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New Hampshire ( ) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
region of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. It is bordered by
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
to the south,
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
to the west,
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
and the
Gulf of Maine , image = , alt = , caption = , image_bathymetry = GulfofMaine2.jpg , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = Major features of the Gulf of Maine , location = Northeast coast of the ...
to the east, and the Canadian province of
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
to the north. Of the 50 U.S. states, New Hampshire is the fifth smallest by area and the tenth least populous, with slightly more than 1.3 million residents.
Concord Concord may refer to: Meaning "agreement" * Pact or treaty, frequently between nations (indicating a condition of harmony) * Harmony, in music * Agreement (linguistics), a change in the form of a word depending on grammatical features of other w ...
is the state capital, while
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...
is the largest city. New Hampshire's
motto A motto (derived from the Latin language, Latin ''muttum'', 'mutter', by way of Italian language, Italian ''motto'', 'word', 'sentence') is the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization. Mottos are usuall ...
, "
Live Free or Die "Live Free or Die" is the official motto of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily locat ...
", reflects its role in the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
; its
nickname A nickname (also moniker) is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, a form of endearment, and sometimes amusement, it can also be used to express defamation of character De ...
, "The
Granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phaneritic A phanerite is an igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Lat ...

Granite
State", refers to its extensive granite formations and
quarries Stone quarry in Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium">Hainaut_(province).html" ;"title="Soignies, Hainaut (province)">Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, rock, construc ...

quarries
. It is best known nationwide for holding the first primary (after the
Iowa caucus The Iowa caucuses are biennial electoral events for members of the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or ...
) in the U.S. presidential election cycle. New Hampshire was inhabited for thousands of years by
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
-speaking peoples such as the
Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, ''Alnôbak'') are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native American ...
. Europeans arrived in the early 17th century, with the English establishing some of the earliest nonindigenous settlements. The
Province of New Hampshire The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and later a British province in North America. The name was first given in 1629 to the territory between the Merrimack River, Merrimack and Piscataqua River, Piscataqua rivers on the eastern c ...
was established in 1629, named after the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
of
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mod ...

Hampshire
. Following mounting tensions between the British colonies and the crown during the 1760s, New Hampshire saw one of the earliest overt acts of rebellion, with the seizing of Fort William and Mary from the British in 1774. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropole, metropolitan ...
to establish an independent government and its own state constitution; six months later, it signed the
United States Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence is the pronouncement adopted by the Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies in America which united in the American Re ...

United States Declaration of Independence
and contributed troops, ships, and supplies in the war against Britain. In June 1788, it was the ninth state to ratify the
U.S. Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first t ...

U.S. Constitution
, bringing that document into effect. Through the mid-19th century, New Hampshire was an active center of
abolitionism Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end . In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the and liberate the enslaved people. The British abolitionist movement star ...
, and fielded close to 32,000 men for the Union during the U.S. Civil War. After the war, the state saw rapid industrialization and population growth, becoming a center of
textile manufacturing Textile manufacturing is a major industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For ...
,
shoemaking Shoemaking is the process of making footwear Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which typically serves the purpose of protective clothing, protection against adversities of the environment such as ground textures and temperature. F ...
, and
papermaking Papermaking is the manufacture of paper and cardboard, which are used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes. Today almost all paper is Pulp and paper industry, made using industrial machinery, while handmade pape ...
; the
Amoskeag Manufacturing Company The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company was a textile industry, textile manufacturer which founded Manchester, New Hampshire, United States. From modest beginnings in near wilderness, it grew throughout the 19th century into the largest cotton textile p ...
in Manchester was at one time the largest cotton textile plant in the world. The Merrimack and
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...

Connecticut
rivers were lined with industrial mills, most of which employed workers from Canada and Europe;
French Canadian French Canadians (referred to as Canadiens mainly before the twentieth century ; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of p ...
s formed the most significant influx of immigrants, and today roughly a quarter of all New Hampshire residents claim
French American French Americans or Franco-Americans (french: Franco-Américains), are citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international ...
ancestry, second only to Maine. Reflecting a nationwide trend, New Hampshire's industrial sector declined after the Second World War; since 1950, its economy has heavily diversified to include financial and professional services, real estate, education, and transportation, with manufacturing still higher than the national average. Beginning in the 1980s, its population surged as major highways connected it to the
Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the Ea ...

Greater Boston
and led to more
bedroom communities can be considered commuter towns. Here, riders wait in Maplewood for a train bound for New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United Sta ...
. In the 21st century, New Hampshire is among the wealthiest states in the U.S., with the seventh highest median household income and some of the lowest rates of poverty, unemployment, and crime. It is one of only nine states without an income tax, and has no taxes on sales, capital gains, or inheritance; consequently, its overall tax burden is the lowest in the U.S. after Florida. New Hampshire ranks among the top ten states in metrics such as governance, healthcare, socioeconomic opportunity, and fiscal stability. With its mountainous and heavily forested terrain, New Hampshire has a growing tourism sector centered on outdoor recreation. It has some of the highest ski mountains on the East Coast and is a major destination for winter sports;
Mount Monadnock Mount Monadnock, or Grand Monadnock, is a mountain in the towns of Jaffrey and Dublin, New Hampshire Dublin is a New England town, town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,597 a ...

Mount Monadnock
is among the most climbed mountains in the U.S. Other activities include observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the
New Hampshire Motor Speedway New Hampshire Motor Speedway is a Oval track racing, oval speedway located in Loudon, New Hampshire, which has hosted NASCAR racing annually since 1990, as well as the longest-running motorcycle race in North America, the Loudon Classic. Nickna ...

New Hampshire Motor Speedway
, and Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in
Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it i ...
. The
White Mountain National Forest The White Mountain National Forest (WMNF) is a federally managed forest contained within the White Mountains in the northeastern United States. It was established in 1918 as a result of the Weeks Act of 1911; federal acquisition of land had alread ...

White Mountain National Forest
links the Vermont and Maine portions of the
Appalachian Trail The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply the A.T., is a marked hiking trail A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, path ...

Appalachian Trail
, and has the
Mount Washington Auto Road in a Stanley Motor Carriage Company, Stanley Steamer during the 1905 Climb to the Clouds Image:Mount Washington Bumper Sticker.JPG, Mount Washington bumper sticker The Mount Washington Auto Road — originally the Mount Washington Carriage Road ...
, where visitors may drive to the top of Mount Washington.


History

] Various
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
-speaking Abenaki people, Abenaki tribes, largely divided between the Androscoggin and
Pennacook 300px, Pennacook territory shown within the larger area occupied by the Western Abenaki The Pennacook, also known by the names Penacook and Pennacock, were a North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisp ...
nations, inhabited the area before European settlement. Despite the similar language, they had a very different culture and religion from other Algonquian peoples. English and French explorers visited New Hampshire in 1600–1605, and David Thompson settled at Odiorne's Point in present-day
Rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of ev ...
in 1623. The first permanent settlement was at Hilton's Point (present-day
Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first publishe ...
). By 1631, the Upper Plantation comprised modern-day Dover, Durham and Stratham; in 1679, it became the " Royal Province".
Father Rale's War The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Waba ...
was fought between the colonists and the
Wabanaki Confederacy The Wabanaki Confederacy (''Wabenaki, Wobanaki'', translated to "People of the Dawn" or "Easterner") is a North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...
throughout New Hampshire. New Hampshire was one of the
thirteen colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
that rebelled against British rule during the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
. By the time of the American Revolution, New Hampshire was a divided province. The economic and social life of the Seacoast region revolved around sawmills, shipyards, merchants' warehouses, and established village and town centers. Wealthy merchants built substantial homes, furnished them with the finest luxuries, and invested their capital in trade and land speculation. At the other end of the social scale, there developed a permanent class of day laborers, mariners, indentured servants and even slaves. The only battle fought in New Hampshire was the raid on
Fort William and Mary Fort William and Mary was a colonial fortification in Britain's worldwide system of defenses, defended by soldiers of the Province of New Hampshire The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and later a British province in North Ameri ...
, December 14, 1774, in
Portsmouth Harbor The Piscataqua River () is a tidal river forming the boundary of the U.S. states of New Hampshire and Maine from its origin at the confluence of the Salmon Falls River and Cocheco River. The drainage basin of the river is approximately , includi ...
, which netted the rebellion sizable quantities of gunpowder, small arms and cannon. ( General Sullivan, leader of the raid, described it as, "remainder of the powder, the small arms, bayonets, and cartouche-boxes, together with the cannon and ordnance stores") over the course of two nights. This raid was preceded by a warning to local patriots the previous day, by
Paul Revere Paul Revere (; December 21, 1734 (January 1, 1735 )May 10, 1818) was an American , , early industrialist, member and . He is best known for to alert the colonial militia in April 1775 to the approach of before the , as dramatized in 's 1 ...

Paul Revere
on December 13, 1774, that the fort was to be reinforced by troops sailing from Boston. According to unverified accounts, the gunpowder was later used at the Battle of Bunker Hill, transported there by Major Demerit, who was one of several New Hampshire patriots who stored the powder in their homes until it was transported elsewhere for use in revolutionary activities. During the raid, the British soldiers fired upon the rebels with cannon and muskets. Although there were apparently no casualties, these were among the first shots in the American Revolutionary period, occurring approximately five months before the
Battles of Lexington and Concord The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was init ...
. The
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
was ratified by New Hampshire on June 21, 1788, when New Hampshire became the ninth state to do so. New Hampshire was a Jacksonian stronghold; the state sent
Franklin Pierce Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804October 8, 1869) was the 14th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of the ...

Franklin Pierce
to the White House in the election of 1852. Industrialization took the form of numerous textile mills, which in turn attracted large flows of
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigrants
from Quebec (the "French Canadians") and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. The northern parts of the state produced lumber, and the mountains provided tourist attractions. After 1960, the textile industry collapsed, but the economy rebounded as a center of high technology and as a service provider. Starting in 1952, New Hampshire gained national and international attention for its presidential primary held early in every presidential election year. It immediately became the most important testing grounds for candidates for the Republican and Democratic nominations. The media gave New Hampshire and
Iowa Iowa () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states: Wiscon ...

Iowa
about half of all the attention paid to all states in the primary process, magnifying the state's decision powers and spurring repeated efforts by out-of-state politicians to change the rules.


Geography

New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region of the
Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), ...
. It is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the north and northwest; Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east; Massachusetts to the south; and Vermont to the west. New Hampshire's major regions are the
Great North Woods The Great North Woods, also known as the Northern Forest, are spread across four northeastern U.S. states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and New York (state), New York in the New England area. The area spans from the Down East lakes of Maine to the ...
, the
White MountainsWhite Mountains may refer to: Mountain ranges ;Afghanistan and Pakistan *White Mountains (Safed Koh) ;Australia *White Mountains National Park, in Queensland ;Greece *White Mountains (Lefka Ori), on the island of Crete ;United States *White Mountai ...
, the Lakes Region, the
Seacoast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body ...
, the
Merrimack Valley The Merrimack Valley is a bi-state region along the Merrimack River The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an occasional earlier spelling) is a river in the northeastern United States. It rises at the confluence In geography, a confluence ...
, the
Monadnock Region 250px, View of Mount Monadnockfrom Cathedral of the Pines in Rindge The Monadnock Region is a region in southwestern New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massac ...
, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U.S. coastal state, with a length of , sometimes measured as only . The White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state. The range includes Mount Washington, the tallest in the northeastern U.S.—site of the second-highest wind speed ever recorded— as well as Mount Adams and Mount Jefferson. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, more than a hundred recorded deaths among visitors, and conspicuous
krumholtz
krumholtz
(dwarf, matted trees much like a carpet of
bonsai Bonsai ( ja, 盆栽, , tray planting, ) is a Japanese version of the original traditional Chinese art ''penjing'' or ''penzai''. Unlike ''penjing'', which utilizes traditional techniques to produce entire natural sceneries in small pots that ...

bonsai
trees), the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". The White Mountains were home to the rock formation called the
Old Man of the Mountain The Old Man of the Mountain, also known as the Great Stone Face or the Profile, was a series of five granite Granite () is a coarse-grained igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with ...

Old Man of the Mountain
, a face-like profile in
Franconia Notch Franconia Notch (elev. ) is a major mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is ...

Franconia Notch
, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003. Even after its loss, the Old Man remains an enduring symbol for the state, seen on state highway signs, automobile license plates, and many government and private entities around New Hampshire. In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark
Mount Monadnock Mount Monadnock, or Grand Monadnock, is a mountain in the towns of Jaffrey and Dublin, New Hampshire Dublin is a New England town, town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,597 a ...

Mount Monadnock
has given its name to a class of earth-forms—a ''
monadnock An inselberg or monadnock () is an isolated rock hill, knob, ridge, or small mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from ...

monadnock
''—signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain. Major rivers include the
Merrimack River The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an occasional earlier spelling) is a river in the northeastern United States. It rises at the confluence of the Pemigewasset River, Pemigewasset and Winnipesaukee River, Winnipesaukee rivers in Franklin, ...
, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south before passing into Massachusetts and reaching the sea in
Newburyport Newburyport is a coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, northeast of Boston. The population was 18,289 at the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census. A historic seaport with vibrant tourism industry, Newburyport includes pa ...
. Its tributaries include the
Contoocook River The Contoocook River () is a river in New Hampshire. It flows from Contoocook Lake on the Jaffrey, New Hampshire, Jaffrey/Rindge, New Hampshire, Rindge border to Penacook, New Hampshire, Penacook (just north of Concord, New Hampshire, Concord), whe ...
,
Pemigewasset River The Pemigewasset River , known locally as "The Pemi", is a river in the state of New Hampshire, the United States. It is in length and (with its tributaries) drains approximately . The name "Pemigewasset" comes from the Abenaki language, Abenaki ...
, and
Winnipesaukee River The Winnipesaukee River in 1907, Franklin, NH The Winnipesaukee River is a river that connects Lake Winnipesaukee Lake Winnipesaukee () is the largest lake in the U.S. state of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the ...
. The
Connecticut River The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and ...

Connecticut River
, which starts at New Hampshire's
Connecticut Lakes The Connecticut Lakes are a group of lakes in Coos County, New Hampshire, Coos County, northern New Hampshire, United States, situated along the headwaters of the Connecticut River. They are accessed via the northernmost segment of U.S. Route 3, be ...
and flows south to
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is usually the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side; meaning the entire river along the Vermont border (save for areas where the water level has been raised by a dam) lies within New Hampshire. Only one town— Pittsburg—shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The "northwesternmost headwaters" of the Connecticut also define the part of Canada–U.S. border. The
Piscataqua River The Piscataqua River () is a tidal river forming the boundary of the U.S. states of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont ...
and its several
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
form the state's only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
. The
Salmon Falls River The Salmon Falls River is a tributary of the Piscataqua River The Piscataqua River () is a tidal river forming the boundary of the U.S. states of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United ...

Salmon Falls River
and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine. The Piscataqua River boundary was the subject of a border dispute between New Hampshire and Maine in 2001, with New Hampshire claiming dominion over several islands (primarily
Seavey's Island File:1893 U. S. Geological Survey Map of Portsmouth Harbor.jpg, Seavey's Island in 1893 Seavey's Island, site of the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, is located in the Piscataqua River in Kittery, Maine, Kittery, Maine, opposite Portsmouth, New Hampshire, ...
) that include the
Portsmouth Naval Shipyard The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, often called the Portsmouth Navy Yard, is a United States Navy shipyard located in Kittery, Maine, Kittery on the southern boundary of Maine near the city of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. PNS is tasked with the overhaul, ...

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard
. The
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine. New Hampshire still claims sovereignty of the base, however. The largest of New Hampshire's lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers in the east-central part of New Hampshire. Umbagog Lake along the Maine border, approximately , is a distant second. Squam Lake is the second largest lake entirely in New Hampshire. New Hampshire has the List of U.S. states by coastline, shortest ocean coastline of any state in the United States, approximately long. Hampton Beach, New Hampshire, Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. About offshore are the Isles of Shoals, nine small islands (four of which are in New Hampshire) known as the site of a 19th-century art colony founded by poet Celia Thaxter, and the alleged location of one of the buried treasures of the pirate Blackbeard. It is the state with the highest percentage of timberland area in the country. New Hampshire is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. Much of the state, in particular the White Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwood forest, northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests. The southeast corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River along the Vermont border are covered by the mixed Quercus, oaks of the Northeastern coastal forests. The state's numerous forests are popular among autumnal Leaf peeping, leaf peepers seeking the brilliant foliage of the numerous deciduous trees. The northern third of the state is locally referred to as the "north country" or "north of the notches", in reference to White Mountain mountain pass, passes that channel traffic. It contains less than 5% of the state's population, suffers relatively high poverty, and is steadily losing population as the logging and paper industries decline. However, the tourist industry, in particular visitors who go to northern New Hampshire to skiing, ski, snowboarding, snowboard, hiking, hike and mountain biking, mountain bike, has helped offset economic losses from mill closures. By the 1950s a concern with protecting the environment became a factor, emerging as an active politicized movement by the 1970s. Activists defeated a proposal to build an oil refinery along the coast and one to widen an interstate highway through
Franconia Notch Franconia Notch (elev. ) is a major mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is ...

Franconia Notch
. Winter season lengths are projected to decline at ski areas across New Hampshire due to the effects of global warming, which is likely to continue the historic contraction and consolidation of the ski industry and threaten individual ski businesses and communities that rely on ski tourism.


Climate

New Hampshire experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfa'' in some southern areas, ''Dfb'' in most of the state, and ''Dfc'' subarctic in some northern highland areas), with warm, humid summers, and long, cold, and snowy winters. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed all year. The climate of the southeastern portion is moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and averages relatively milder winters (for New Hampshire), while the northern and interior portions experience colder temperatures and lower humidity. Winters are cold and snowy throughout the state, and especially severe in the northern and mountainous areas. Average annual snowfall ranges from to over across the state. Average daytime highs are in the mid 70s°F to low 80s°F (24–28 °C) throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the mid 50s°F to low 60s°F (13–15 °C). January temperatures range from an average high of on the coast to overnight lows below in the far north and at high elevations. Average annual precipitation statewide is roughly with some variation occurring in the White Mountains (New Hampshire), White Mountains due to differences in elevation and annual snowfall. New Hampshire's highest recorded temperature was in Nashua, New Hampshire, Nashua on July 4, 1911, while the lowest recorded temperature was atop Mount Washington on January 29, 1934. Mount Washington also saw an unofficial reading on January 22, 1885, which, if made official, would tie the all-time record low for New England (also at Big Black River (Saint John River), Big Black River, Maine, on January 16, 2009, and Bloomfield, Vermont on December 30, 1933). Extreme snow is often associated with a nor'easter, such as the Northeastern United States blizzard of 1978, Blizzard of '78 and the Blizzard of 1993, when several feet accumulated across portions of the state over 24 to 48 hours. Lighter snowfalls of several inches occur frequently throughout winter, often associated with an Alberta Clipper. New Hampshire, on occasion, is affected by tropical cyclone, hurricanes and tropical storms although by the time they reach the state they are often extratropical, with most storms striking the southern New England coastline and moving inland or passing by offshore in the
Gulf of Maine , image = , alt = , caption = , image_bathymetry = GulfofMaine2.jpg , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = Major features of the Gulf of Maine , location = Northeast coast of the ...
. Most of New Hampshire averages fewer than 20 days of thunderstorms per year and an average of two tornadoes occur annually statewide. The National Arbor Day Foundation plant hardiness zone map depicts zones 3, 4, 5, and6 occurring throughout the state and indicates the transition from a relatively cooler to warmer climate as one travels southward across New Hampshire. The 1990 USDA plant hardiness zones for New Hampshire range from zone 3b in the north to zone 5b in the south.


Metropolitan areas

Metropolitan areas in the New England region are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs). The following is a list of NECTAs fully or partially in New Hampshire: * Berlin, New Hampshire, Berlin * Boston–Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge–Nashua, New Hampshire, Nashua ** Haverhill, Massachusetts, Haverhill–
Newburyport Newburyport is a coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, northeast of Boston. The population was 18,289 at the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census. A historic seaport with vibrant tourism industry, Newburyport includes pa ...
–Amesbury, Massachusetts, Amesbury Town NECTA Division ** Lawrence, Massachusetts, Lawrence–Methuen, Massachusetts, Methuen Town–Salem, New Hampshire, Salem NECTA Division ** Lowell, Massachusetts, Lowell–Billerica, Massachusetts, Billerica–Chelmsford, Massachusetts, Chelmsford NECTA Division ** Nashua, New Hampshire, Nashua NECTA Division * Claremont, New Hampshire, Claremont *
Concord Concord may refer to: Meaning "agreement" * Pact or treaty, frequently between nations (indicating a condition of harmony) * Harmony, in music * Agreement (linguistics), a change in the form of a word depending on grammatical features of other w ...
*
Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first publishe ...
Durham * Franklin, New Hampshire, Franklin * Keene, New Hampshire, Keene *
Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it i ...
* Lebanon, New Hampshire, Lebanon *
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...
*
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth


Demographics


Population

As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the resident population of New Hampshire was 1,377,529, a 4.6% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The center of population of New Hampshire is in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, Merrimack County, in the town of Pembroke, New Hampshire, Pembroke. The center of population has moved south since 1950, a reflection of the fact the state's fastest growth has been along its southern border, which is within commuting range of Boston and other Massachusetts cities. The most densely populated areas generally lie within of the Massachusetts border, and are concentrated in two areas: along the Merrimack River Valley running from
Concord Concord may refer to: Meaning "agreement" * Pact or treaty, frequently between nations (indicating a condition of harmony) * Harmony, in music * Agreement (linguistics), a change in the form of a word depending on grammatical features of other w ...
to Nashua, New Hampshire, Nashua, and in the Seacoast Region (New Hampshire), Seacoast Region along an axis stretching from Rochester, New Hampshire, Rochester to
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
. Outside of those two regions, only one community, the city of Keene, New Hampshire, Keene, has a population over 20,000. The four counties covering these two areas account for 72% of the state population, and one (Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, Hillsborough) has nearly 30% of the state population, as well as the two most populous communities, Manchester and Nashua. The northern portion of the state is very sparsely populated: the largest county by area, Coos County, New Hampshire, Coos, covers the northern one-fourth of the state and has only around 31,000 people, about a third of whom live in a single community (Berlin, New Hampshire, Berlin). The trends over the past several decades have been for the population to shift southward, as many northern communities lack the economic base to maintain their populations, while southern communities have been absorbed by the
Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the Ea ...

Greater Boston
metropolis. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of New Hampshire was 1,316,470. The gender makeup of the state at that time was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. 21.8% of the population were under the age of 18; 64.6% were between the ages of 18 and 64; and 13.5% were 65 years of age or older. Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.8% of the population in 2010: 0.6% were of Mexican American, Mexican, 0.9% Puerto Ricans, Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban American, Cuban, and 1.2% other Hispanic or Latino origin. As of 2019, the Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino population was estimated at 4.0%. According to the 2012–2017 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups in the state were Irish American, Irish (20.6%), English American, English (16.5%), French American, French (14.0%), Italian American, Italian (10.4%), German American, German (9.1%), French Canadian American, French Canadian (8.9%), and American ancestry, American (4.8%). New Hampshire has the highest percentage (22.9%) of residents with French/French-Canadian/Acadian ancestry of any U.S. state. According to the Census Bureau's American Community Survey estimates from 2017, 2.1% of the population aged5 and older speak Spanish language, Spanish at home, while 1.8% speak French language, French. In Coos County, New Hampshire, Coos County, 9.6% of the population speaks French at home, down from 16% in 2000.


Birth data

''Note: Percentages in table do not add up to 100, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.'' * Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Religion

A Pew survey showed that the religious affiliations of the people of New Hampshire was as follows: Nonreligious 36%, Protestantism, Protestant 30%, Catholicism in the United States, Catholic 26%, Jehovah's Witness 2%, Latter-day Saint, LDS (Mormon) 1%, and Jewish 1%. A survey suggests people in New Hampshire and Vermont are less likely than other Americans to attend weekly services and only 54% say they are "absolutely certain there is a God" compared to 71% in the rest of the nation. New Hampshire and Vermont are also at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. In 2012, 23% of New Hampshire residents in a Gallup poll considered themselves "very religious", while 52% considered themselves "non-religious". According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations are the Catholic Church with 311,028 members; The United Church of Christ with 26,321 members; and the United Methodist Church with 18,029 members. In 2016, a Gallup Poll found that New Hampshire was the least religious state in the United States. Only 20% of respondents in New Hampshire categorized themselves as "very religious", while the nationwide average was 40%.


Economy

* Total employment (2016): 594,243 * Number of employer establishments: 37,868 The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Hampshire's Gross regional domestic product, total state product in 2018 was $86billion, ranking 40th in the United States. Median household income in 2017 was $74,801, the fourth highest in the country (including Washington, DC). Its agricultural outputs are dairy products, nursery stock, cattle, apples and eggs. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electric equipment, rubber and plastic products, and tourism is a major component of the economy. New Hampshire experienced a major shift in its economic base during the 20th century. Historically, the base was composed of traditional New England textiles, shoe making, and small machine shops, drawing upon low-wage labor from nearby small farms and from parts of Quebec. Today, of the state's total manufacturing dollar value, these sectors contribute only two percent for textiles, two percent for leather goods, and nine percent for machining. They experienced a sharp decline due to obsolete plants and the lure of cheaper wages in the Southern United States. New Hampshire today has a broad-based and growing economy, with a state GDP growth rate of 2.2% in 2018. The state's largest economic sectors in 2018, based on contribution to GDP, are: 15% real estate and rental and leasing; 13% professional services, professional business services; 12% manufacturing; 10% government and government services; and 9% health care and social services. The state's budget in FY2018 was $5.97billion, including $1.79billion in federal funds. The issue of taxation is controversial in New Hampshire, which has a property tax (subject to municipal control) but no broad sales tax or income tax. The state does have narrower taxes on meals, lodging, vehicles, business and investment income, and tolls on state roads. According to the Energy Information Administration, New Hampshire's energy consumption and per capita energy consumption are among the lowest in the country. The Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, near Portsmouth, is the largest nuclear reactor in New England and provided 57% of New Hampshire's electricity generation and 27% of its electricity consumption in 2017. In 2016 and 2017, New Hampshire obtained more of its electricity generation from wind power than coal-fired power plants. Approximately 32% of New Hampshire's electricity consumption came from renewable resources (including Nuclear power in the United States, nuclear, Hydroelectricity, hydroelectric, Wind power, wind, and other Renewable energy in the United States, renewable resources). New Hampshire was a net exporter of electricity, exporting . New Hampshire's residential electricity use is low compared with the national average, in part because demand for air conditioning is low during the generally mild summer months and because few households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. Nearly half of New Hampshire households use fuel oil for winter heating, which is one of the largest shares in the United States. New Hampshire has potential for renewable energies like wind power, hydroelectricity, and wood fuel. The state has no general sales tax and no personal state income tax (the state does tax, at a five percent rate, income from dividends and interest), and the legislature has exercised fiscal restraint. New Hampshire's lack of a broad-based tax system has resulted in the state's local jurisdictions having the 8th-highest property taxes as of a 2019 ranking by the Tax Foundation. However, the state's overall tax burden is relatively low; in 2010 New Hampshire ranked 8th-''lowest'' among states in combined average state and local tax burden. As of February 2010, the state's unemployment rate was 7.1%. By October 2010, the unemployment rate had dropped to 5.4%. The (preliminary) seasonally Unemployment, unemployment rate in April 2019 was 2.4% based on a 767,500 person civilian workforce with 749,000 people in employment. New Hampshire's workforce is 90% in nonfarm employment, with 18% employed in trade, transportation, and utilities; 17% in education and health care; 12% in government; 11% in professional and business services; and 10% in leisure and hospitality. According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, New Hampshire had the 8th-highest percentage of millionaire households in the United States, at 6.48% of all households. In 2013, New Hampshire also had the lowest poverty rate nationwide at just 8.7% of all residents, according to the Census Bureau.


Largest employers

In March 2018, 86% of New Hampshire's workforce were employed by the private sector, with 53% of those workers being employed by firms with less than 100 employees. About 14% of private-sector employees are employed by firms with more than 1,000 employees. According to community surveys by the Economic & Labor Market Information Bureau of NH Employment Security, the following are the largest private employers in the state: New Hampshire's state government employs approximately 6,100 people. Additionally, the United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State employs approximately 1,600 people at the National Visa Center in Portsmouth, which processes Visa policy of the United States, United States immigrant visa petitions.


Law and government

The governor of New Hampshire, since January 5, 2017, is Chris Sununu (Republican). New Hampshire's two U.S. senators are Jeanne Shaheen and Maggie Hassan (both Democrats), both of whom are former governors. New Hampshire's two U.S. representatives as of January 2019 are Chris Pappas (politician), Chris Pappas and Ann McLane Kuster (both Democrats). New Hampshire is an alcoholic beverage control state, and through the New Hampshire Liquor Commission, State Liquor Commission takes in $100million from the sale and distribution of liquor. New Hampshire is the only state in the U.S. that does not require adults to wear seat belts in their vehicles. It is one of three states that have no mandatory helmet law.


Governing documents

The New Hampshire State Constitution of 1783 is the supreme law of the state, followed by the New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated and the New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules. These are roughly analogous to the federal
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
, United States Code and Code of Federal Regulations respectively.


Branches of government

New Hampshire has a bifurcated executive branch, consisting of the governor and a five-member Executive Council of New Hampshire, executive council which votes on state contracts worth more than $5,000 and "advises and consents" to the governor's nominations to major state positions such as department heads and all judgeships and pardon requests. New Hampshire does not have a lieutenant governor (United States)#New Hampshire, lieutenant governor; the Senate president serves as "acting governor" whenever the governor is unable to perform the duties. The legislature is called the New Hampshire General Court, General Court. It consists of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, House of Representatives and the New Hampshire Senate, Senate. There are 400 representatives, making it one of the largest elected bodies in the English-speaking world, and 24 senators. Legislators are paid a nominal salary of $200 per two-year term plus travel costs, the lowest in the U.S. by far. Thus most are effectively volunteers, nearly half of whom are retirement, retirees. (For details, see the article on Government of New Hampshire#Legislative Branch, Government of New Hampshire.) The state's sole appellate court is the New Hampshire Supreme Court. The New Hampshire Superior Court, Superior Court is the court of general jurisdiction and the only court which provides for jury trials in civil law (common law), civil or criminal law, criminal cases. The other state courts are the New Hampshire Probate Court, Probate Court, New Hampshire District Court, District Court, and the New Hampshire Family Division, Family Division.


Local government

New Hampshire has List of counties in New Hampshire, 10 counties and List of cities and towns in New Hampshire, 234 cities and towns. New Hampshire is a John Forrest Dillon, "Dillon Rule" state, meaning the state retains all powers not specifically granted to municipalities. Even so, the legislature strongly favors local control, particularly with regard to land use regulations. New Hampshire municipalities are classified as New England town, towns or cities, which differ primarily by the form of government. Most towns generally operate on the town meeting form of government, where the registered voters in the town act as the town legislature, and a board of selectmen acts as the executive of the town. Larger towns and the state's thirteen cities operate either on a Council–manager government, council–manager or Mayor–council government, council–mayor form of government. There is no difference, from the state government's point of view, between towns and cities besides the form of government. All state-level statutes treat all municipalities identically. New Hampshire has a small number of unincorporated areas that are titled as grants, locations, purchases, or townships. These locations have limited to no self-government, and services are generally provided for them by neighboring towns or the county or state where needed. As of the 2000 census, there were 25 of these left in New Hampshire, accounting for a total population of 173 people (); several were entirely depopulated. All but two of these unincorporated areas are in Coos County, New Hampshire, Coos County.


Politics

New Hampshire is socially liberal like the rest of
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
, and is the List of U.S. states and territories by religiosity, least religious state in the Union as of a 2016 Gallup poll. Yet the
Live Free or Die "Live Free or Die" is the official motto of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily locat ...
state has also long had a great disdain for state taxation and state bureaucracy. As of 2021, New Hampshire has a Republican Governor (Chris Sununu), a Republican New Hampshire Senate and a Republican New Hampshire House of Representatives, and is one of nine states (the only one of the Northeastern United States, American Northeast) to have no general state income tax imposed on individuals. The Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party and the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, in that order, are the two largest parties in the state. A plurality of voters are registered as undeclared, and can choose either ballot in the primary and then regain their undeclared status after voting. The Libertarian Party (United States), Libertarian Party had official party status from 1990 to 1996 and from 2016 to 2018. There is also a migration movement known as the Free State Project with the goal of turning New Hampshire into a relative libertarian stronghold by suggesting that libertarians move there so they can concentrate their power. As of June 16, 2021, there were 1,044,108 registered voters, of whom 408,092 (39.09%) did not declare a political party affiliation, 326,735 (31.29%) were Democratic, and 309,281 (29.62%) were Republican.


New Hampshire primary

New Hampshire is internationally known for the New Hampshire primary, the first U.S. presidential primary, primary in the quadrennial American presidential election cycle. State law requires that the Secretary of State schedule this election at least one week before any "similar event". However, the
Iowa caucus The Iowa caucuses are biennial electoral events for members of the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or ...
has preceded the New Hampshire primary. This primary, as the nation's first contest that uses the same procedure as the general election, draws more attention than those in other states, and it has been decisive in shaping the national contest. State law permits a town with fewer than 100 residents to open its polls at midnight, and close when all registered citizens have cast their ballots. As such, the communities of Dixville Notch, New Hampshire, Dixville Notch in Coos County, New Hampshire, Coos County and Hart's Location, New Hampshire, Hart's Location in Carroll County, New Hampshire, Carroll County, among others, have chosen to implement these provisions. Dixville Notch and Hart's Location are traditionally the first places in both New Hampshire and the U.S. to vote in presidential primaries and elections. Nominations for all other partisan offices are decided in a separate primary election. In Presidential election cycles, this is the second primary election held in New Hampshire. Saint Anselm College in Goffstown, New Hampshire, Goffstown has become a popular campaign spot for politicians as well as several national presidential debates because of its proximity to Manchester-Boston Regional Airport.


Elections

In the past, New Hampshire has often voted Republican. Between 1856 and 1988, New Hampshire cast its electoral votes for the Democratic presidential ticket six times: Woodrow Wilson (twice), Franklin D. Roosevelt (three times), and Lyndon B. Johnson (once). Beginning in 1992, New Hampshire became a swing state in national and local elections, and in that time has supported Democrats in all presidential elections except 2000. It was the only state in the country to switch from supporting Republican George W. Bush in the 2000 United States presidential election, 2000 election to supporting his Democratic challenger in the 2004 United States presidential election, 2004 election, when John Kerry, a senator from neighboring Massachusetts, won the state. The Democrats dominated elections in New Hampshire in 2006 and 2008. In 2006, Democrats won both congressional seats (electing Carol Shea-Porter in the first district and Paul Hodes in the second), re-elected Governor John Lynch (New Hampshire governor), John Lynch, and gained a majority on the Executive Council and in both houses for the first time since 1911. Democrats had not held both the legislature and the governorship since 1874. Neither U.S. Senate seat was up for a vote in 2006. In 2008, Democrats retained their majorities, governorship, and Congressional seats; and former governor Jeanne Shaheen defeated incumbent Republican John E. Sununu for the U.S. Senate in a rematch of the 2002 contest. The 2008 elections resulted in women holding a majority, 13 of the 24 seats, in the New Hampshire Senate, a first for any legislative body in the United States. In the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans made historic gains in New Hampshire, capturing veto-proof majorities in the state legislature, taking all five seats in the Executive Council, electing a new U.S. senator, Kelly Ayotte, winning both U.S. House seats, and reducing the margin of victory of incumbent Governor John Lynch (New Hampshire governor), John Lynch compared to his 2006 and 2008 landslide wins. In the 2012 state legislative elections, Democrats took back the New Hampshire House of Representatives and narrowed the Republican majority in the New Hampshire Senate to 13–11. In 2012, New Hampshire became the first state in U.S. history to elect an all-female federal delegation: Democratic Congresswomen Carol Shea-Porter of New Hampshire's 1st congressional district, Congressional District 1 and Ann McLane Kuster of New Hampshire's 2nd congressional district, Congressional District 2 accompanied U.S. Senators Jeanne Shaheen and Kelly Ayotte in 2013. Further, the state elected its second female governor: Democrat Maggie Hassan. In the 2014 elections, Republicans retook the New Hampshire House of Representatives with a 239–160 majority and expanded their majority in the New Hampshire Senate to 14 of the Senate's 24 seats. On the national level, incumbent Democratic Senator Jeanne Shaheen defeated her Republican challenger, former Massachusetts senator Scott Brown (politician), Scott Brown. New Hampshire also elected Frank Guinta (R) for its First Congressional District representative and Ann Kuster (D) for its Second Congressional District representative. In the 2016 elections, Republicans held the New Hampshire House of Representatives with a majority of 220–175, and held onto their 14 seats in the New Hampshire Senate. In the gubernatorial race, retiring Governor Maggie Hassan was succeeded by Republican Chris Sununu, who defeated Democratic nominee Colin Van Ostern. Sununu became the state's first Republican governor since Craig Benson, who left office in 2005 following defeat by John Lynch (New Hampshire governor), John Lynch. Republicans control the governor's office and both chambers of the state legislature, a governing trifecta in which the Republicans have full governing power. In the presidential race, the state voted for the Democratic nominee, former United States Secretary of State, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton over the Republican nominee, Donald Trump, by a margin of 2,736 votes, or 0.3%, one of the closest results the state has ever seen in a presidential race, while Libertarian nominee Gary Johnson received 4.12% of the vote. The Democrats also won a competitive race in the Second Congressional District, as well as a competitive senate race. New Hampshire's congressional delegation currently consists of exclusively Democrats. In the 116th United States Congress, it is one of only seven states with an entirely Democratic delegation, five of which are in New England (the others are Delaware and Hawaii).


Transportation


Highways

New Hampshire has a well-maintained, well-signed network of Interstate highways, U.S. highways, and state highways. State highway markers still depict the
Old Man of the Mountain The Old Man of the Mountain, also known as the Great Stone Face or the Profile, was a series of five granite Granite () is a coarse-grained igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with ...

Old Man of the Mountain
despite that rock formation's demise in 2003. Several route numbers align with the same route numbers in neighboring states. State highway numbering is arbitrary, with no overall system as with U.S. and Interstate systems. Major routes include: * Interstate 89 runs northwest from near
Concord Concord may refer to: Meaning "agreement" * Pact or treaty, frequently between nations (indicating a condition of harmony) * Harmony, in music * Agreement (linguistics), a change in the form of a word depending on grammatical features of other w ...
to Lebanon, New Hampshire, Lebanon on the
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
border. * Interstate 93 is the main Interstate highway in New Hampshire and runs north from Salem, New Hampshire, Salem (on the Massachusetts border) to Littleton, New Hampshire, Littleton (on the Vermont border). I-93 connects the more densely populated southern part of the state to the Lakes Region and the White Mountains further to the north. * Interstate 95 runs north–south briefly along New Hampshire's seacoast to serve the city of
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
, before entering
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
* U.S. Route 1 runs north–south briefly along New Hampshire's seacoast to the east of and paralleling I-95. * U.S. Route 2 runs east–west through Coos County, New Hampshire, Coos County from Maine, intersecting New Hampshire Route 16, Route 16, skirting the
White Mountain National Forest The White Mountain National Forest (WMNF) is a federally managed forest contained within the White Mountains in the northeastern United States. It was established in 1918 as a result of the Weeks Act of 1911; federal acquisition of land had alread ...

White Mountain National Forest
passing through Jefferson, New Hampshire, Jefferson and into Vermont. * U.S. Route 3 is the longest numbered route in the state, and the only one to run completely through the state from the Massachusetts border to the Canada–U.S. border. It generally parallels Interstate 93. South of Manchester, it takes a more westerly route through Nashua, New Hampshire, Nashua. North of Franconia Notch, U.S.3 takes a more easterly route, before terminating at the Canada–U.S. border. * U.S. Route 4 terminates at the Portsmouth Traffic Circle and runs east–west across the southern part of the state connecting Durham, Concord, Boscawen, New Hampshire, Boscawen and Lebanon. * New Hampshire Route 16 is a major north–south highway in the eastern part of the state that generally parallels the border with
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
, eventually entering Maine as Maine Route 16. The southernmost portion of NH 16 is a four-lane freeway, co-signed with U.S. Route4. * New Hampshire Route 101 is a major east–west highway in the southern part of the state that connects Keene, New Hampshire, Keene with
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...
and the Seacoast region. East of Manchester, NH 101 is a four-lane, limited access highway that runs to Hampton Beach, New Hampshire, Hampton Beach and I-95.


Air

New Hampshire has 25 public-use airports, three with some scheduled commercial passenger service. The busiest airport by number of passengers handled is Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester and Londonderry, New Hampshire, Londonderry, which serves the
Greater Boston Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the Ea ...

Greater Boston
metropolitan area.


Public transportation

Long-distance intercity passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak's ''Vermonter (train), Vermonter'' and ''Downeaster (train), Downeaster'' lines. Greyhound Lines, Greyhound, Concord Coach Lines, Concord Coach, Vermont Translines and Dartmouth Coach all provide intercity bus connections to and from points in New Hampshire and to long-distance points beyond and in between. , Boston-centered MBTA Commuter Rail services reach only as far as northern Massachusetts. The New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority is working to extend "Capital Corridor" service from Lowell, Massachusetts, to Nashua, Concord, and Manchester, including Manchester-Boston Regional Airport; and "Coastal Corridor" service from Haverhill, Massachusetts, to Plaistow, New Hampshire. Legislation in 2007 created the New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority (NHRTA) with the goal of overseeing the development of commuter rail in the state of New Hampshire. In 2011, Governor John Lynch vetoed HB 218, a bill passed by Republican lawmakers, which would have drastically curtailed the powers and responsibilities of NHRTA. The I-93 Corridor transit study suggested a rail alternative along the Manchester and Lawrence Railroad, Manchester and Lawrence branch line which could provide freight and passenger service. This rail corridor would also have access to Manchester-Boston Regional Airport. Eleven public transit authorities operate local and regional bus services around the state, and eight private carriers operate express bus services which link with the national intercity bus network. The New Hampshire Department of Transportation operates a statewide ride-sharing match service, in addition to independent ride matching and guaranteed ride home programs. Tourist railroads include the Conway Scenic Railroad, Hobo-Winnipesaukee Railroad, and the Mount Washington Cog Railway.


Freight railways

Freight railways in New Hampshire include Concord and Claremont Railroad, Claremont & Concord Railroad (CCRR), Pan Am Railways via subsidiary Springfield Terminal Railway (ST), the New England Central Railroad (NHCR), the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad (SLR), and New Hampshire Northcoast Corporation (NHN).


Education


High schools

The first public high schools in the state were the Boys' High School and the Girls' High School of
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
, established either in 1827 or 1830 depending on the source. New Hampshire has more than 80 public high schools, many of which serve more than one town. The largest is Pinkerton Academy in Derry, New Hampshire, Derry, which is owned by a private non-profit organization and serves as the public high school of a number of neighboring towns. There are at least 30 private high schools in the state. New Hampshire is also the home of several prestigious University-preparatory school, university-preparatory schools, such as Phillips Exeter Academy, St. Paul's School (New Hampshire), St. Paul's School, Proctor Academy, Brewster Academy, and Kimball Union Academy. In 2008 the state tied with Massachusetts as having the highest scores on the SAT and ACT standardized tests given to high school students.


Colleges and universities

* Antioch University New England * Colby-Sawyer College * Community College System of New Hampshire: ** Great Bay Community College ** Lakes Region Community College ** Manchester Community College (New Hampshire), Manchester Community College ** Nashua Community College ** NHTI, Concord's Community College ** River Valley Community College ** White Mountains Community College * Dartmouth College ** Tuck School of Business ** Geisel School of Medicine ** Thayer School of Engineering * Franklin Pierce University * Hellenic American University * Magdalen College of the Liberal Arts * MCPHS University * New England College * New Hampshire Institute of Art * Rivier University * Saint Anselm College * Southern New Hampshire University * Thomas More College of Liberal Arts * University System of New Hampshire: ** University of New Hampshire *** University of New Hampshire School of Law *** University of New Hampshire at Manchester ** Granite State College ** Keene State College ** Plymouth State University


Media


Daily newspapers

* ''Berlin Daily Sun'' * ''Concord Monitor'' * ''Conway Daily Sun'' * ''The Dartmouth'' of Dartmouth College/Hanover * ''Eagle Times'' of Claremont, New Hampshire, Claremont * ''The Eagle Tribune, Eagle Tribune'' (Lawrence, Massachusetts area, including parts of southern New Hampshire) * ''Foster's Daily Democrat'' of
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* ''Keene Sentinel'' * ''Laconia Citizen'' * ''Laconia Daily Sun'' * ''New Hampshire Union Leader'' of
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...
, formerly known as the ''Manchester Union-Leader'' * ''The Portsmouth Herald'' * ''The Telegraph (Nashua), The Telegraph'' of Nashua, New Hampshire, Nashua * ''The Sun (Lowell), The Sun'' (Lowell, Massachusetts area, including parts of southern New Hampshire) * ''Valley News'' of Lebanon, New Hampshire, Lebanon


Other publications

* ''Area News Group'' * ''Business New Hampshire Magazine'' * ''The Cabinet Press'' ** Milford Cabinet ** Bedford Journal ** Hollis/Brookline Journal ** Merrimack Journal * ''Carriage Towne News'' (covering Kingston, New Hampshire, Kingston and surrounding towns) * ''The Exeter News-Letter'' * ''The Hampton Union'' * ''Hippo Press'' (covering Manchester, Nashua and Concord) * ''Manchester Express'' * ''Manchester Ink Link'' * ''The New Hampshire'' (University of New Hampshire student newspaper) * ''New Hampshire Business Review'' * ''New Hampshire Free Press'' * ''The New Hampshire Gazette'' (Portsmouth alternative biweekly) * ''NH Living Magazine'' *
NH Rocks
' * ''Salmon Press Newspapers'' (family of weekly newspapers covering Lakes Region & North Country)


Radio stations


Television stations

* American Broadcasting Company, ABC affiliate WMUR, Channel 9, Manchester * Public Broadcasting Service, PBS affiliate Channel 11, Durham (New Hampshire Public Television); repeater stations in Keene and Littleton * True Crime Network affiliate WWJE-DT, WWJE, Channel 50, Derry/Manchester * Ion Television station WBPX-TV, WPXG, Channel 21, Concord (satellite of WBPX-TV, WBPX in Boston)


Sports

The following sports teams are based in New Hampshire: The
New Hampshire Motor Speedway New Hampshire Motor Speedway is a Oval track racing, oval speedway located in Loudon, New Hampshire, which has hosted NASCAR racing annually since 1990, as well as the longest-running motorcycle race in North America, the Loudon Classic. Nickna ...

New Hampshire Motor Speedway
in Loudon, New Hampshire, Loudon is an oval track and road course which has been visited by national motorsport championship series such as the NASCAR Cup Series, the NASCAR Xfinity Series, the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series, NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour, American Canadian Tour (ACT), the Champ Car and the IndyCar Series. Other motor racing venues include Star Speedway and New England Dragway in Epping, New Hampshire, Epping, Lee Speedway in Lee, New Hampshire, Lee, Twin State Speedway in Claremont, New Hampshire, Claremont, Monadnock Speedway in Winchester, New Hampshire, Winchester and Canaan Motor Club, Canaan Fair Speedway in Canaan, New Hampshire, Canaan. New Hampshire has two universities competing at the NCAA Division I in all collegiate sports: the Dartmouth Big Green (Ivy League) and the New Hampshire Wildcats (America East Conference), as well as three NCAA Division II teams: Franklin Pierce Ravens, Saint Anselm Hawks and Southern New Hampshire Penmen (Northeast-10 Conference). Most other schools compete in NCAA Division III or the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, NAIA. Annually since 2002, high-school statewide all-stars compete against Vermont in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.


Culture

In the spring, New Hampshire's many sugar house, sap houses hold sugaring-off open houses. In summer and early autumn, New Hampshire is home to many fair, county fairs, the largest being the Hopkinton State Fair, in Contoocook, New Hampshire, Contoocook. New Hampshire's Lakes Region is home to many summer camps, especially around Lake Winnipesaukee, and is a popular tourist destination. The Peterborough Players have performed every summer in Peterborough, New Hampshire, Peterborough since 1933. The Barnstormers Theatre in Tamworth, New Hampshire, Tamworth, founded in 1931, is one of the longest-running professional summer theaters in the United States. In September, New Hampshire is host to the New Hampshire Highland Games. New Hampshire has also registered an official tartan with the proper authorities in Scotland, used to make kilts worn by the Lincoln, New Hampshire, Lincoln Police Department while its officers serve during the games. The autumn leaf color, fall foliage peaks in mid-October. In the winter, List of ski areas and resorts in the United States#New Hampshire, New Hampshire's ski areas and snowmobile trails attract visitors from a wide area. After the lakes freeze over they become dotted with ice fishing ice houses, known locally as bobhouses. Funspot Family Fun Center, Funspot, the world's largest video arcade (now termed a museum), is in
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.


In fiction


Theater

* The fictional New Hampshire town of Grover's Corners serves as the setting of the Thornton Wilder play ''Our Town''. Grover's Corners is based, in part, on the real town of Peterborough, New Hampshire, Peterborough. Several local landmarks and nearby towns are mentioned in the text of the play, and Wilder himself spent some time in Peterborough at the MacDowell Colony, writing at least some of the play while in residence there.


Comics

* Al Capp, creator of the comic strip ''Li'l Abner'', used to joke that Dogpatch, the setting for the strip, was based on Seabrook, New Hampshire, Seabrook, where he would vacation with his wife.


Television

* In the AMC drama ''Breaking Bad'' ("Granite State (Breaking Bad), Granite State") series lead Walter White (Breaking Bad), Walter White escapes to a cabin in a fictional county in northern New Hampshire.


Notable people

Prominent individuals from New Hampshire include Founding Fathers of the United States, founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman, and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, and President of the United States
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.


New Hampshire firsts

* On January 5, 1776 at Exeter, New Hampshire, Exeter, the Provincial Congress of New Hampshire ratified the first independent New Hampshire Constitution#1776 Constitution, constitution in the Americas, free of British rule. * On June 12, 1800, Fernald's Island in the
Piscataqua River The Piscataqua River () is a tidal river forming the boundary of the U.S. states of New Hampshire New Hampshire () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont ...
became the first government-sanctioned U.S. Navy shipyard. * Started in 1822, Dublin, New Hampshire, Dublin's Juvenile Library was the first free public library. * In 1828, the first women's strike in the nation took place at Dover, New Hampshire, Dover's Cocheco Mills. * Founded in 1833, the Peterborough, New Hampshire, Peterborough Town Library was the first public library, supported with public funds, in the world. * On August 3, 1852, Center Harbor, New Hampshire, Center Harbor was the site of the first intercollegiate athletic event. Harvard University, Harvard defeated Yale University, Yale in a rowing race on Lake Winnipesaukee, the first meeting in a rivalry that continues to this day. * Finished on June 27, 1874, the first trans-Atlantic telecommunications cable between Europe and America stretched from Balinskelligs Bay, Ireland, to Rye, New Hampshire. * On February 6, 1901, a group of nine conservationists founded the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, the first forest-conservation advocacy group in the U.S. * In 1908, Monsignor Pierre Hevey organized the nation's first credit union, "La Caisse Populaire, Ste-Marie" (The People's Bank) in Manchester, to help mill workers save and borrow money, which is now St. Mary's Bank. * In 1933, the League of New Hampshire Craftsmen held the first crafts fair in the nation. * In July 1944, the Bretton Woods system, Bretton Woods Agreement, the first fully negotiated system intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states, was signed at the Mount Washington Hotel. * On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard of Derry, New Hampshire, Derry rode a Mercury spacecraft and became the first American in space. * In 1963, New Hampshire's legislature approved the nation's first modern state New Hampshire Lottery, lottery, which began play in 1964. * In 1966, Ralph Baer of Sanders Associates, Inc., Nashua, recruited engineers to develop the first home video game. * In January 1974 the first municipal recycling center in the US opened in Nottingham, New Hampshire, Nottingham. * Christa McAuliffe of Concord became the first private citizen selected to venture into space. She perished with her six ''Space Shuttle Challenger, Challenger'' crewmates on January 28, 1986. * On May 17, 1996, New Hampshire became the first state in the country to install a green Light-emitting diode, LED traffic light. New Hampshire was selected because it was the first state to install the red and yellow variety statewide. * On May 31, 2007, New Hampshire became the first state to LGBT rights in New Hampshire, recognize same-sex unions "without a court order or the threat of one".


See also

* ''''


Notes


References


Further reading

*
''Land Use in Cornish, N.H.''
a 2006 documentary presentation by James M. Patterson of the ''Valley News'', depicts various aspects of the societal and cultural environment of northern New Hampshire.


External links


State government

*
New Hampshire Almanac

Visitnh.gov
New Hampshire Office of Travel and Tourism Development


U.S. Government


New Hampshire State Guide from the Library of Congress

Energy Facts for New Hampshire

New Hampshire State Facts
USDA Economic Research Service
USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of New Hampshire


Other


Internet Movie Database listing of films shot in the state

New Hampshire Historical Society
* * {{coord, 43.6805, -71.5811, dim:200000_region:US-NH_type:adm1st, name=State of New Hampshire, display=title New Hampshire, States of the United States New England states Northeastern United States States and territories established in 1788 States of the East Coast of the United States 1788 establishments in the United States Contiguous United States