development of New Netherland as a private, commercial venture. Soon after, traders built
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
on Castle Island in the area of
Albany Albany, derived from the Gaelic name for Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the C ...
up Hudson's river. The fort was to defend river traffic against interlopers and to conduct
fur trading The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characte ...
operations with the Indians. The location of the fort proved to be impractical, however, due to repeated flooding of the island in the summers, and it was abandoned in 1618 when the patent expired. The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands granted a charter to the
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as s ...
(WIC) (''Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie'') on June 3, 1621, which gave the company the exclusive right to operate in West Africa (between the
Tropic of Cancer The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...

Tropic of Cancer
and the
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a Hood (headgear), hood in the Chaperon (headgear), ...

Cape of Good Hope
) and the Americas.
Willem Usselincx Willem Usselincx (1567, Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp (province), Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
was one of the founders of the WIC, and he promoted the concept that a main goal of the company should be to establish colonies in the New World. In 1620, Usselincx made a last appeal to the States General, which rejected his principal vision as a primary goal. The legislators preferred the formula of trading posts with small populations and a military presence to protect them, which was working in the East Indies, versus encouraging mass immigration and establishing large colonies. The company did not focus on colonization in America until 1654, when it was forced to surrender
Dutch Brazil Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both and . At 8.5 mil ...
and forfeit the richest sugar-producing area in the world.


Pre-colonial population

The first trading partners of the
New Netherlander New Netherlanders were residents of New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the east coast of the United States. The claimed ter ...
s were the
Algonquins Algonquin people are an Indigenous people of Eastern Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic t ...
who lived in the area. The Dutch depended on the Indians to capture, skin, and deliver pelts to them, especially beaver. It is likely that Hudson's peaceful contact with the
Mahican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, w ...
s encouraged them to establish
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
in 1614, the first of many garrisoned trading stations. In 1628, the
MohawkMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans *Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language, the language spoken by the Mohawk people *Mohawk hairstyle, from a hairstyle once thought to have been tr ...
s (members of the
Iroquois Confederacy The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous peo ...

Iroquois Confederacy
) conquered the Mahicans, who retreated to Connecticut. The Mohawks gained a near-monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch, as they controlled the upstate
Adirondacks The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif in northeastern New York (state), New York, United States. Its boundaries correspond roughly to the boundaries of Adirondack Park. They cover about 5,000 square miles (13,000 km2). The mountains form ...
and
Mohawk Valley The Mohawk Valley The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primaril ...
through the center of New York. The Algonquin
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
population around
New York Bay New York Bay is the large body of water surrounding the river mouth, mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It is shared by the states of New York (state), New York and New Jersey in the United States. A New York Harbo ...
and along the lower
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
were seasonally migrational people. The Dutch called the numerous band collectively the River Indians, known the exonyms associated with place names as the
Wecquaesgeek The Wecquaesgeek (also Manhattoe and Manhattan) were a Munsee-speaking band of Wappinger The Wappinger () were an Eastern Algonquian Munsee-speaking Native American people from southern New York and western Connecticut Connecticut () ...
, Hackensacks, Raritans,
Canarsee The Canarsee (also Canarse and Canarsie) were a band of Munsee-speaking Lenape The Lenape ( or ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in the United ...
, and Tappans. These groups had the most frequent contact with the New Netherlanders. The Munsee inhabited the
Highlands Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) refers to ranges of hills, typically up to . Highland (or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains. Highland ...
, Hudson Valley, and
northern New Jersey North Jersey comprises the northern portions of the U.S. state of New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bo ...
, while the
Susquehannock The Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by English settlers, are Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Am ...

Susquehannock
s lived west of the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its co ...

Delaware River
along the Susquehanna River, which the Dutch regarded as their boundary with Virginia. Company policy required land to be purchased from the Indians. The Dutch West India Company would offer a land patent, and the recipient would be responsible for negotiating a deal with representatives of the local tribes, usually the ''sachem'' or high chief. The Indians referred to the Dutch colonists as ''Swannekins'', or ''salt water people''; they had vastly different conceptions of ownership and use of land than the colonists did, and difficulties sometimes arose concerning the expectations on both sides. The colonists thought that their proffer of gifts in the form of ''
sewant Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of Native Americans. It includes white shell beads hand fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk shell and white and purple beads made from the quahog or Western North ...
'' or manufactured goods was a trade agreement and defense alliance, which gave them exclusive rights to farming, hunting, and fishing. Often, the Indians did not vacate the property, or reappeared seasonally according to their migration patterns. They were willing to share the land with the colonists, but the Indians did not intend to leave or give up access. This misunderstanding and other differences led to violent conflict later. At the same time, such differences marked the beginnings of a multicultural society.


Early settlement

Like the French in the north, the Dutch focused their interest on the
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
. To that end, they cultivated contingent relations with the Five Nations of the Iroquois to procure greater access to key central regions from which the skins came. The Dutch encouraged a kind of feudal aristocracy over time, to attract settlers to the region of the Hudson River, in what became known as the system of the
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions The Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions,
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions
. Further south, a Swedish trading company that had ties with the Dutch tried to establish its first settlement along the Delaware River three years later. Without resources to consolidate its position,
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the in America from 1638 to 1655, established during the when was a great military power. New Sweden formed part of the . Settle ...
was gradually absorbed by New Holland and later in Pennsylvania and Delaware. The earliest Dutch settlement was built around 1613, and consisted of a number of small huts built by the crew of the "''Tijger''" (''Tiger''), a Dutch ship under the command of Captain
Adriaen Block Adriaen (Arjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flem ...
, which had caught fire while sailing on the Hudson. Soon after, the first of two
Fort Nassau The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. It was also the name of a British fort, which was formerly a Dutch fort. Forts of this name i ...
s was built, and small ''factorijen'' or trading posts went up, where commerce could be conducted with the
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
and
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous pe ...

Iroquois
population, possibly at
Schenectady Schenectady () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...
, Esopus,
Quinnipiac Quinnipiac is the English name for the Eansketambawg (meaning "original people"; ''cf.'' Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people in what is currently southern Canada Canada is a country in the nor ...
,
Communipaw Communipaw is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal ...
, and elsewhere. In 1617, Dutch colonists built a fort at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers where Albany now stands. In 1624, New Netherland became a province of the Dutch Republic, which had lowered the northern border of its North American dominion to 42 degrees latitude in acknowledgment of the claim by the English north of Cape Cod.See John Smith's 1616 map as self-appointed Admiral of New England. The Dutch named the three main rivers of the province the ''Zuyd Rivier'' (), the ''Noort Rivier'' ( North River), and the ''Versche Rivier'' (). Discovery, charting, and permanent settlement were needed to maintain a territorial claim. To this end in May 1624, the
WIC The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federal assistance In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a countr ...
landed 30 families at
Fort Orange Fort Orange ( nl, Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Neth ...
and ''Noten Eylant'' (today's
Governors Island Governors Island is a island in New York Harbor, within the Boroughs of New York City, New York City borough of Manhattan. It is located approximately south of Manhattan Island, and is separated from Brooklyn to the east by the Buttermilk Ch ...

Governors Island
) at the mouth of the North River. They disembarked from the ship ''New Netherland'', under the command of Cornelis Jacobsz May, the first Director of the New Netherland. He was replaced the following year by
Willem Verhulst Willem Verhulst or Willem van Hulst was an employee of the Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company of Dutch merchant ...
. In June 1625, 45 additional colonists disembarked on ''Noten Eylant'' from three ships named ''Horse'', ''Cow'', and ''Sheep'', which also delivered 103 horses, steers, cows, pigs, and sheep. Most settlers were dispersed to the various garrisons built across the territory: upstream to
Fort Orange Fort Orange ( nl, Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Neth ...
, to '' Kievits Hoek'' on the Fresh River, and
Fort Wilhelmus Fort Wilhelmus was a ''factorij Factory (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium ...
on the South River. Many of the settlers were not Dutch but
Walloons Walloons (; french: Wallons ; wa, Walons) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, ...
, French
Huguenot The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a Religious denomination, religious group of French people, French Protestantism, Protestants who held to the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition of Protestantism. The term, which may be derived from the name of a ...

Huguenot
s, or
Africans The population of Africa has population growth, grown rapidly over the past century and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries. Total population as of 20 ...
(most as enslaved labor, some later gaining "half-free" status).


North River and The Manhattans

Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (between 1580 and 1585 – August 5, 1638) was from Tournai, in present-day Belgium. He was the 3rd Director of New Netherland, Director of the Dutch North American colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631, and 3rd Governor of ...
became Director of the New Netherland in 1626 and made a decision that greatly affected the new colony. Originally, the capital of the province was to be located on the South River, but it was soon realized that the location was susceptible to mosquito infestation in the summer and the freezing of its waterways in the winter. He chose instead the island of
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
at the mouth of the river explored by
Hudson Hudson may refer to: People * Hudson (given name) * Hudson (surname) Places Argentina * Hudson, Buenos Aires Province, a town in Berazategui Partido Australia * Hudson, Queensland, a locality in the Cassowardy Coast Region Canada * H ...
, at that time called the North River. Minuit traded some goods with the local population, and reported that he had purchased it from the natives, as was company policy. He ordered the construction of
Fort Amsterdam Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan at the confluence of the Hudson River, Hudson and East River, East rivers. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of the colony of New Netherl ...

Fort Amsterdam
at its southern tip, around which grew the heart of the province called in the vernacular of the day, rather than New Netherland. The port city of
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the ...

New Amsterdam
outside the walls of the fort became a major hub for trade between North America, the Caribbean, and Europe, and the place where raw materials were loaded, such as pelts, lumber, and tobacco. Sanctioned
privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or deleg ...
ing contributed to its growth. It was given its municipal charter in 1653, by which time the included the isle of Manhattan, , Pavonia, and the Lange Eylandt towns. In the hope of encouraging immigration, the Dutch West India Company established the
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions The Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions,
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions
in 1629, which gave it the power to offer vast land grants and the title of ''
patroon In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Wash ...
'' to some of its invested members. The vast tracts were called ''patroonships'', and the title came with powerful
manorial Manorialism, also known as the manor system or manorial system, was the method of land ownership (or "tenure Tenure is a category of academic appointment existing in some countries. A tenured post is an indefinite academic appointment that ...
rights Rights are legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is desc ...
and
privilege Privilege may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Privilege'' (film), a 1967 film directed by Peter Watkins * ''Privilege'' (Ivor Cutler album), 1983 * ''Privilege'' (Television Personalities album), 1990 * ''Privilege (Abridged) ''Privile ...
s, such as the creation of
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
and
criminal In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...

court
s and the appointing of local officials. In return, a ''patroon'' was required by the
Company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. Company members share a common pu ...
to establish a settlement of at least 50 families within four years who would live as tenant farmers. Of the original five patents given, the largest and only truly successful endeavour was
Rensselaerswyck The Manor of Rensselaerswyck, Manor Rensselaerswyck, Van Rensselaer Manor, or just simply Rensselaerswyck ( nl, Rensselaerswijck ), was the name of a colonial estate—specifically, a Dutch patroonship and later an English manor—owned by the v ...
, at the highest navigable point on the North River, which became the main thoroughfare of the province.
Beverwijck Beverwijck ( ; ), often written using the pre-reform orthography Beverwyck, was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was renamed and developed as Albany, New York, after the England, English too ...
grew from a trading post to a bustling, independent town in the midst of Rensselaerwyck, as did Wiltwyck, south of the ''patroonship'' in Esopus country.


Kieft's War

Willem Kieft:''For the Dutch footballer named Willem (Wim) Kieft, see Wim Kieft'' Willem Kieft (September 1597, Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Nethe ...
was
Director of New Netherland This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as f ...
from 1638 until 1647. The colony had grown somewhat before his arrival, reaching 8,000 population in 1635. Yet it did not flourish, and Kieft was under pressure to cut costs. At this time, Indian tribes which had signed mutual defense treaties with the Dutch were gathering near the colony due to widespread warfare and dislocation among the tribes to the north. At first, he suggested collecting tribute from the Indians, as was common among the various dominant tribes, but his demands were simply ignored by the Tappan and
Wecquaesgeek The Wecquaesgeek (also Manhattoe and Manhattan) were a Munsee-speaking band of Wappinger The Wappinger () were an Eastern Algonquian Munsee-speaking Native American people from southern New York and western Connecticut Connecticut () ...
. Subsequently, a colonist was murdered in an act of revenge for some killings that had taken place years earlier and the Indians refused to turn over the perpetrator. Kieft suggested that they be taught a lesson by ransacking their villages. In an attempt to gain public support, he created the citizens commission the Council of Twelve Men. The Council did not rubber-stamp his ideas, as he had expected them to, but took the opportunity to mention grievances that they had with the company's mismanagement and its unresponsiveness to their suggestions. Kieft thanked and disbanded them and, against their advice, ordered that groups of Tappan and Wecquaesgeek be attacked at Pavonia and Lower East Side, Corlear's Hook, even though they had sought refuge from their more powerful
Mahican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, w ...
enemies per their treaty understandings with the Dutch. The massacre left 130 dead. Within days, the surrounding tribes united and rampaged the countryside, in a unique move, forcing settlers who escaped to find safety at Fort Amsterdam. For two years, a series of raids and reprisals raged across the province, until 1645 when Kieft's War ended with a treaty, in a large part brokered by the Hackensack (Native Americans), Hackensack sagamore (title), sagamore Oratam. The colonists were disenchanted with Kieft, his ignorance of indigenous peoples, and the unresponsiveness of the WIC to their rights and requests, and they submitted the Remonstrance of New Netherland to the States General. This document was written by Leiden University, Leiden-educated New Netherland lawyer Adriaen van der Donck, condemning the
WIC The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federal assistance In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a countr ...
for mismanagement and demanding full rights as citizens of the province of the Netherlands.


Director-General Stuyvesant

Peter Stuyvesant arrived in New Amsterdam in 1647, the only governor of the colony to be called Director of New Netherland, Director-General. Some years earlier land ownership policy was liberalized and trading was somewhat deregulated, and many
New Netherlander New Netherlanders were residents of New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the east coast of the United States. The claimed ter ...
s considered themselves entrepreneurs in a free market. The population had reached about 15,000, including 500 on Manhattan Island. During the period of his governorship, the province experienced exponential growth. Demands were made upon Stuyvesant from all sides: the West India Company, the States General, and the New Netherlanders. Dutch territory was being nibbled at by the English to the north and the New Sweden, Swedes to the south, while in the heart of the province the Lenape, Esopus were trying to contain further Dutch expansion. Discontent in New Amsterdam led locals to dispatch Adriaen van der Donck back to the United Provinces to seek redress. After nearly three years of legal and political wrangling, the Dutch Government came down against the
WIC The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federal assistance In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a countr ...
, granting the colony a measure of self-government and recalling Stuyvesant in April 1652. However, the orders were rescinded with the outbreak of the First Anglo-Dutch War a month later. Military battles were occurring in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic coast. In 1654, the Netherlands lost Dutch Brazil, New Holland in Brazil to Portugal, encouraging some of its residents to emigrate north and making the North American colonies more appealing to some investors. The Esopus Wars are so named for the branch of
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
that lived around Wiltwijck, today's Kingston, New York, Kingston, which was the Dutch settlement on the west bank of
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
between Albany, New York, Beverwyk and
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the ...

New Amsterdam
. These conflicts were generally over settlement of land by New Netherlanders for which contracts had not been clarified, and were seen by the natives as an unwanted incursion into their territory. Previously, the Esopus, a clan of the Munsee Lenape, had much less contact with the Hackensack (Native Americans), River Indians and the Mohawk nation, Mohawks. According to historian Eleanor Bruchey: :Peter Stuyvesant was essentially a difficult man thrust into a difficult position. Quick tempered, self-confident, and authoritarian, he was determined...to rule firmly and to repair the fortunes of the company. The company, however, had run the colony solely for trade profits, with scant attention to encouraging immigration and developing local government. Stuyvesant's predecessors...had been dishonest or, at best, inept, so there was no tradition of respect and support for the governorship on which he could build. Furthermore, the colonists were vocal and quick to challenge authority....Throughout his administration there were constant complaints to the company of his tyrannical acts and pressure for more local self-government....His religious intolerance also exacerbated relations with the colonists, most of whom did not share his narrow outlook.


Society

New Netherlander New Netherlanders were residents of New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the east coast of the United States. The claimed ter ...
s were not necessarily Dutch, and New Netherland was never a homogeneous society. Governor
Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (between 1580 and 1585 – August 5, 1638) was from Tournai, in present-day Belgium. He was the 3rd Director of New Netherland, Director of the Dutch North American colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631, and 3rd Governor of ...
was a Walloons, Walloon born in Germany who spoke English and worked for a Dutch company. The term New Netherland Dutch generally includes all the Europeans who came to live there, but may also refer to Africans, Indo-Caribbeans, South Americans, and even the Indians who were integral to the society. Dutch was the official language and likely the lingua franca of the province, although other languages were also spoken. There were various Algonquian languages; Walloons and Huguenots tended to speak French, and Scandinavians and Germans brought their own tongues. It is likely that the Africans on Manhattan spoke their mother tongues but were taught Dutch from 1638 by Adam Roelantsz van Dokkum. The arrival of refugees from Dutch Brazil, New Holland in Brazil may have brought speakers of Portuguese, Spanish, and Ladino language, Ladino (with Hebrew as a liturgical language). Commercial activity in the harbor could have been transacted simultaneously in any of a number of tongues. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of 11 black slaves who worked as farmers, fur traders, and builders. They had a few basic rights and families were usually kept intact. They were admitted to the Dutch Reformed Church and married by its ministers, and their children could be baptized. Slaves could testify in court, sign legal documents, and bring civil actions against whites. Some were permitted to work after hours earning wages equal to those paid to white workers. When the colony fell, the company freed the slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free negros. The Union of Utrecht is the founding document of the Dutch Republic, signed in 1579, and it stated "that everyone shall remain free in religion and that no one may be persecuted or investigated because of religion". The
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as s ...
, however, established the Reformed Church as the official religious institution of New Netherland. Its successor church is the Reformed Church in America. The colonists had to attract the Indians and other non-believers to God's word, "through attitude and by example" but not "to persecute someone by reason of his religion, and to leave everyone the freedom of his conscience", In addition, the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland were incorporated by reference in those first instructions to the Governors Island settlers in 1624. There were two test cases during Stuyvesant's governorship in which the rule prevailed: the official granting of full residency for both Ashkenazi Jews, Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews in New Amsterdam in 1655, and the Flushing Remonstrance involving Quakers in 1657.


Expansion and incursion


South River and New Sweden

Apart from the second Fort Nassau (South), Fort Nassau, and the small community that supported it, settlement along the Delaware River, Zuyd Rivier was limited. An attempt by ''patroons'' of Zwaanendael Colony, Zwaanendael, Samuel Blommaert and Samuel Godijn was destroyed by the local population soon after its founding in 1631 during the absence of their agent, David Pietersen de Vries.
Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (between 1580 and 1585 – August 5, 1638) was from Tournai, in present-day Belgium. He was the 3rd Director of New Netherland, Director of the Dutch North American colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631, and 3rd Governor of ...
, who had construed a deed for
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
(and was soon after dismissed as director), knew that the Dutch would be unable to defend the southern flank of their North American territory and had not signed treaties with or purchased land from the Susquehannock, Minquas. After gaining the support from the Queen of Sweden, he chose the southern banks of the Delaware Bay to establish a colony there, which he did in 1638, calling it Fort Christina,
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the in America from 1638 to 1655, established during the when was a great military power. New Sweden formed part of the . Settle ...
. As expected, the government at New Amsterdam took no other action than to protest. Other settlements sprang up as colony grew, mostly populated by Swedish Americans, Swedes, Finns, Germans, and Dutch people, Dutch. In 1651, Fort Nassau was dismantled and relocated in an attempt to disrupt trade and reassert control, receiving the name Fort Casimir. Fort Beversreede was built in the same year, but was short-lived. In 1655, Peter Stuyvesant, Stuyvesant led a military expedition and regained control of the region, calling its main town "New Amstel" (''Nieuw-Amstel''). During this expedition, some villages and plantations at the New York Harbor, Manhattans ( Pavonia and Staten Island) were attacked in an incident that is known as the Peach Tree War. These raids are sometimes considered revenge for the murder of an Indian girl attempting to pluck a peach, though it was likely that they were a retaliation for the attacks at New Sweden. A new experimental settlement was begun in 1673, just before the British people, British takeover in 1674. Franciscus van den Enden had drawn up charter for a utopian society that included equal education of all classes, joint ownership of property, and a democratically elected government. Pieter Corneliszoon Plockhoy attempted such a settlement near the site of Zwaanendael, but it soon expired under English rule.


Fresh River and New England

Few Dutch settlers to New Netherland made their home at Fort Goede Hoop on the . As early as 1637, English settlers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony began to settle along its banks and on Long Island, Lange Eylandt, some with permission from the colonial government and others with complete disregard for it. The English colonies grew more rapidly than New Netherland as they were motivated by a desire to establish communities with religious roots, rather than for trade purposes. The ''wal'' or rampart was originally built at Wall Street due to fear of an invasion by the English. Initially, there was limited contact between New Englanders and New Netherlanders, but the two provinces engaged in direct diplomatic relations with a swelling English population and territorial disputes. The
New England Confederation The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a short-lived military alliance of the New England colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth Colony, Plymouth, Saybrook Colony, Saybroo ...
was formed in 1643 as a political and military alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth Colony, Plymouth, Connecticut Colony, Connecticut, and New Haven Colony, New Haven. Connecticut and New Haven were actually on land claimed by the United Provinces, but the Dutch were unable to populate or militarily defend their territorial claim and therefore could do nothing but protest the growing flood of English settlers. With the 1650 Treaty of Hartford (1650), Treaty of Hartford, Stuyvesant provisionally ceded the Connecticut River region to New England, drawing New Netherland's eastern border 50 Dutch miles (approximately Dutch units of measurement, 250 km) west of the Connecticut's mouth on the mainland and just west of Oyster Bay (hamlet), New York, Oyster Bay on Long Island. The Dutch West India Company refused to recognize the treaty, but it failed to reach any other agreement with the English, so the Hartford Treaty set the ''de facto'' border. Connecticut mostly assimilated into New England.


Capitulation, restitution, and concession

In March 1664, Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland resolved to annex New Netherland and "bring all his Kingdoms under one form of government, both in church and state, and to install the Anglican government as in old England". The directors of the Dutch West India Company concluded that the religious freedom that they offered in New Netherland would dissuade English colonists from working toward their removal. They wrote to Director-General Peter Stuyvesant:
[W]e are in hopes that as the English at the north (in New Netherland) have removed mostly from old England for the causes aforesaid, they will not give us henceforth so much trouble, but prefer to live free under us at peace with their consciences than to risk getting rid of our authority and then falling again under a government from which they had formerly fled.
On August 27, 1664, four English frigates led by Richard Nicolls sailed into New York Harbor, New Amsterdam's harbor and demanded New Netherland's surrender. They met no resistance to the capture of New Amsterdam because numerous citizens' requests for protection had gone unheeded by a suitable Dutch garrison against "the deplorable and tragic massacres" by the Indians. That lack of adequate fortification, ammunition, and manpower made New Amsterdam defenseless, and the West India Company had been indifferent to previous pleas for reinforcement of men and ships against "the continual troubles, threats, encroachments and invasions of the English neighbors". Stuyvesant negotiated successfully for good terms from his "too powerful enemies". In the Articles of Surrender of New Netherland, he and his council secured the principle of religious tolerance in Article VIII, which assured that
New Netherlander New Netherlanders were residents of New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the east coast of the United States. The claimed ter ...
s "shall keep and enjoy the liberty of their consciences in religion" under English rule. The Articles were largely observed in New Amsterdam and the Hudson River Valley, but were violated in another part of the conquest of New Netherland along the Delaware River, where Colonel Sir Robert Carr expropriated property for his own use and sold Dutch Prisoner of war, prisoners of war into slavery. Nicolls eventually forced Carr to return some of the expropriated property. In addition, a Mennonite settlement led by Pieter Corneliszoon Plockhoy near Lewes, Delaware was destroyed. The 1667 Treaty of Breda (1667), Treaty of Breda ended the
Second Anglo-Dutch War The Second Anglo-Dutch War or the Second Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667; nl, Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict between Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic partly for control over the seas an ...
; the Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland, and the ''status quo'' was maintained, with the Dutch occupying Surinam (Dutch colony), Suriname and the nutmeg island of Run (island), Run. Within six years, the nations were again at war. The Dutch recaptured New Netherland in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships led by Vice Admiral Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest, Cornelius Evertsen and Commodore Jacob Binckes, then the largest ever seen in America. They chose Anthony Colve as governor and renamed the city New Orange, reflecting the installation of William III of England, William of Orange as Stadtholder of Holland in 1672; he became King William III of England in 1689. Nevertheless, the Dutch Republic was bankrupt after the conclusion of the
Third Anglo-Dutch War The Third Anglo-Dutch War, or Third Dutch War ( nl, Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog), was a naval conflict between England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of En ...
in 1672–1674, the historic "disaster years" in which the republic was simultaneously attacked by the French under Louis XIV, the English, the Prince-Bishop of Münster, and Archbishop-Elector of Cologne. The States of Zeeland had tried to convince the States of Holland to take on the responsibility for the New Netherland province, but to no avail. In November 1674, the Treaty of Westminster (1674), Treaty of Westminster concluded the war and ceded New Netherland to the English.


Legacy

New Netherland grew into the largest metropolis in the United States, and it left an enduring legacy on American cultural and political life, "a secular broadmindedness and mercantile pragmatism" greatly influenced by the social and political climate in the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
at the time, as well as by the character of those who immigrated to it. It was during the early British Empire, British colonial period that the New Netherland Dutch, New Netherlanders actually developed the land and society that had an enduring impact on the Capital District, New York, Capital District, the Hudson Valley, North Jersey, western Long Island, New York City, Fairfield County, and ultimately the United States.


Political culture

The concept of tolerance was the mainstay of the province's Dutch mother country. The
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
was a haven for many religious and intellectual refugees fleeing oppression, as well as home to the world's major ports in the newly developing economic globalization, global economy. Concepts of religious freedom and free-trade (including a stock market) were Netherlands imports. In 1682, visiting Virginian William Byrd commented about New Amsterdam that "they have as many sects of religion there as at Amsterdam". The Dutch Republic was one of the first nation-states of Europe where citizenship and civil liberties were extended to large segments of the population. The framers of the U.S. Constitution were influenced by the Constitution of the Republic of the United Provinces, though that influence was more as an example of things to avoid than of things to imitate. In addition, the Act of Abjuration, essentially the declaration of independence of the United Provinces from the Spanish throne, is strikingly similar to the later American Declaration of Independence, though there is no concrete evidence that one influenced the other. John Adams went so far as to say that "the origins of the two Republics are so much alike that the history of one seems but a transcript from that of the other." The Articles of Capitulation (outlining the terms of transfer to the English) in 1664 provided for the right to worship as one wished, and were incorporated into subsequent city, state, and national constitutions in the United States, and are the legal and cultural code that lies at the root of the Tri-State Region, New York Tri-State traditions. Many prominent U.S. citizens are Dutch American directly descended from the Dutch families of New Netherland. The Roosevelt family produced two President of the United States, Presidents and are descended from Claes van Roosevelt, who emigrated around 1650. The Van Buren family of President Martin Van Buren also originated in New Netherland. The Bush family descendants from Flora Sheldon are descendants from the Schuyler family.


External threats

The colony of New Netherland had severe external problems. The population was too small and contentious, and the Company provided little military support. Stuyvesant was usually the loser. The most serious was the economic rivalry with England regarding trade. Secondarily there were small scale military conflicts with neighboring Indian tribes, involving fights between mobile bands on the one hand, and scattered small Dutch outposts on the other. With a large area and limited population, defense was a major challenge. Stuyvesant greatest success came in dealing with nearby Swedish colonies, which he defeated and annexed in 1655. Relations with the English colony of Connecticut were strained, with disputes over ownership of land in the Connecticut valley, and in eastern Long island. The treaty of Hartford of 1650 was advantageous to the English, as Stuyvesant gave up claims to the Connecticut Valley while gaining only a small portion of Long island. In any case Connecticut settlers ignored the treaty and steadily poured into the Hudson Valley, where they agitated against Stuyvesant. In 1664 England moved to take over New Netherland. The Dutch colonists refused to fight, forcing Stuyvesant's surrender, demonstrating the dilemma of domestic dissatisfaction, small size, and overwhelming external pressures with inadequate military support from the Company that was fixated on profits.


Lore

The blue, white, and orange on the flags of flag of New York City, New York City,
Albany Albany, derived from the Gaelic name for Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the C ...
and Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City are those of the ''Prinsenvlag'' ("Prince's Flag"), introduced in the 17th century as the ''Statenvlag'' ("States Flag"), the naval flag of the States General of the Netherlands. The flag and seal of Nassau County, New York, Nassau County depicting the arms of the House of Nassau in the middle. The seven arrows in the lion's claw in the Dutch Republic's coat of arms was a precedent for the thirteen arrows in the eagle's claw in the Great Seal of the United States. Washington Irving's satirical ''A History of New York'' and its famous fictional author Diedrich Knickerbocker had a large impact on the popular view of New Netherland's legacy. Irving's romantic vision of a Dutch yeomanry dominated the popular imagination about the colony since its publication in 1809. The tradition of Santa Claus is thought to have developed from a gift-giving celebration of the feast of Saint Nicholas on December 5 each year by the settlers of New Netherland. The Dutch Sinterklaas was changed to "Santa Claus", a name first used in the American press in 1773, when Nicholas was used as a symbol of New York's non-British past. However, many of the "traditions" of Santa Claus may have simply been invented by Irving in his 1809 ''Knickerbocker's History of New York from The Beginning of the World To the End of The Dutch Dynasty''.


Language and place names

Dutch continued to be spoken in the region for some time. President Martin Van Buren grew up in Kinderhook (town), New York, Kinderhook, New York speaking only Dutch, becoming the only president not to have spoken English as a first language. A dialect known as Jersey Dutch was spoken in and around rural Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen and Passaic County, New Jersey, Passaic counties in New Jersey until the early 20th century. Mohawk Dutch was spoken around
Albany Albany, derived from the Gaelic name for Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the C ...
. Early settlers and their descendants gave many place names that are still in use throughout the region of New Netherland. They adapted Native Americans in the United States, Indian names for locations such as
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
, Hackensack, New Jersey, Hackensack, Sing-Sing, and Canarsie. Peekskill, Catskill (village), New York, Catskill, and Cresskill all refer to the streams, or ''kils'', around which they grew. Among those that use ''hoek'', meaning ''corner'', are Red Hook, New York, Red Hook,
Sandy Hook Image:Wpdms usgs photo sandy hook.jpg, 262px, Sandy Hook, part of the Gateway National Recreation Area Sandy Hook is a Spit (landform), barrier spit in Middletown Township, New Jersey, Middletown Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United S ...
, Constable Hook, and Kinderhook (town), New York, Kinderhook.


See also

*Fortifications of New Netherland, New Netherland fortifications *New Netherland settlements *New Holland (Acadia)
New Netherland 1614–1667 – Documentary
*New Netherland Project to translate and publish 17th century Dutch documents about the colony *Congregation Shearith Israel, Jewish synagogue founded in the colony in 1655 *First Shearith Israel Graveyard, the only remaining 17th century structure in Manhattan. *Dutch American, an inhabitant of the United States of whole or partial Dutch ancestry *Dutch Colonial, an architectural revival movement *Holland Society of New York *List of English words of Dutch origin *List of place names of Dutch origin
Records of the Dutch West India Company at the New York State Archives


References


Explanatory notes


Citations


Further reading

* Thomas J. Archdeacon, Archdeacon, Thomas J. ''New York City 1664–1710. Conquest and Change'' (1976). * Bachman, V.C. ''Peltries or Plantations. The Economic Policies of the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland 1633–1639'' (1969). * Balmer, Randall H. "The Social Roots of Dutch Pietism in the Middle Colonies," ''Church History'' Volume: 53. Issue: 2. 1984. pp 187
online edition
* Barnouw, A.J. "The Settlement of New Netherland," in A.C. Flick ed., ''History of the State of New York'' (10 vols., New York 1933), 1:215–258. * Bruchey, Eleanor. "Stuyvesant, Peter" in John A. Garraty, ed. ''Encyclopedia of American Biography'' (2nd ed. 1996) p. 106
online
* Burrows, Edward G. and Michael Wallace. ''Gotham. A History of New York City to 1898'' (1999) pp 14–74. * Cohen, Ronald D. "The Hartford Treaty of 1650: Anglo-Dutch Cooperation in the Seventeenth Century." ''New-York Historical Society Quarterly'' 53#4 (1969): pp 310-332. * Condon, Thomas J. ''New York Beginnings. The Commercial Origins of New Netherland'' (1968
online
* De Jong, Gerald Francis. "Dominie Johannes Megapolensis: Minister to New Netherland." '' New York Historical Society Quarterly'' (1968) 52#1 pp 6-47; the Dutch Reformed minister 1642 to 1670. * DeJong, Gerald Francis. "The Formative Years of the Dutch Reformed Church on Long Island," ''Journal of Long Island History'' (1968) 8#2 pp 1-16. covers 1636 to 1700. * Eisenstadt, Peter, ed. ''Encyclopedia of New York State'' (Syracuse UP, 2005) pp 1048–1053.. * Fabend, Firth Haring. 2012. ''New Netherland in a nutshell: a concise history of the Dutch colony in North America''. Albany, N.Y.: New Netherland Institute; 139pp *Griffis, William E. ''The Story of New Netherland''. (1909
online
* Jacobs, Jaap. ''The Colony of New Netherland: A Dutch Settlement in Seventeenth-Century America'' (2nd ed. Cornell U.P. 2009) 320pp; scholarly history to 167
online 1st edition
* Jacobs, Jaap, L. H. Roper, eds. ''The Worlds of the Seventeenth-Century Hudson Valley. An American Region'' (State University of New York Press, 2014), 277 pp. specialized essays by scholars
online review
* Kessler, Henry K., and Eugene Rachlis. ''Peter Stuyvesant and His New York'' (1959)
online
* Krizner, L. J., and Lisa Sita. ''Peter Stuyvesant: New Amsterdam and the Origins of New York'' (Rosen, 2000) for middle schools. * McKinley, Albert E. "The English and Dutch Towns of New Netherland." ''American Historical Review'' (1900) 6#1 pp 1–1
in JSTOR
* McKinley, Albert E. "The Transition from Dutch to English Rule in New York: A Study in Political Imitation." ''American Historical Review'' (1901) 6#4 pp: 693–724
in JSTOR
* Donna Merwick, Merwick, Donna. ''Possessing Albany, 1630–1710: The Dutch and English Experiences'' (1990
excerpt
* Merwick, Donna. ''The Shame and the Sorrow: Dutch-Amerindian Encounters in New Netherland'' (2006) 332 page
excerpt
* Merwick, Donna. ''Stuyvesant Bound: An Essay on Loss Across Time'' (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2013) 212 p
excerpt
** Shaw Romney, Susanah. "Peter Stuyvesant: Premodern Man" ''Reviews in American History'' (2014) 42#4 pp 584-589. review of Merwick. * Rink, Oliver A. ''Holland on the Hudson. An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York'' (Cornell University Press, 1986) * Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.), ''Exploring Historic Dutch New York''. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011). * Schmidt, Benjamin, ''Innocence Abroad: The Dutch Imagination and the New World, 1570–1670'', Cambridge: University Press, 2001. * Shorto, Russell. ''The Island at the Center of the World, The Island at the Center of the World: the epic story of Dutch Manhattan and the forgotten colony that shaped America'' (New York: Doubleday, 2004). * Venema, Janny, ''Beverwijck: a Dutch village on the American frontier, 1652–1664'', (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003). * Venema, Janny, ''Kiliaen van Rensselaer (1586–1643): designing a new world''. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010). * Wright, Langdon G. "Local Government and Central Authority in New Netherland." ''New York Historical Society Quarterly'' (1973) 37#1 pp 6-29; covers 1624 to 1663.


Primary sources


''Narratives of New Netherland, 1609–1664''
(1909), edited by J.F. Jameson, at the Project Gutenberg *
online edition ''Narratives of New Netherland, 1609–1664'' from Google Books
* Van Der Donck, Adriaen. ''A Description of New Netherland'' (1655; new ed. 2008) 208 pp. . *
online edition of ''A Description of New Netherland''
* Still, Bayrd, ed. ''Mirror for Gotham: New York as Seen by Contemporaries from Dutch Days to the Present'' (1956
online
pp 3–14. * Several primary sources (both translated and in the original Dutch) can be found i
Online Publications
at the website of the New Netherland Institute. Also included on the NNI site is
comprehensive list of scholarly, nonfiction publications
broadly related to the seventeenth-century Dutch colony and its legacy in America.


External links


The Mannahatta ProjectThe New Netherland Museum and the Half MoonThe New Netherland InstituteDutch Portuguese Colonial HistoryNew Netherland and Beyond
at the University of Notre Dame
Old New York: Hear Dutch names of New York
{{authority control New Netherland, States and territories established in 1614 States and territories disestablished in 1667 States and territories established in 1673 States and territories disestablished in 1674 1614 establishments in the Dutch Empire 1674 disestablishments in the Thirteen Colonies 1674 disestablishments in the Dutch Empire 17th century in the Dutch Empire Colonial settlements in North America Colonization history of the United States, Dutch European colonization of the Americas History of the Thirteen Colonies Former colonies in North America Former Dutch colonies Former English colonies Populated places established in the 17th century Populated places established by the Dutch West India Company Former settlements and colonies of the Dutch West India Company