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New Jersey is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the
Mid-AtlanticMid-Atlantic or Mid Atlantic can refer to: *The middle of the Atlantic Ocean *Mid-Atlantic English, a mix between British English and American English *Mid-Atlantic Region (Little League World Series), one of the United States geographic divisions of ...
and
Northeastern The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
regions of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
; on the east, southeast, and south by the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; on the west by the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
and
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
; on the southwest by
Delaware Bay Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the northeast seaboard of the United States. Approximately in area, the bay's fresh water mixes for many miles with the salt water of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is bordered inland by t ...
and the state of
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
. At , New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state based on land area, but with close to 9.3 million residents, is the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated. New Jersey's state capital is , while the state's most populous city is . With the sole exception of Warren County, all counties in the state lie within the
combined statistical area Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent ...
s of New York City or
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most-populous city in the ...

Philadelphia
; consequently, the state's largest metropolitan area falls within Greater New York. New Jersey was first inhabited by Native Americans for at least 2,800 years, with the
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
being the dominant group when Europeans arrived in the early 17th century.
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
and the
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...

Swedish
colonists founded the first European settlements in the state. The
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
later seized control of the region and established the
Province of New Jersey The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies were a subset of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of King ...
, after the largest of the
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown Dependencies: the Jersey, Bailiwick of ...

Channel Islands
,
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
. The colony's fertile lands and relative religious tolerance drew a large and diverse population. New Jersey was among the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
that opposed Great Britain, hosting numerous pivotal battles and military commands in the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
. The state remained in the Union during the U.S. Civil War, and thereafter became a major center of manufacturing and immigration; it helped drive the nation's
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, and became the site of numerous technological and commercial innovations into the mid 20th century. New Jersey's central location in the Northeast megalopolis fueled its rapid growth and
suburbanization pattern in the US Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through ...
in the second half of the 20th century. At the turn of the 21st century, its economy increasingly diversified, with major sectors including biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, specialized agriculture, and informational technology. New Jersey remains a major destination for immigrants, with one of the most multicultural populations in the U.S. Echoing historic trends, the state has increasingly re-urbanized, with growth in the cities outpacing the
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
s since 2008. New Jersey is one of the wealthiest states in the U.S., with the second highest
median household income The median income is the income amount that divides a population into two equal groups, half having an income above that amount, and half having an income below that amount. It may differ from the mean (or average) income. The income that occurs ...
in 2017. Almost one-tenth of all households, or over 323,000 of 3.3 million, are
millionaire A millionaire is an individual whose net worth Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic e ...
s, the highest rate per capita in the country.Burrows, Dan
"Millionaires in America 2020: All 50 States Ranked How many millionaires are in America and where do they live? The states with the highest number of millionaire households just might surprise you."
''
Kiplinger Kiplinger ( ) is an American publisher of business forecasts and personal finance advice which is a subsidiary of Dennis Publishing. Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc., was a closely held company managed for more than nine decades by three gener ...
'', May 28, 2020. Accessed November 23, 2020. "Millionaire households: 323,443 Total households: 3,312,916 Concentration of millionaires: 9.76%... For the second year in a row, New Jersey is the top spot for millionaires per capita in the U.S. Like Connecticut, New Jersey has a high concentration of millionaires largely thanks to its proximity to New York City."
New Jersey's public school system consistently ranks at or among the top of all U.S. states.


History

Around 180 million years ago, during the
Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a Geological period, geologic period and System (stratigraphy), stratigraphic system that spanned from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period, approximately Mya. The J ...
Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range, system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician, Ordovician Period. They once reache ...

Appalachian Mountains
. Around 18,000 years ago, the
Ice Age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents an ...
resulted in
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers, swamps, and gorges. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the
Lenni-Lenape The Lenape ( or ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in the United States and Canada. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and ...
being dominant at the time of contact. ' is the
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
name for the land that is now New Jersey. The Lenape were several
autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...

autonomous
groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
, the lower
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, and western
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between ri ...

Long Island Sound
. The Lenape society was divided into
matrilinear Matrilineality is the tracing of kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often d ...
clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct
phratries In ancient Greece, a phratry ( grc, φρᾱτρῐ́ᾱ, phrātríā, brotherhood, kinfolk, derived from grc, φρᾱ́τηρ, phrā́tēr, brother, links=no) was a group containing citizens in some city-states. Their existence is known in most Ion ...
identified by their animal sign: Turtle,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...
, and
Wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine Canine may refer to: Zoology * dog-like mammals (i.e. members of the canid subfamily Caninae) ** ''Canis'', a genus including dogs, wolves, coyotes, an ...

Wolf
. They first encountered the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
.


Colonial era

The Dutch became the first
Europeans Europeans are the focus of European ethnology Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples A people is a plurality of person A ...
to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly ...
consisted of parts of modern
Middle Atlantic The Middle Atlantic states, commonly shortened to Mid-Atlantic states, is a region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, ...
states. Although the European principle of
land ownership In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land. It determines who can use land, for how long and under what conditions. Tenure may be based both on official laws and ...
was not recognized by the
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
,
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as s ...
policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the
Bergen Bergen (), historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national a ...
.
Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (between 1580 and 1585 – August 5, 1638) was from Tournai, in present-day Belgium. He was the 3rd Director of New Netherland, Director of the Dutch North American colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631, and 3rd Governor of ...
's purchase of lands along the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
established the colony of
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising i ...
. The entire region became a territory of
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel
Richard Nicolls Richard Nicolls (sometimes written as Nichols, 1624 – 28 May 1672) was the first English colonial English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an ...
sailed into what is now
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
and took control of
Fort Amsterdam Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan at the confluence of the Hudson River, Hudson and East River, East rivers. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of the colony of New Netherl ...

Fort Amsterdam
, annexing the entire province. During the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
, the
Channel Island The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, ...

Channel Island
of
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
. It was from the Royal Square in
Saint Helier St. Helier (; Jèrriais (french: Jersiais, also known as the Jersey Language, Jersey French and Jersey Norman French in English) is a Romance languages, Romance language and the traditional language of the Jersey people. It is a form of ...
that
Charles II of England Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary m ...

Charles II of England
was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father,
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
. The North American lands were divided by , who gave his brother, the Duke of York (later
King James II James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a c ...

King James II
), the region between
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
and
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Maryland
as a
proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcon ...
(as opposed to a
royal colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
). James then granted the land between the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
and the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
(the land that would become New Jersey) to two friends who had remained loyal through the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
:
Sir George Carteret Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet (161018 January 1680 N.S.) was a royalist statesman in Jersey and England, who served in the Clarendon Ministry as Treasurer of the Navy. He was also one of the original lords proprietor of the ...
and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. The area was named the
Province of New Jersey The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies were a subset of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of King ...
. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by . New England
Congregationalists Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Crit ...
settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and
Dutch Reformed The Dutch Reformed Church (, abbreviated NHK) was the largest Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct Religion, religious body within Christianity that comprises all Church (congregation), church congregations of the sam ...
migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of , a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English
Quakers Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...

Quakers
and
Anglicans Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *W ...
owned large landholdings. Unlike
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an British America, English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith (explorer), John Smith. The settlement served as t ...
, Jamestown and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and
commercial farming Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming) and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture, both of arable farming, crop plants and of Animal husbandry, animals, with higher levels of input and ou ...
developed sporadically. Some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and
Perth Amboy Perth Amboy is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...
, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along
Hackensack River The Hackensack River is a river, approximately 45 miles (72 km) long, in the U.S. states of New York (state), New York and New Jersey, emptying into Newark Bay, a back chamber of New York Harbor. The drainage basin, watershed of the rive ...
and
Arthur Kill The Arthur Kill (sometimes referred to as the Staten Island Sound) is a tidal strait A tidal strait is technically not a river but a strait connecting two oceans or seas. Tidal straits are narrow seaways through which tidal currents flow. Tidal c ...
—settlers came primarily from New York and New England. On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold his half of the colony to
Quakers Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...
in England, who settled the Delaware Valley region as a Quaker colony. (
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer and religious thinker belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, a North American colony of English overseas poss ...

William Penn
acted as trustee for the lands for a time.) New Jersey was governed very briefly as two distinct provinces, East and
West Jersey thumbnail, 300px, 1698 map showing West Jersey and Pennsylvania West Jersey and East Jersey were two distinct parts of the Province of New Jersey. The political division existed for 28 years, between 1674 and 1702. Determination of an exact lo ...
, for 28 years between 1674 and 1702, at times part of the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all wi ...
or
Dominion of New England The Dominion of New England in America (1686–1689) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New ...
. In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal governor, rather than a proprietary one. Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the colony as a royal colony. Britain believed that he was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, taking bribes and speculating on land. In 1708 he was recalled to England. New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused those governors of favoritism to New York. Judge Lewis Morris led the case for a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738.


Revolutionary War era

New Jersey was one of the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
that revolted against British rule in the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
. The New Jersey Constitution of 1776 was passed July 2, 1776, just two days before the
Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British c ...
declared American Independence from
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
. It was an act of the
Provincial Congress The Provincial Congresses were extra-legal legislative bodies established in ten of the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Br ...
, which made itself into the
State Legislature A state legislature is a Legislature, legislative branch or body of a State (country subdivision), political subdivision in a Federalism, federal system. Two federations literally use the term "state legislature": * The legislative branches of e ...
. To reassure neutrals, it provided that it would become void if New Jersey reached reconciliation with Great Britain. New Jersey representatives Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart (New Jersey politician), John Hart, and Abraham Clark were among those who signed the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. During the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
, British and American armies crossed New Jersey numerous times, and several pivotal battles took place in the state. Because of this, New Jersey today is often referred to as "The Crossroads of the American Revolution". The winter quarters of the Continental Army were established there twice by General George Washington in Morristown, New Jersey, Morristown, which has been called "The Military Capital of the American Revolution.“ On the night of December 25–26, 1776, the Continental Army under Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, George Washington crossed the Delaware River. After the crossing, they surprised and defeated the Hessian (soldiers), Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton. Slightly more than a week after victory at , American forces gained an important victory by stopping Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, General Cornwallis's charges at the Second Battle of Trenton. By evading Cornwallis's army, the Americans made a surprise attack on Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton and successfully defeated the British forces there on January 3, 1777. Emanuel Leutze's painting of ''Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851 painting), Washington Crossing the Delaware'' became an icon of the Revolution. American forces under Washington met the British forces under General Henry Clinton (American War of Independence), Henry Clinton at the Battle of Monmouth in an indecisive engagement in June 1778. The Americans attempted to take the British column by surprise. When the British army attempted to flank the Americans, the Americans retreated in disorder. Their ranks were later reorganized and withstood the British charges. In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall at Princeton University, making Princeton the nation's capital for four months. It was there that the Continental Congress learned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the war. On December 18, 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution, which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey, as it prevented New York and Pennsylvania from charging tariffs on goods imported from Europe. On November 20, 1789, the state became the first in the newly formed Union to ratify the United States Bill of Rights, Bill of Rights. The 1776 New Jersey State Constitution gave the vote to "all inhabitants" who had a certain level of wealth. This included women and blacks, but not married women, because they could not own property separately from their husbands. Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote and mocked them for use of "petticoat electors", whether entitled to vote or not; on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts. In 1807, the legislature passed a bill interpreting the constitution to mean universal ''white male'' suffrage, excluding paupers; the constitution was itself an act of the legislature and not enshrined as the modern constitution.


19th century

On February 15, 1804, New Jersey became the last northern state to Abolitionism in the United States, abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery. This led to a gradual decrease of the slave population. By the close of the American Civil War, Civil War, about a dozen African Americans in New Jersey were still held in bondage. New Jersey voters eventually ratified the constitutional amendments banning slavery and granting rights to the United States' black population. Industrialization accelerated in the northern part of the state following completion of the Morris Canal in 1831. The canal allowed for coal to be brought from eastern
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
's Lehigh Valley to northern New Jersey's growing industries in Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson, , and Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City. In 1844, the second New Jersey State Constitution, state constitution was ratified and brought into effect. Counties thereby became districts for the state senate, and some realignment of boundaries (including the creation of Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County) immediately followed. This provision was retained in the 1947 Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1962 by the decision ''Baker v. Carr''. While the Governorship was stronger than under the 1776 constitution, the constitution of 1844 created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself. New Jersey was one of the few Union states (the others being
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
and Kentucky) to select a candidate other than Abraham Lincoln twice in national elections, and sided with Stephen Douglas (1860) and George B. McClellan (1864) during their campaigns. McClellan, a native Philadelphian, had New Jersey ties and formally resided in New Jersey at the time; he later became Governor of New Jersey (1878–81). (In New Jersey, the factions of the Democratic party managed an effective coalition in 1860.) During the American Civil War, the state was led first by Republican governor Charles Smith Olden, then by Democrat Joel Parker (politician), Joel Parker. During the course of the war, between 65,000 and 80,000 soldiers from the state enlisted in the Union army; unlike many states, including some Northern ones, no battle was fought there. In the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, cities like Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson grew and prospered. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk. List of inventors, Inventor Thomas Edison also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been List of Edison patents, granted 1,093 patents, many of which for inventions he developed while working in New Jersey. Edison's facilities, first at Menlo Park, New Jersey, Menlo Park and then in West Orange, New Jersey, West Orange, are considered perhaps the first research centers in the United States. Christie Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to have electric lighting. Transportation was greatly improved as locomotive, locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey. Iron ore, Iron mining was also a leading industry during the middle to late 19th century. Bog iron pits in the Pine Barrens (New Jersey), southern New Jersey Pinelands were among the first sources of iron for the new nation. Mines such as Mt. Hope, Mine Hill and the Rockaway Valley Mines created a thriving industry. Mining generated the impetus for new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal. Zinc mines were also a major industry, especially the Sterling Hill Mine.


20th century

New Jersey prospered through the Roaring Twenties. The first Miss America Pageant was held in 1921 in Atlantic City, the Holland Tunnel connecting Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City to Manhattan opened in 1927, and the first drive-in movie was shown in 1933 in Camden. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the state offered begging licenses to unemployed residents, the zeppelin airship Hindenburg disaster, Hindenburg crashed in flames over Lakehurst, New Jersey, Lakehurst, and the SS Morro Castle (1930), SS ''Morro Castle'' beached itself near Asbury Park after going up in flames while at sea. Through both World Wars, New Jersey was a center for war production, especially naval construction. The Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company yards in Kearny and Newark and the New York Shipbuilding Corporation yard in Camden produced aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers, and destroyers. New Jersey manufactured 6.8 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking fifth among the 48 states. In addition, Fort Dix, New Jersey, Fort Dix (1917) (originally called "Camp Dix"), Camp Merritt (New Jersey), Camp Merritt (1917) and Camp Kilmer (1941) were all constructed to house and train American soldiers through both World Wars. New Jersey also became a principal location for defense in the Cold War. Fourteen Project Nike, Nike missile stations were constructed for the defense of the New York City and
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most-populous city in the ...

Philadelphia
areas. ''Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109, PT-109'', a motor torpedo boat commanded by Lt. (j.g.) John F. Kennedy in World War II, was built at the Elco Boatworks in Bayonne. The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6), USS ''Enterprise'' (CV-6) was briefly docked at the Military Ocean Terminal in Bayonne in the 1950s before she was sent to Kearney to be scrapped. In 1962, the world's first nuclear-powered cargo ship, the NS Savannah, was launched at Camden. In 1951, the New Jersey Turnpike opened, facilitating efficient travel by car and truck between North Jersey (and New York metropolitan area, metropolitan New York) and South Jersey (and Delaware Valley, metropolitan Philadelphia). 1959, Air Defense Command deployed the CIM-10 Bomarc surface-to-air missile to McGuire Air Force Base. On June 7, 1960, an BOMARC Missile Accident Site, explosion in a CIM-10 Bomarc missile fuel tank caused the accident and subsequent plutonium contamination. In the 1960s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey. The first race riots in New Jersey occurred in Jersey City on August 2, 1964. Several others ensued in 1967, in 1967 Newark riots, Newark and 1967 Plainfield riots, Plainfield. King assassination riots, Other riots followed the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in April 1968, just as in the rest of the country. A riot occurred in Camden, New Jersey, Camden in 1971. As a result of an order from the New Jersey Supreme Court to fund schools equitably, the New Jersey legislature passed an income tax bill in 1976. Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax.


21st century

In the early part of the 2000s, two light rail systems were opened: the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail in Hudson County and the River Line (New Jersey Transit), River Line between Camden and Trenton. The intent of these projects was to encourage transit-oriented development in North Jersey and South Jersey, respectively. The HBLR in particular was credited with a revitalization of Hudson County and Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City in particular. Urban revitalization has continued in North Jersey in the 21st century. As of 2014, Jersey City's Census-estimated population was 262,146,PEPANNRES—Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010, to July 1, 2014—2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities
, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010,Stirling, Stephen
"What are N.J.'s fastest growing and shrinking towns?"
, NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 21, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015. "Jersey City has gained nearly 15,000 residents since 2010, making it the fastest growing municipality in the state and a symbol of the Garden State's reinvigorated urban core."
representing an increase of 5.9% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was enumerated at 247,597.DP-1—Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Jersey City city, Hudson County, New Jersey
, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Jersey City
, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
Between 2000 United States Census, 2000 and 2010 United States Census, 2010, Newark experienced its first population increase since the 1950s.


Geography

The state of New Jersey is bordered on the north and northeast by
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
(parts of which are across the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, Upper New York Bay, the Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay, and the
Arthur Kill The Arthur Kill (sometimes referred to as the Staten Island Sound) is a tidal strait A tidal strait is technically not a river but a strait connecting two oceans or seas. Tidal straits are narrow seaways through which tidal currents flow. Tidal c ...
); on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the southwest by
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
across
Delaware Bay Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the northeast seaboard of the United States. Approximately in area, the bay's fresh water mixes for many miles with the salt water of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is bordered inland by t ...
; and on the west by
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
across the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
. This is New Jersey's only straight border. New Jersey is often broadly divided into three geographic regions: North Jersey, Central Jersey, and South Jersey. Some New Jersey residents do not consider Central Jersey a region in its own right, but others believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area from the North and South. Within those regions are five distinct areas, based upon natural geography and population concentration. Northeastern New Jersey lies closest to Manhattan in New York City, and up to a million residents commute daily into the city for work, many via public transportation. Northwestern New Jersey is more wooded, rural, and mountainous. The Jersey Shore, along the Atlantic Coast in Central and South Jersey, has its own unique natural, residential, and cultural characteristics owing to its location by the ocean. The Delaware Valley includes the southwestern counties of the state, which reside within the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. The Pine Barrens (New Jersey), Pine Barrens region is in the southern interior of New Jersey; covered rather extensively by mixed pine and oak forest, this region has a lower population density than most of the rest of the state. The federal Office of Management and Budget divides New Jersey's counties into seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas, with 16 counties included in either the New York City or Philadelphia metro areas. Four counties have independent metro areas, and Warren County is part of the Pennsylvania-based Lehigh Valley metro area. New Jersey is also at the center of the Northeast megalopolis. High Point (New Jersey), High Point, in Montague Township, New Jersey, Montague Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, Sussex County, is the state's highest elevation, at above sea level. The state's highest prominence (mountains), prominence is Kitty Ann Mountain in Morris County, New Jersey, Morris County, rising . The The Palisades (Hudson River), Palisades are a line of steep cliffs on the west side of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, in Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen and Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson Counties. Major List of New Jersey rivers, New Jersey rivers include the Hudson River, Hudson, Delaware River, Delaware, Raritan River, Raritan, Passaic River, Passaic, Hackensack River, Hackensack, Rahway River, Rahway, Musconetcong River, Musconetcong, Mullica River, Mullica, Rancocas River, Rancocas, Manasquan River, Manasquan, Maurice River, Maurice, and Toms River, Toms rivers. Due to New Jersey's peninsular geography, both sunrise and sunset are visible over water from different points on the Jersey Shore.


Prominent geographic features

* Delaware Water Gap * Great Bay (New Jersey), Great Bay * Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge * New York–New Jersey Highlands, Highlands * Hudson Palisades * Jersey Shore ** On the "Shore", New Jersey hosts the List of boardwalks in the United States#New Jersey, highest number of oceanside boardwalks in the United States. * New Jersey Meadowlands, Meadowlands * Pine Barrens (New Jersey), Pine Barrens * Ramapo Mountain State Forest, Ramapo Mountain * South Mountain Reservation, South Mountain


Climate

There are two climatic conditions in the state. The south, central, and northeast parts of the state have a humid subtropical climate, while the northwest has a humid continental climate (microthermal), with much cooler temperatures due to higher elevation. New Jersey receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. Climate change in New Jersey, Climate change is affecting New Jersey faster than much of the rest of the United States. As of 2019, New Jersey was one of the fastest-warming states in the nation. Since 1895, average temperatures have climbed by almost 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, double the average for the other Contiguous United States, Lower 48 states. Summers are typically hot and humid, with statewide average high temperatures of and lows of ; however, temperatures exceed on average 25 days each summer, exceeding in some years. Winters are usually cold, with average high temperatures of and lows of for most of the state, but temperatures can, for brief periods, fall below and sometimes rise above . Northwestern parts of the state have significantly colder winters with sub- being an almost annual occurrence. Spring and autumn may feature wide temperature variations, with lower humidity than summer. The Hardiness zone, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone classification ranges from6 in the northwest of the state, to 7B near Cape May. All-time temperature extremes recorded in New Jersey include on July 10, 1936, in Runyon, New Jersey, Runyon, Middlesex County and on January 5, 1904, in River Vale, New Jersey, River Vale, Bergen County. Average annual precipitation ranges from , uniformly spread through the year. Average snowfall per winter season ranges from in the south and near the seacoast, in the northeast and central part of the state, to about in the northwestern highlands, but this often varies considerably from year to year. Precipitation falls on an average of 120 days a year, with 25 to 30 thunderstorms, most of which occur during the summer. During winter and early spring, New Jersey can experience "nor'easters", which are capable of causing blizzards or flooding throughout the northeastern United States. Hurricanes and tropical storms (such as Tropical Storm Hurricane Floyd, Floyd in 1999 Atlantic hurricane season, 1999), tornadoes, and earthquakes are rare, although New Jersey was impacted by a hurricane in 1903 New Jersey hurricane, 1903, and Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, 2012 with the storm making landfall in the state with top winds of .


Administrative divisions


Counties by population

# Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County: 936,692 # Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County: 829,685 # Essex County, New Jersey, Essex County: 799,767 # Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County: 676,061 # Monmouth County, New Jersey, Monmouth County: 621,354 # Ocean County, New Jersey, Ocean County: 601,651 # Union County, New Jersey, Union County: 558,067 # Camden County, New Jersey, Camden County: 507,078 # Passaic County, New Jersey, Passaic County: 503,310 # Morris County, New Jersey, Morris County: 494,228 # Burlington County, New Jersey, Burlington County: 445,384 # Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County: 369,811 # Somerset County, New Jersey, Somerset County: 331,164 # Gloucester County, New Jersey, Gloucester County: 291,408 # Atlantic County, New Jersey, Atlantic County: 265,429 # Cumberland County, New Jersey, Cumberland County: 150,972 # Sussex County, New Jersey, Sussex County: 140,799 # Hunterdon County, New Jersey, Hunterdon County: 124,714 # Warren County: 105,779 # Cape May County, New Jersey, Cape May County: 92,560 # Salem County, New Jersey, Salem County: 62,607 For its overall population and nation-leading population density, New Jersey has a relative paucity of classic large cities. This paradox is most pronounced in Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County, New Jersey's most populous county, whose more than 930,000 residents in 2019 inhabited 70 municipalities, the most populous being Hackensack, New Jersey, Hackensack, with 44,522 residents estimated in 2018. Many urban areas extend far beyond the limits of a single large city, as New Jersey cities (and indeed municipalities in general) tend to be geographically small; three of the four largest cities in New Jersey by population have under of land area, and eight of the top ten, including all of the top five have land area under . , only four municipalities had populations in excess of 100,000, although Edison and Woodbridge came very close.


Demographics


Population

The United States Census Bureau tabulated in the 2020 United States census that the population of New Jersey was 9,288,994 on April 1, 2020, a 5.7% increase since the 2010 United States Census, 2010 United States census. Residents of New Jersey are most commonly referred to as "New Jerseyans" or, less commonly, as "New Jerseyites". At the 2010 census, there were 8,791,894 people living in the state.


Race and ethnicity

The 2019 Vintage Year Census data reported the following makeup estimates: 71.9% White alone, 15.1% Black or African American alone, 10.0% Asian alone, 0.6% American Indian and Alaska Native alone, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, and 2.3% Two or more races. Hispanic or Latino accounted for 20.9%, while White alone (non Hispanic or Latino) accounted for 54.6% of the population. In 2010, unauthorized immigrants constituted an estimated 6.2% of the population. This was the fourth-highest percentage of any state in the country. There were an estimated 550,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010. Among the municipalities which are considered Sanctuary city, sanctuary cities are Camden, Jersey City, and Newark. As of 2010, New Jersey was the eleventh-most populous state in the United States, and the most densely populated, at 1,185 residents per square mile (458 per km2), with most of the population residing in the counties surrounding New York City, Philadelphia, and along the eastern Jersey Shore, while the extreme southern and northwestern counties are relatively less dense overall. It was also the second wealthiest state by median household income, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The center of population for New Jersey is located in Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County, in the town of Milltown, New Jersey, Milltown, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike. New Jersey is home to more scientists and engineers ''per square mile'' than anywhere else in the world. On October 21, 2013, Recognition of same-sex unions in New Jersey, same-sex marriages commenced in New Jersey. New Jersey is one of the most ethnically and religiously Polyethnicity, diverse states in the United States. As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's children under the age of one belonged to racial or ethnic minority groups, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. The state has the second largest Jewish American, Jewish population by percentage (after New York); the second largest Islam in the United States, Muslim population by percentage (after Michigan); the largest population of Peruvian American, Peruvians in the United States; the largest population of Cuban Americans, Cubans outside of Florida; the third highest Asian population by percentage; and the second highest Italian Americans in New York City, Italian population, according to the United States 2000 Census, 2000 Census. African Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanics (Puerto Rican American, Puerto Ricans and Dominican American, Dominicans), West Indian Americans, West Indians, Arab American, Arabs, and Brazilian people, Brazilian and Portuguese Americans are also high in number. New Jersey has the third highest Indian American#List of U.S. States by population of Asian Indians, Asian Indian population of any state by absolute numbers and the highest by percentage, with Bergen County home to America's largest Malayali community. Overall, New Jersey has the third largest Korean American, Korean population, with Bergen County home to the highest Korean concentration per capita of any U.S. county (6.9% in 2011). New Jersey also has the fourth largest Filipino American, Filipino population, and fourth largest Chinese American, Chinese population, per the 2010 U.S. Census. The five largest ethnic groups in 2000 were: Italian Americans, Italian (17.9%), Irish Americans, Irish (15.9%), African Americans, African (13.6%), German Americans, German (12.6%), Polish Americans, Polish (6.9%). India Square, in Bombay, Jersey City, Bombay, Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County,Kiniry, Laura. "Moon Handbooks New Jersey", Avalon Travel Publishing, 2006. pg. 34 . Retrieved April 10, 2015. is home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere. Meanwhile, Central New Jersey, particularly Edison Township, New Jersey, Edison and surrounding Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County, is prominently known for its significant concentration of Indians in the New York City metropolitan region, Asian Indians. The world's largest Hindu temple was inaugurated in Robbinsville, New Jersey, Robbinsville in 2014, a Akshardham (New Jersey), BAPS temple. The growing Little India (Edison/Iselin), Little India is a South Asian-focused commercial strip in Middlesex County, the U.S. county with the highest concentration of Asian Indians, at nearly 20% in 2020. The Oak Tree Road strip runs for about through Edison and neighboring Iselin, New Jersey, Iselin in Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, Woodbridge Township, near the area's sprawling Chinese in New York City, Chinatown and Korean Americans in New York City, Koreatown, running along New Jersey Route 27. It is the largest and most diverse South Asian cultural hub in the United States. Carteret, New Jersey, Carteret's Punjabi people, Punjabi Sikh community, variously estimated at upwards of 3,000, is the largest concentration of Sikhs in the state. Monroe Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Monroe Township in Middlesex County has experienced a particularly rapid growth rate in its Indians in the New York City metropolitan region, Indian American population, with an estimated 5,943 (13.6%) as of 2017,DP05: ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES from the 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Monroe township, Middlesex County, New Jersey
, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 11, 2019.
which was 23 times the 256 (0.9%) counted as of the 2000 Census; and Diwali is celebrated by the township as a Hinduism, Hindu holiday. In Middlesex County, election ballots are printed in English, Spanish language, Spanish, Gujarati language, Gujarati, Hindi, and Punjabi language, Punjabi. Newark was the fourth poorest of U.S. cities with over 250,000 residents in 2008, but New Jersey as a whole had the second-highest median household income as of 2014. This is largely because so much of New Jersey consists of suburbs, most of them affluent, of New York City and
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most-populous city in the ...

Philadelphia
. New Jersey is also the most densely populated state, and the only state that has had every one of its counties deemed "urban" as defined by the United States Census Bureau, Census Bureau's Combined Statistical Area. In 2010, 6.2% of its population was reported as under age 5, 23.5% under 18, and 13.5% were 65 or older; and females made up approximately 51.3% of the population. A study by the Pew Research Center found that in 2013, New Jersey was the only U.S. state in which immigrants born in India constituted the largest foreign born, foreign-born nationality, representing roughly 10% of all foreign-born residents in the state. For further information on various ethnoracial groups and neighborhoods prominently featured within New Jersey, see the following articles: * Hispanics and Latinos in New Jersey * Indians in the New York City metropolitan region * Chinese in the New York City metropolitan region * List of U.S. cities with significant Korean American populations#Top ten municipalities as ranked by Korean-American percentage of overall population in 2010, List of U.S. cities with significant Korean American populations * Filipinos in the New York City metropolitan region * Filipinos in New Jersey * Russians in the New York City metropolitan region * Bergen County#Community diversity, Bergen County * Jersey City#Community diversity, Jersey City * India Square in Jersey City, home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere * Ironbound, a Portuguese people, Portuguese and Brazilian people, Brazilian enclave in * Five Corners, Jersey City, Five Corners, a Filipinos in the New York City metropolitan region, Filipino enclave in Jersey City * Havana on the Hudson, a Cuban people, Cuban enclave in Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County * Koreatown, Fort Lee, a Korean diaspora, Korean enclave in southeast Bergen County * Koreatown, Palisades Park, also a Korean enclave in southeast Bergen County * Bangladeshi American#Demographics, Little Bangladesh, a Bangladeshi American, Bangladeshi enclave in Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson * Little India (Middlesex County, New Jersey), Little India (Edison/Iselin), the largest and most diverse South Asian hub in the United States * Little Istanbul, also known as Ramallah, Little Ramallah, a Middle Eastern enclave in Paterson * Little Lima, a Peruvian American, Peruvian enclave in Paterson


Birth data

As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's population younger than age1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white). ''Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.'' * Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Languages

As of 2010, 71.31% (5,830,812) of New Jersey residents age5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 14.59% (1,193,261) spoke Spanish, 1.23% (100,217) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Standard Chinese, Mandarin), 1.06% (86,849) Italian, 1.06% (86,486) Portuguese language, Portuguese, 0.96% (78,627) Tagalog language, Tagalog, and Korean language, Korean was spoken as a main language by 0.89% (73,057) of the population over the age of five. In total, 28.69% (2,345,644) of New Jersey's population age5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. A diverse collection of languages has since evolved amongst the state's population, given that New Jersey has become multiculturalism, cosmopolitan and is home to ethnic enclaves of non-English-speaking communities: * Albanian language, Albanian Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson, Garfield, New Jersey, Garfield * Arabic language, Arabic Paterson, Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City * Armenian language, Armenian Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County * Indonesian language, Bahasa Indonesia Gloucester City, New Jersey, Gloucester City, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex, Somerset County, New Jersey, Somerset, and Union County, New Jersey, Union counties * Bengali language, Bengali Paterson * Cantonese * Persian language, Farsi * Greek language, Greek * Gujarati language, Gujarati and Hindi Jersey City, all of Middlesex County, Cherry Hill, Parsippany, New Jersey, Parsippany, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton * Hebrew language, Hebrew * Italian widespread across the state especially in Camden County, New Jersey, Camden County, Essex, and Bergen counties * Japanese Edgewater, New Jersey, Edgewater and Fort Lee, New Jersey, Fort Lee borough (New Jersey), boroughs in Bergen County * Kannada language, Kannada * Korean language, Korean Bergen County, New Jersey#Korean American, Bergen County (numerous municipalities); Cherry Hill, New Jersey#Demographics, Cherry Hill * Macedonian language, Macedonian Bergen County * Malayalam Bergen County * Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese * Marathi language, Marathi * Polish language, Polish Bergen County (Garfield, New Jersey, Garfield, Wallington, New Jersey, Wallington); Mercer County (Top Road, Trenton, New Jersey, Top Road, Lawrence Township, Mercer County, New Jersey, Lawrence Township, Hopewell, New Jersey, Hopewell); Linden, New Jersey, Linden * Portuguese language, Portuguese Ironbound section of ; Elizabeth, New Jersey, Elizabeth * Punjabi language, Punjabi * Russian Fair Lawn, New Jersey, Fair Lawn borough of Bergen County, Princeton area and Mercer County * Spanish widespread across the state * Tagalog language, Tagalog * Tamil language, Tamil * Telugu language, Telugu * Turkish language, Turkish Little Istanbul section of Paterson, Mount Ephraim, New Jersey, Mount Ephraim (which has a large, vibrant and growing Turkish Community), Delran, Cherry Hill * Ukrainian language, Ukrainian * Urdu Mount Ephraim has a significant number of residents of Pakistani origin. * Vietnamese language, Vietnamese Atlantic City, New Jersey, Atlantic City, Little Saigon, Philadelphia, Camden/Cherry Hill, Edison Township, New Jersey, Edison Township, Jersey City * Yiddish language, Yiddish Lakewood Township, New Jersey, Lakewood Township, Ocean County, New Jersey, Ocean County File:Constitution Park Fort Lee New Jersey.JPG, High-rise residential complexes in the borough of Fort Lee, New Jersey, Fort Lee File:Downtown-paterson-nj2.jpg, Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson, known as the "Silk City", has become a prime destination for an internationally diverse pool of immigrants, with at least 52 distinct ethnic groups. File:New Jersey skyline.jpg, Skyscrapers in Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City, one of the most ethnic diversity, ethnically diverse cities in the world File:CamdenNJ FedCourt.jpg, Federal Courthouse in Camden, New Jersey, Camden, which is connected to
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most-populous city in the ...

Philadelphia
via the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in the background


Religion

By number of adherents, the largest denominations in New Jersey, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives in 2010, were the Roman Catholic Church with 3,235,290; Islam with 160,666; and the United Methodist Church with 138,052. In September 2021, the State of New Jersey aligned with the World Hindu Council to declare October as Hinduism, Hindu Heritage Month. The world's largest Hindu temple was inaugurated in Robbinsville, New Jersey, Robbinsville, Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County, in central New Jersey during 2014, a BAPS temple. In January 2018, Gurbir Grewal became the first Sikh American state attorney general in the United States. In January 2019, Sadaf Jaffer became the first female Muslim American mayor, first female South Asian mayor, and first female Pakistani-American mayor in the United States, of Montgomery, New Jersey, Montgomery in Somerset County, New Jersey, Somerset County. File:Facade of Sacred Heart Cathedral, Newark.jpg, Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart (Newark), Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart in , the fifth-largest cathedral in North America, is the seat of the city's Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark, Roman Catholic Archdiocese. File:Temple Sharey Tefilo Israel.JPG, Temple Sharey Tefilo-Israel, in South Orange, New Jersey, South Orange, Essex County, New Jersey, Essex County. New Jersey is home to the second-highest American Jews#Demographics, Jewish American population per capita, after
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
. File:BAPS Robbinsville Mandir - mandir interior.jpg, Akshardham (New Jersey), Swaminarayan Akshardham (Devnagari) in Robbinsville, New Jersey, Robbinsville, Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County, inaugurated in 2014 as the world's largest Hindu temple File:Al-Nasr Mosque, New Jersey.jpg, Mosque#Domes, Al-Nasr Mosque, Willingboro, New Jersey, Willingboro, Burlington County, New Jersey, Burlington County


Economy

The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Jersey's gross state product in the fourth quarter of 2018 was $639.8 billion. New Jersey's estimated taxpayer burden in 2015 was $59,400 per taxpayer. New Jersey is nearly $239 billion in debt.


Affluence

New Jersey's List of U.S. states by GDP per capita (nominal), per capita gross state product in 2008 was $54,699, second in the U.S. and above the national per capita gross domestic product of $46,588. Its per capita income was the third highest in the nation with $51,358. In 2020, New Jersey had the highest number of
millionaire A millionaire is an individual whose net worth Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic e ...
s per capita in the United States, approximately 9.76% of households. The state is ranked second in the nation by the number of places with per capita incomes above national average with 76.4%. Nine of New Jersey's counties are among the 100 wealthiest U.S. counties.


Fiscal policy

New Jersey has seven tax brackets that determine state income tax rates, which range from 1.4% (for income below $20,000) to 8.97% (for income above $500,000). The standard sales tax rate as of January 1, 2018, is 6.625%, applicable to all retail sales unless specifically exempt by law. This rate, which is comparably lower than that of New York City, often attracts numerous shoppers from New York City, often to suburban Paramus, New Jersey, which has five malls, one of which (the Garden State Plaza) has over of retail space. Tax exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medications, most clothing, footwear and disposable paper products for use in the home. There are 27 Urban Enterprise Zone statewide, including sections of Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson, Elizabeth, New Jersey, Elizabeth, and Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half the rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants. New Jersey has the highest cumulative tax rate of all 50 states with residents paying a total of $68 billion in state and local taxes annually with a per capita burden of $7,816 at a rate of 12.9% of income. All real property located in the state is subject to property tax unless specifically exempted by statute. New Jersey does not assess an intangible personal property tax or an Estate tax in the United States, estate tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax (which is levied only on heirs who are not direct descendants).


Federal taxation disparity

New Jersey consistently ranks as having one of the highest proportional levels of disparity of any state in the United States, based upon what it receives from the federal government relative to what it gives. In 2015, WalletHub ranked New Jersey the state least dependent upon federal government aid overall and having the fourth lowest return on taxpayer investment from the federal government, at 48 cents per dollar. New Jersey has one of the highest tax burdens in the nation. Factors for this include the large federal tax liability which is not adjusted for New Jersey's higher cost of living and Medicaid funding formulas.


Industries

New Jersey's economy is multifaceted, but is centered on the pharmaceutical industry, biotechnology, information technology, the financial industry, chemical development, telecommunications, food processing, electric equipment, printing, publishing, and tourism. New Jersey's agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits and nuts, seafood, and dairy products. New Jersey ranks second among states in blueberry production, third in cranberry, cranberries and spinach, and fourth in bell peppers, peaches, and lettuce, head lettuce. The state harvests the fourth-largest number of acres planted with asparagus. Although New Jersey is home to many energy-intensive industries, its energy consumption is only 2.7% of the U.S. total, and its carbon dioxide emissions are 0.8% of the U.S. total. Its comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the state's use of nuclear power. According to the Energy Information Administration, nuclear power dominates New Jersey's electricity market, typically supplying more than one-half of state generation. New Jersey has three nuclear power plants, including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, which came online in 1969 and is the oldest operating nuclear plant in the country. New Jersey has a strong scientist, scientific economy and is home to major pharmaceutical and telecommunications firms, drawing on the state's large and well-educated labor pool. There is also a strong service economy in retail sales, education, and real estate, serving residents who work in New York City or Philadelphia. Thomas Edison invented the first electric light bulb at his home in Menlo Park, New Jersey, Menlo Park, Edison in 1879. New Jersey is also a key participant in the wind industry, renewable wind industry. Shipping is a key industry in New Jersey because of the state's strategic geographic location, the Port of New York and New Jersey being the busiest port on the East Coast of the United States, East Coast. The Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and today is one of the world's largest. New Jersey hosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune 500 companies. Paramus, New Jersey, Paramus in Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County has become the top retail ZIP code (07652) in the United States, with the municipality generating over US$6 billion in annual retail sales. Several New Jersey counties, including Somerset County, New Jersey, Somerset (7), Morris County, New Jersey, Morris (10), Hunterdon County, New Jersey, Hunterdon (13), Bergen (21), and Monmouth County, New Jersey, Monmouth (42), have been ranked among the highest-income counties in the United States.


Tourism

New Jersey's location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis and its extensive transportation system have put over one-third of all United States residents and many Canadian residents within overnight distance by land. This accessibility to consumer revenue has enabled seaside resorts such as Atlantic City, New Jersey, Atlantic City and the remainder of the Jersey Shore, as well as the state's other natural and cultural attractions, to contribute significantly to the record 111 million tourist visits to New Jersey in 2018, providing US$44.7 billion in tourism revenue, directly supporting 333,860 jobs, sustaining more than 531,000 jobs overall including peripheral impacts, and generating US$5 billion in state and local tax revenue.


Gambling

In 1976, a referendum of New Jersey voters approved casino gambling in Atlantic City, where the first legalized casino opened in 1978. At that time, Las Vegas Valley, Las Vegas was the only other casino resort in the country. Today, several casinos lie along the Atlantic City Atlantic City#Boardwalk, Boardwalk, the first and longest boardwalk in the world. Atlantic City experienced a dramatic contraction in its stature as a gambling destination after 2010, including the closure of multiple casinos since 2014, spurred by competition from the advent of legalized gambling in other northeastern U.S. states. On February 26, 2013, Governor Chris Christie signed online gambling into law. Sports betting has become a growing source of gambling revenue in New Jersey since being legalized across the nation by the U.S. Supreme Court on May 14, 2018.


Natural resources

Forests cover 45%, or approximately 2.1 million acres, of New Jersey's land area. The chief tree of the northern forests is the oak. The Pine Barrens (New Jersey), Pine Barrens, consisting of pine forests, is in the southern part of the state. Some mining activity of zinc, iron, and manganese still takes place in the area in and around the Franklin Furnace. New Jersey is second in the nation in Solar power in New Jersey, solar power installations, enabled by one of the country's most favorable net metering policies, and the renewable energy certificates program. The state has more than 10,000 solar installations.


Education

As of 2010, there were 605 List of school districts in New Jersey, school districts in the state. Secretary of Education Rick Rosenberg, appointed by Governor Jon Corzine, created the Education Advancement Initiative (EAI) to increase college admission rates by 10% for New Jersey's high school students, decrease dropout rates by 15%, and increase the amount of money devoted to schools by 10%. Rosenberg retracted this plan when criticized for taking the money out of healthcare to fund this initiative. In 2010, the state government paid all teachers' premiums for health insurance, but currently all NJ public teachers pay a portion of their own health insurance premiums. New Jersey is known for the quality of its education. In 2015, the state spent more per each public school student than any other U.S. state except
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
, Alaska, and Connecticut, amounting to $18,235 spent per pupil; over 50% of the expenditure was allocated to student instruction. According to 2011 ''Newsweek'' statistics, students of High Technology High School in Lincroft, New Jersey, Lincroft, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Monmouth County and Bergen County Academies in Hackensack, New Jersey, Hackensack, Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County registered average SAT scores of 2145 and 2100, respectively, representing the second- and third-highest scores, respectively, of all listed U.S. high schools. Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County, one of the world's most prominent research universities, is often featured at or near the top of various national and global university rankings, topping the 2022 list of ''U.S. News & World Report''. In 2013, Rutgers University, headquartered in New Brunswick, New Jersey, New Brunswick, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County as the flagship institution of higher education in New Jersey, regained medical school, medical and dental schools, augmenting its profile as a national research university as well. In 2014, New Jersey's school systems were ranked at the top of all fifty U.S. states by financial website Wallethub.com. In 2018, New Jersey's overall educational system was ranked second among all states to Massachusetts by ''U.S. News & World Report''. In both 2019 and 2020, ''Education Week'' also ranked New Jersey public schools the best of all U.S. states. Nine New Jersey secondary school, high schools were ranked among the top 25 in the U.S. on the ''Newsweek'' "America's Top High Schools 2016" list, more than from any other state. A 2017 UCLA Civil Rights project found that Education segregation in New Jersey, New Jersey has the sixth-most segregated classrooms in the United States.


Culture


General

New Jersey has continued to play a prominent role as a U.S. cultural nexus. Like every state, New Jersey has its own Cuisine of New Jersey, cuisine, Religion in New Jersey, religious communities, List of museums in New Jersey, museums, and :Halls of fame in New Jersey, halls of fame. New Jersey is the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radio, the motion picture camera, the lithium battery, the light bulb, transistors, and the electric train. Other New Jersey creations include: the drive-in movie, the cultivated blueberry, cranberry sauce, the postcard, the boardwalk, the zipper, the phonograph, saltwater taffy, the dirigible, the watermelon, seedless watermelon, the David Bushnell, first use of a submarine in warfare, and the ice cream cone. Diners are iconic to New Jersey. The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has over 600 diners, more than any other place in the world. New Jersey is the only state without a state song. ''I'm From New Jersey'' is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New Jersey state song, but it was not even a contender when in 1996 the New Jersey Arts Council submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey Legislature. New Jersey is frequently the target of jokes in American culture, especially from New York City-based television shows, such as ''Saturday Night Live''. Academic Michael Aaron Rockland attributes this to New Yorkers' view that New Jersey is the beginning of Middle America (United States), Middle America. The New Jersey Turnpike, which runs between two major East Coast cities, New York City and Philadelphia, is also cited as a reason, as people who traverse through the state may only see its industrial zones. Reality television shows like ''Jersey Shore (TV series), Jersey Shore'' and ''The Real Housewives of New Jersey'' have reinforced stereotypical views of New Jersey culture, but Rockland cited ''The Sopranos'' and the music of Bruce Springsteen as exporting a more positive image.


Cuisine

New Jersey is known for several foods developed within the region, including Taylor Pork Roll, Taylor Ham (also known as pork roll), Sloppy joe (New Jersey), sloppy joe sandwiches, Trenton tomato pie, tomato pies, and Chili dog, Texas wieners. Several states with substantial Italian American populations take credit for the development of submarine sandwiches, including New Jersey.


Music

New Jersey has long been an important origin for both rock and roll, rock and hip hop music, rap music. Prominent musicians from or with significant connections to New Jersey include: * Singer Frank Sinatra was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken. He sang with a neighborhood vocal group, the Hoboken Four, and appeared in neighborhood theater amateur shows before he became an Academy Awards, Academy Award-winning actor. * Bruce Springsteen, who has sung of New Jersey life on most of his albums, is from Freehold Borough, New Jersey, Freehold. Some of his songs that represent New Jersey life are "Born to Run (song), Born to Run", "Spirit in the Night", "Rosalita (Come Out Tonight)", "Thunder Road (song), Thunder Road", "Atlantic City (song), Atlantic City", and "Jungleland". * The Jonas Brothers all reside in Wyckoff, New Jersey, Wyckoff, where the eldest and youngest brothers of the group, Kevin and Frankie Jonas, were born. * Irvington, New Jersey, Irvington's Queen Latifah was one of the first female rappers to succeed in music, film, and television. * Lauryn Hill is from South Orange, New Jersey, South Orange. Her 1998 debut solo album, ''The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill'', sold 10 million copies internationally. She also sold millions with The Fugees second album ''The Score (Fugees album), The Score''. * Southside Johnny, eponymous leader of Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes was raised in Ocean Grove, NJ, Ocean Grove. He is considered the "Grandfather of the New Jersey Sound" and is cited by Jersey-born Jon Bon Jovi as his reason for singing. * Redman (rapper), Redman (Reggie Noble) was born, raised, and resides in . * All members of The Sugarhill Gang were born in Englewood, New Jersey, Englewood. * Roc-A-Fella Records rap producer Just Blaze is from Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson. * Jon Bon Jovi, from Sayreville, New Jersey, Sayreville, reached fame in the 1980s with hard rock outfit Bon Jovi. The band has also written many songs about life in New Jersey, including "Livin' On A Prayer", and named New Jersey (album), one of their albums after the state. * Singer Dionne Warwick was born in East Orange, New Jersey, East Orange. * Singer Whitney Houston (who is Dionne Warwick's cousin) was born in , and grew up in neighboring East Orange, New Jersey, East Orange. * Jazz pianist and bandleader Count Basie was born in Red Bank, New Jersey, Red Bank in 1904. In the 1960s, he collaborated on several albums with fellow New Jersey native Frank Sinatra. The Count Basie Theatre in Red Bank is named in his honor. * Parliament-Funkadelic, the funk music collective, was formed in Plainfield, New Jersey, Plainfield by George Clinton (funk musician), George Clinton. * Asbury Park, New Jersey, Asbury Park is home of The Stone Pony, which Bruce Springsteen and Bon Jovi frequented early in their careers * Hip hop music, Hip-hop pioneers Naughty By Nature are from East Orange, New Jersey, East Orange. * In 1964, the Isley Brothers founded the record label T-Neck Records, named after Teaneck, New Jersey, Teaneck, their home at the time. * The Broadway musical ''Jersey Boys'' is based on the lives of the members of the The Four Seasons (group), Four Seasons, three of whose members were born in New Jersey (Tommy DeVito (musician), Tommy DeVito, Frankie Valli, and Nick Massi) while a fourth, Bob Gaudio, was born out of state but raised in Bergenfield, New Jersey, Bergenfield. * Jazz pianist Bill Evans was born in Plainfield, New Jersey, Plainfield in 1929. * Post-hardcore band Thursday (band), Thursday was formed in New Brunswick, New Jersey, New Brunswick. Numerous songs reference the city. * Horror punk band Misfits (band), The Misfits hail from Lodi, New Jersey, Lodi, as well as their founder Glenn Danzig. * Punk rock poet Patti Smith is from Mantua, New Jersey, Mantua. * Indie rock veterans Yo La Tengo are based in Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken. They also have a song called "Night Falls on Hoboken". * New Jersey was the East Coast hub for ska music in the 1990s. Some of the most popular ska bands, such as Catch 22 (band), Catch 22 and Streetlight Manifesto, come from East Brunswick, New Jersey, East Brunswick. * Black Label Society's and Ozzy Osbourne's famed guitarist Zakk Wylde was born in Bayonne, New Jersey, Bayonne and raised in Jackson, New Jersey, Jackson. * The original four members of The Bouncing Souls grew up in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, Basking Ridge, and the band was formed in New Brunswick, New Jersey, New Brunswick in the late 1980s. * As a child, singer Akon grew up in Union City, New Jersey, Union City, , and Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City. * My Chemical Romance's Frank Iero, Gerard Way, Mikey Way, and Ray Toro all are from New Jersey. * Cobra Starship frontman Gabe Saporta grew up in New Jersey. * Punk band The Gaslight Anthem hails from New Brunswick, New Jersey, New Brunswick. * Experimental metal band The Dillinger Escape Plan are from Morris Plains, New Jersey, Morris Plains. * Debbie Harry, born in Miami, Florida, in 1945 but raised by her adoptive parents in Hawthorne, New Jersey, Hawthorne.


In comics and video games

* The fictional Gotham City, home to Batman, is depicted in DC Comics and the DC Extended Universe as being located in New Jersey. * ''Max Payne 3'' (2012) partially takes place in New Jersey. * The ''Grand Theft Auto'' series has parodied the state multiple times, with "New Guernsey" and "Alderney City" appearing as locations in games in the series.


Sports

New Jersey currently has six teams from major professional sports leagues playing in the state, although one Major League Soccer team and two National Football League teams identify themselves as being from the New York metropolitan area.


Professional sports

The National Hockey League's New Jersey Devils, based in at the Prudential Center, is the only major league sports franchise to bear the state's name. Founded in 1974 in Kansas City, Missouri, as the Kansas City Scouts, the team played in Denver, Colorado, as the Colorado Rockies (NHL), Colorado Rockies from 1976 until the spring of 1982 when naval architect, businessman, and Jersey City native John J. McMullen purchased, renamed, and moved the franchise to Brendan Byrne Arena in East Rutherford, New Jersey, East Rutherford's Meadowlands Sports Complex. While the team had mostly losing records in Kansas City, Denver, and its first years in New Jersey, the Devils began to improve in the late 1980s and early 1990s under Hall of Fame president and general manager Lou Lamoriello. The team made the playoffs for the Stanley Cup in 2001 and 2012, and won it in 1995, 2000, and 2003. The organization is the youngest of the nine major league teams in the New York metropolitan area. The Devils have established a following throughout the northern and central portions of the state, carving a place in a media market once dominated by the New York Rangers and New York Islanders, Islanders. In 2018, the Philadelphia Flyers renovated and expanded their training facility, the Virtua Center Flyers Skate Zone, in Voorhees Township, New Jersey, Voorhees Township in the southern portion of the state. The New York Metropolitan Area's two National Football League teams, the New York Giants and the New York Jets, play at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, East Rutherford's Meadowlands Sports Complex.New Meadowlands Stadium official website
New Meadowlands Stadium Corporation. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
Built for about $1.6 billion, the venue is the most expensive stadium ever built. On February 2, 2014, MetLife Stadium hosted Super Bowl XLVIII. The New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer play in Red Bull Arena (New Jersey), Red Bull Arena, a soccer-specific stadium in Harrison, New Jersey, Harrison across the Passaic River from downtown . On July 27, 2011, Red Bull Arena hosted the 2011 MLS All-Star Game. From 1977 to 2012, New Jersey had a National Basketball Association team, the New Jersey Nets. WNBA's New York Liberty played in New Jersey from 2011 to 2013 while their primary home arena, Madison Square Garden was undergoing renovations. In 2016, the Philadelphia 76ers of the NBA opened their new headquarters and training facility, the Philadelphia 76ers Training Complex, in Camden, New Jersey, Camden. The Meadowlands Sports Complex is home to the Meadowlands Racetrack, one of three major harness racing tracks in the state. The Meadowlands Racetrack and Freehold Raceway in Freehold are two of the major harness racing tracks in North America. Monmouth Park Racetrack in Oceanport is a popular spot for thoroughbred racing in New Jersey and the northeast. It hosted the Breeders' Cup in 2007, and its turf course was renovated in preparation.


Major league sports


New Jersey teams


New York teams that play in New Jersey


Semi-pro and minor league sports


New Jersey teams


New York minor league teams that play in New Jersey


College sports


Major schools

New Jerseyans' collegiate allegiances are predominantly split among the three major NCAA Division I programs in the state: the Rutgers University–New Brunswick, Rutgers University (New Jersey's flagship state university) Rutgers Scarlet Knights, Scarlet Knights, members of the Big Ten Conference; the Seton Hall University (the state's largest Catholic Church in the United States, Catholic university) Seton Hall Pirates, Pirates, members of the Big East Conference; and the Princeton University (the state's Ivy League university) Princeton Tigers, Tigers. The intense rivalry between Rutgers and Princeton athletics began with the 1869 college football season, first intercollegiate football game in 1869. The schools have not met on the football field since 1980, but they continue to play each other annually in all other sports offered by the two universities. Rutgers, which fields 24 teams in various sports, is nationally known for its football program, with a 6–4 all-time bowl game, bowl record; and its women's basketball programs, which appeared in a 2007 NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament, National Final in 2007. In 2008 and 2009, Rutgers expanded their football home, SHI Stadium, Rutgers Stadium, now called SHI Stadium, on the Busch Campus of Rutgers University, Busch Campus. The basketball teams play at the Rutgers Athletic Center on Livingston Campus (Rutgers University), Livingston Campus. Both venues and campuses are in Piscataway Township, New Jersey, Piscataway, across the Raritan River from New Brunswick, New Jersey, New Brunswick. The university also fields men's basketball and baseball programs. Rutgers' fans live mostly in the western parts of the state and Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County; its alumni base is the largest in the state. Rutgers' satellite campuses in Camden and Newark each field their own athletic programs—the Rutgers–Camden Scarlet Raptors and the Rutgers–Newark Scarlet Raiders—which both compete in NCAA Division III (NCAA), Division III. Seton Hall fields no football team, but its men's basketball team is one of the Big East Conference, Big East's storied programs. No New Jersey team has won more games in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, and it is the state's only men's basketball program to reach a modern 1989 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, National Final. The Pirates play their home games at Prudential Center in downtown , about from the university's South Orange, New Jersey, South Orange campus. Their fans hail largely from the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of the state and the Jersey Shore. The annual inter-conference rivalry game between Seton Hall and Rutgers, whose venue alternates between Newark and Piscataway, the Garden State Hardwood Classic, is planned through 2026.


Other schools

The state's other Division I schools include the Monmouth Hawks, Monmouth University Hawks (West Long Branch), the NJIT Mens Soccer, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) Highlanders (Newark), the Rider University#Athletics, Rider University Broncs (Lawrenceville), and the Saint Peter's College, New Jersey#Athletics, Saint Peter's University Peacocks and Peahens (Jersey City). Fairleigh Dickinson Knights, Fairleigh Dickinson University competes in both Division I and Division III. It has two campuses, each with its own sports teams. The teams at the Metropolitan Campus are known as the FDU Knights, and compete in the Northeast Conference and NCAA Division I. The college at Florham (FDU-Florham) teams are known as the FDU-Florham Devils and compete in the Middle Atlantic Conferences#Freedom Conference, Middle Atlantic Conferences' Freedom Conference and NCAA Division III. Among the various Division III schools in the state, the Stevens Tech Ducks football, Stevens Institute of Technology Ducks have fielded the longest continuously running collegiate men's lacrosse program in the country. 2009 marked the 125th season.


High school

New Jersey high schools are divided into divisions under the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association (NJSIAA).' Founded in 1918, the NJSIAA currently represents 22,000 schools, 330,000 coaches, and almost 4.5 million athletes.


Stadiums and arenas


Other notable sports venues

* Old Bridge Township Raceway Park * Trenton Speedway * Atlantic City Race Course * Freehold Raceway * Garden State Park Racetrack * Monmouth Park Racetrack * Meadowlands Sports Complex ** Meadowlands Arena ** Meadowlands Racetrack ** Meadowlands Grand Prix


Media


Newspapers

* ''Asbury Park Press'' * ''Burlington County Times'' * ''Courier News (New Jersey), Courier News'' * ''Courier-Post'' * ''Cranford Chronicle'' * ''Daily Record (Morristown), Daily Record'' (Morristown) * ''The Express-Times'' * ''Gloucester County Times'' * ''Herald News'' * ''Home News Tribune'' * ''Hunterdon County Democrat'' * ''Independent Press'' * ''Jersey Journal'' * ''The New Jersey Herald'' * ''The News of Cumberland County'' * ''The Press of Atlantic City'' * ''The Record (North Jersey), The Record'' * ''The Record-Press and Suburban News'' * ''The Reporter'' (Somerset) * ''The Star-Ledger'' * The Times (Trenton), ''The Times'' (Trenton) * ''Today's Sunbeam'' * ''Trentonian'' (Mercer) * ''The Warren Reporter''


Radio stations


Television and film

Motion picture technology was developed by Thomas Edison, with much of his early work done at his West Orange, New Jersey, West Orange laboratory. Edison's Black Maria was the first motion picture studio. America's first motion picture industry started in 1907 in Fort Lee, New Jersey, Fort Lee and the first studio was constructed there in 1909. DuMont Laboratories in Passaic, New Jersey, Passaic developed early sets and made the first broadcast to the private home. A number of television shows and films have been filmed in New Jersey. Since 1978, the state has maintained a Motion Picture and Television Commission to encourage filming in-state. New Jersey has long offered tax credits to television producers. Governor Chris Christie suspended the credits in 2010, but the New Jersey State Legislature in 2011 approved the restoration and expansion of the tax credit program. Under bills passed by both the state Senate and Assembly, the program offers 20 percent tax credits (22% in urban enterprise zones) to television and film productions that shoot in the state and meet set standards for hiring and local spending. When Governor Phil Murphy took office, he instated the New Jersey Film & Digital Media Tax Credit Program in 2018 and expanded it in 2020. The benefits include a 30% tax credit on film projects and a 40% subsidy for studio developments.


Transportation


Roadways

The New Jersey Turnpike is one of the most prominent and heavily trafficked roadways in the United States. This toll road, which overlaps with Interstate 95 in New Jersey, Interstate 95 for much of its length, carries traffic between
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
and New York, and up and down the East Coast of the United States, East Coast in general. Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike", it is known for its numerous rest areas named after prominent New Jerseyans. The Garden State Parkway, or simply "the Parkway", carries relatively more in-state traffic than interstate traffic and runs from New Jersey's northern border to its southernmost tip at Cape May, New Jersey, Cape May. It is the main route that connects the New York metropolitan area to the Jersey Shore. With a total of fifteen travel and six shoulder lanes, the Driscoll Bridge on the Parkway, spanning the Raritan River in Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County, is the widest motor vehicle bridge in the world by number of lanes as well as one of the busiest. New Jersey is connected to New York City via various key bridges and tunnels. The double-decked George Washington Bridge carries the heaviest load of motor vehicle traffic of any bridge in the world, at 102 million vehicles per year, across fourteen lanes. It connects Fort Lee, New Jersey to the Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan, and carries Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1/9 across the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
. The Lincoln Tunnel connects to Midtown Manhattan carrying New Jersey Route 495, and the Holland Tunnel connects to Lower Manhattan carrying Interstate 78 in New Jersey, Interstate 78. New Jersey is also connected to Staten Island by three bridges—from north to south, the Bayonne Bridge, the Goethals Bridge, and the Outerbridge Crossing. New Jersey has interstate compacts with all three of its neighboring states. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the Delaware River Port Authority (with
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
), the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission (with Pennsylvania), and the Delaware River and Bay Authority (with
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
) operate most of the major transportation routes in and out of the state. Bridge tolls are collected only from traffic exiting the state, with the exception of the private Dingman's Ferry Bridge over the Delaware River, which charges a toll in both directions. It is unlawful for a customer to serve themselves gasoline in New Jersey. It became the last remaining U.S. state where all Filling station, gas stations are required to sell full-service gasoline to customers at all times in 2016, after Oregon's introduction of restricted self-service gasoline availability took effect.


Airports

Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) is one of the List of the busiest airports in the United States, busiest airports in the United States. Operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, it is one of the three main airports serving the New York metropolitan area. United Airlines is the airport's largest tenant, operating an entire terminal there, which it uses as one of its primary Airline hub, hubs. FedEx Express operates a large cargo terminal at EWR as well. The adjacent Newark Liberty International Airport (NJT station), Newark Airport railroad station provides access to Amtrak and NJ Transit trains along the Northeast Corridor Line. Two smaller commercial airports, Atlantic City International Airport and rapidly growing Trenton-Mercer Airport, also operate in other parts of the state. Teterboro Airport in Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County, and Millville Municipal Airport in Cumberland County, New Jersey, Cumberland County, are general aviation airports popular with private aviation, private and corporate aviation, corporate aircraft due to their proximity to New York City and the Jersey Shore, respectively.


Rail and bus

NJ Transit operates extensive rail and bus service throughout the state. A state-run corporation, it began with the consolidation of several private bus companies in North Jersey in 1979. In the early 1980s, it acquired Conrail's commuter train operations that connected suburban towns to New York City. Today, NJ Transit has eleven commuter rail lines that run through different parts of the state. Most of the lines end at either Pennsylvania Station (New York City), Penn Station in New York City or Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken. One line provides service between Atlantic City, New Jersey, Atlantic City and
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most-populous city in the ...

Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania. NJ Transit also operates three light rail systems in the state. The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail connects Bayonne, New Jersey, Bayonne to North Bergen, New Jersey, North Bergen, through Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken and Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City. The Newark Light Rail is partially underground, and connects downtown with other parts of the city and its suburbs, Belleville, New Jersey, Belleville and Bloomfield, New Jersey, Bloomfield. The River Line (New Jersey Transit), River Line connects and Camden, New Jersey, Camden. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson, PATH is a rapid transit system consisting of four lines operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. It links Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken, Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City, Harrison, New Jersey, Harrison and with New York City. The PATCO Speedline is a rapid transit system that links Camden County, New Jersey, Camden County to Philadelphia. Both the PATCO and the PATH are two of only five rapid transit systems in the United States to operate 24 hours a day. Amtrak operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jersey, both to and from neighboring states and around the country. In addition to the Newark Airport connection, other major Amtrak railway stations include Trenton (Amtrak station), Trenton Transit Center, Metropark (NJT station), Metropark, and the historic Pennsylvania Station (Newark), Newark Penn Station. The SEPTA, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, or SEPTA, has two commuter rail lines that operate into New Jersey. The Trenton Line terminates at the Trenton Transit Center, and the West Trenton Line (SEPTA), West Trenton Line terminates at the West Trenton Rail Station in Ewing, New Jersey, Ewing. AirTrain Newark is a monorail connecting the Amtrak/NJ Transit station on the Northeast Corridor to the airport's terminals and parking lots. Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned buses are provided to these carriers, of which Coach USA companies make up the bulk. Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
to the casino resorts of Atlantic City.


Ferries

NY Waterway, New York Waterway has ferry terminals at Belford, New Jersey, Belford, Jersey City, Hoboken, Weehawken, and Edgewater, New Jersey, Edgewater, with service to different parts of Manhattan. Liberty Water Taxi in Jersey City has ferries from Paulus Hook and Liberty State Park to Battery Park City in Manhattan. Statue Cruises offers service from Liberty State Park to the Statue of Liberty National Monument, including Ellis Island. SeaStreak offers services from the Raritan Bayshore to Manhattan, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. The Delaware River and Bay Authority operates the Cape May–Lewes Ferry on
Delaware Bay Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the northeast seaboard of the United States. Approximately in area, the bay's fresh water mixes for many miles with the salt water of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is bordered inland by t ...
, carrying both passengers and vehicles between New Jersey and Delaware. The agency also operates the Forts Ferry Crossing for passengers across the
Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising in two branches in New York state's , the river flows into where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near in New Jersey and in Delawar ...

Delaware River
. The Delaware River Port Authority operates the RiverLink Ferry between the Camden, New Jersey, Camden waterfront and Penn's Landing in Philadelphia.


Government and politics


Executive

The position of Governor of New Jersey has been considered one of the most powerful in the nation. Until 2010, the governor was the only statewide elected executive official in the state and appointed numerous government officials. Formerly, an acting governor was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as president of the New Jersey State Senate, thus directing half of the legislative and all of the executive process. In 2002 and 2007, president of the state senate Richard Codey held the position of acting governor for a short time, and from 2004 to 2006 Codey became a long-term acting governor due to Jim McGreevey's resignation. A 2005 amendment to the state Constitution prevents the Senate President from becoming acting governor in the event of a permanent gubernatorial vacancy without giving up her or his seat in the state Senate. Phil Murphy (Democratic Party (United States), D) is the Governor of New Jersey, governor. The governor's mansion is Drumthwacket, located in Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton. Before 2010, New Jersey was one of the few states without a Lieutenant governor (United States), lieutenant governor. Republican Party (United States), Republican Kim Guadagno was elected the first Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey, lieutenant governor of New Jersey and took office on January 19, 2010. She was elected on the Republican ticket with Governor-Elect Chris Christie in the November 2009 NJ gubernatorial election. The position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005, and effective as of January 17, 2006.


Legislative

The current version of the New Jersey State Constitution was adopted in 1947. It provides for a bicameral New Jersey Legislature, consisting of an upper house New Jersey Senate, Senate of 40 members and a lower house New Jersey General Assembly, General Assembly of 80 members. Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one state senator and two Assembly members. Assembly members are elected for a two-year term in all odd-numbered years; state senators are elected in the years ending in 1, 3, and7 and thus serve either four- or two-year terms. New Jersey is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years. (The others are Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia.) New Jersey holds elections for these offices every four years, in the year following each federal Presidential election year. Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a governor was 2017; the next gubernatorial election will occur in 2021.


Judicial

The New Jersey Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and six associate justices. All are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the state senate. Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age 70. Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jersey courts is carried out in the Municipal Court, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard. More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the New Jersey Superior Court, Superior Court for each county. All Superior Court judges are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the state senate. Each judge serves an initial seven-year term, after which he or she can be reappointed to serve until age 70. New Jersey's judiciary is unusual in that it still has separate courts of law and equity (law), equity, like its neighbor
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
but unlike most other U.S. states. The New Jersey Superior Court is divided into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial level; the Law Division hears both criminal cases and civil lawsuits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is damages, while the Chancery Division hears family cases, civil suits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is equitable relief, and probate trials. The Superior Court also has an New Jersey Superior Court, Appellate Division, Appellate Division, which functions as the state's intermediate appellate court. Superior Court judges are assigned to the Appellate Division by the Chief Justice. There is also a Tax Court, which is a court of limited jurisdiction. Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax decisions made by County Boards of Taxation. They also hear appeals on decisions made by the director of the Division of Taxation on such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and homestead rebates. Appeals from Tax Court decisions are heard in the Appellate Division of Superior Court. Tax Court judges are appointed by the governor for initial terms of seven years, and upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the mandatory retirement age of 70. There are 12 Tax Court judgeships.


Counties

New Jersey is divided into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial era. New Jersey was completely divided into counties by 1692; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County, New Jersey, Union County in 1857. New Jersey was formerly the only state in the nation where elected county officials were called "freeholders". Elected county officials are now called county commissioners as of bill S855 signed by Governor Murphy on Aug 8, 2020. The county commissioners govern each county as part of its own Board of County Commissioners (New Jersey), Board of Chosen County Commissioners The number of county commissioners in each county is determined by referendum, and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members. Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of County Commissioners (New Jersey), Board of County Commissioners or split into separate branches of government. In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders, Board of Chosen County Commissioners perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments. In the other five counties (Atlantic County, New Jersey, Atlantic, Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen, Essex County, New Jersey, Essex, Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson and Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer), there is a directly elected County Executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of County Commissioners (New Jersey), Board of Chosen County Commissioners retains a legislative and oversight role. In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator (or County Manager) may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions.


Municipalities

New Jersey currently has 565 municipalities; the number was 566 before Princeton Township, New Jersey, Princeton Township and Princeton Borough, New Jersey, Princeton Borough merged to form the municipality of Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton on January 1, 2013. Unlike other states, all New Jersey land is part of a municipality. In 2008, Governor Jon Corzine proposed cutting state aid to all towns under 10,000 people, to encourage mergers to reduce administrative costs. In May 2009, the Local Unit Alignment Reorganization and Consolidation Commission began a study of about 40 small communities in South Jersey to decide which ones might be good candidates for consolidation.


Forms of municipal government

Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. This began with the Walsh Act (New Jersey), Walsh Act, enacted in 1911 by the New Jersey Legislature, which provided for a three- or five-member commission elected on a non-partisan basis. This was followed by the 1923 Municipal Manager Law, which offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected by and from the members of the council, and introduced a Council-manager government structure with an appointed manager responsible for day-to-day administration of municipal affairs. The Faulkner Act (New Jersey), Faulkner Act, originally enacted in 1950 and substantially amended in 1981, offers four basic plans: Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council), Mayor-Council, Faulkner Act (Council-Manager), Council-Manager, Faulkner Act (Small Municipality), Small Municipality, and Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council-Administrator), Mayor-Council-Administrator. The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the characteristics of its government: the number of seats on the council; seats selected at-large, by wards, or through a combination of both; staggered or concurrent terms of office; and a mayor chosen by the council or elected directly by voters. Most large municipalities and a majority of New Jersey's residents are governed by municipalities with Faulkner Act charters. Municipalities can also formulate their own unique form of government and operate under a Special Charter (New Jersey), Special Charter with the approval of the New Jersey Legislature. While municipalities retain their names derived from types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public. For example, though there are four municipalities that are officially of the village type, Loch Arbour, New Jersey, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of government. The other three villages—Ridgefield Park, New Jersey, Ridgefield Park (now with a Walsh Act form), Ridgewood, New Jersey, Ridgewood (now with a Faulkner Act Council-Manager charter) and South Orange, New Jersey, South Orange (now operates under a Special Charter (New Jersey), Special Charter)—have all migrated to other non-village forms.


Politics


Social attitudes and issues

Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. Polls indicate that 60% of the population are self-described as pro-choice, although a majority are opposed to late trimester and intact dilation and extraction and public funding of abortion. In a 2009 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll, a plurality supported same-sex marriage in New Jersey, same-sex marriage 49% to 43% opposed. On October 18, 2013, the New Jersey Supreme Court rendered a provisional, unanimous (7–0) order authorizing same-sex marriage in the state, pending a legal appeal by Governor Chris Christie, who then withdrew this appeal hours after the inaugural same-sex marriages took place on October 21, 2013. New Jersey also has some of the most stringent gun control laws in the U.S. These include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets and slingshots. No gun offense in New Jersey is graded less than a felony. BB guns and black-powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. New Jersey does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws.


Elections

In past elections, New Jersey was a Republican Party (United States), Republican bastion, but recently has become a Democratic Party (United States), Democratic stronghold. Currently, New Jersey Democratic State Committee, New Jersey Democrats have majority control of both houses of the New Jersey Legislature (Senate, 26–14, and Assembly, 54–26), a 10–2 split of the state's twelve seats in the United States House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives, and both United States Senate, U.S. Senate seats. Although the Democratic Party is very successful statewide, the state has had Republican governors; from 1994 to 2002, Christine Todd Whitman won twice with 47% and 49% of the votes, respectively, and in the 2009 New Jersey gubernatorial election, 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie defeated incumbent Democrat Jon Corzine with 48% of the vote. In the 2013 New Jersey Gubernatorial election, 2013 gubernatorial election, Christie won reelection with over 60% of the votes. Because each candidate for lieutenant governor runs on the same ticket as the party's candidate for governor, the current governor and lieutenant governor are members of the Democratic Party. The governor's appointments to cabinet and non-cabinet positions may be from either party; for instance, the attorney general is a Democrat. In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party. For many years in the past, however, it was a Republican stronghold, having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican candidate in the close elections of 1948 United States presidential election, 1948, 1968 United States presidential election, 1968, and 1976 United States presidential election, 1976. New Jersey was a crucial swing state in the elections of 1960 United States presidential election, 1960, 1968 United States presidential election, 1968, and 1992 United States presidential election, 1992. The last elected Republican to hold a Senate seat from New Jersey was Clifford P. Case in 1979. Newark Mayor Cory Booker was elected in October 2013 to join Bob Menendez, Robert Menendez to make New Jersey the first state with concurrent serving black and Latino U.S. senators. The state's Democratic strongholds include Camden County, New Jersey, Camden County, Essex County, New Jersey, Essex County (typically the state's most Democratic county—it includes , the state's largest city), Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County (the second-strongest Democratic county, including Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City, the state's second-largest city); Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County (especially around and Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton), Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County, and Union County, New Jersey, Union County (including Elizabeth, New Jersey, Elizabeth, the state's fourth-largest city). The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along the coast in Ocean County, New Jersey, Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Morris County, New Jersey, Morris County, Sussex County, New Jersey, Sussex County, and Warren County. Other suburban counties, especially Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County and Burlington County, New Jersey, Burlington County had the majority of votes go to the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party. In the 2008 election, President Barack Obama won New Jersey with approximately fifty-seven percent of the vote, compared to John McCain, McCain's forty-one percent. Independent candidate Ralph Nader garnered less than one percent of the vote. About one-third of the state's counties are considered "swing" counties, but some go more one way than others. For example, Salem County, New Jersey, Salem County, the same is true with Passaic County, New Jersey, Passaic County, with a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south (including Paterson, New Jersey, Paterson, the state's third-largest city) and a rural, Republican north; with the "swing" township of Wayne, New Jersey, Wayne in the middle. Other "swing" counties like Monmouth County, New Jersey, Monmouth County, Somerset County, New Jersey, Somerset County, and Cape May County, New Jersey, Cape May County tend to go Republican, as they also have population in conservative areas, although Somerset has recently trended Democratic. To be eligible to vote in a U.S. election, all New Jerseyans are required to start their residency in the state 30 days prior to an election and register 21 days prior to election day.


Capital punishment

On December 17, 2007, Governor Jon Corzine signed into law a bill that would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey. New Jersey is the first state to pass such legislation since Iowa and West Virginia eliminated executions in 1965. Corzine also signed a bill that would downgrade the Death Row prisoners' sentences from "Death" to "Life in Prison with No Parole".


Points of interest


Museums

There is also a mineral museum Ogdensburg, New Jersey, Ogdensburg in Sussex County.


National Parks, Monuments, Reserves, and Trails

* Appalachian Trail, Appalachian National Scenic Trail * Crossroads of the American Revolution National Heritage Area, Crossroads of the American Revolution * Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area * Ellis Island, Ellis Island National Monument * Gateway National Recreation Area * Great Egg Harbor River, Great Egg Harbor National Scenic and Recreational River * Morristown National Historical Park * Pinelands National Reserve, New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve * Great Falls (Passaic River), Patterson Great Falls National Historical Park * Statue of Liberty National Monument * Thomas Edison National Historical Park * Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route, Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route


Entertainment and concert venues

Visitors and residents take advantage of and contribute to performances at the numerous music, theater, and dance companies and venues located throughout the state, including:


Boardwalks

New Jersey is the location of most of the boardwalks in the U.S., with nearly every town and city along the Jersey Shore area each having a boardwalk with various attractions, entertainment, shopping, dining, miniature golf, arcades, water parks with various water rides, including water slides, lazy rivers, wave pools, etc., and amusement parks hosting rides and attractions including roller coasters, carousels, Ferris wheels, bumper cars, teacups, etc.


Theme parks


See also

* Index of New Jersey-related articles * List of people from New Jersey * Outline of New Jersey * COVID-19 pandemic in New Jersey


Notes


References


External links


State government


Official New Jersey state web site

New Jersey State Databases
annotated list of searchable databases produced by New Jersey state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association

(township, borough, etc.) from State League of Municipalities


U.S. government


Energy Data & Statistics for New Jersey

USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of New Jersey



USDA New Jersey State Facts


Other

*
The New Jersey Digital Highway, the statewide cultural heritage portal to digital collections from the state's archives, libraries and museums
*
New Jersey: State Resource Guide, from the Library of Congress
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