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New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
and a part of the
National Capital Territory of Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...
. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the
government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Aliment ...
, hosting the
Rashtrapati Bhavan The Rashtrapati Bhavan (, rásh-tra-pa-ti bha-vun; ; originally Viceroy's House and later Government House) is the official residence of the President of India at the western end of Rajpath in New Delhi, India. Rashtrapati Bhavan may refer ...

Rashtrapati Bhavan
, Parliament House, and the
Supreme Court of India The Supreme Court of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scie ...

Supreme Court of India
. Within the NCT there are two entities called ''New Delhi'' with different extents: a
municipal council A municipal council is the legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parli ...
administrated by the NDMC, which covers mostly
Lutyens' Delhi Lutyens' Delhi is an area in New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and an administrative district of NCT Delhi. New Delhi is also the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hostin ...
and adjacent areas, and a larger
administrative district Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograp ...
. Although colloquially ''Delhi'' and ''New Delhi'' are used interchangeably to refer to the
National Capital Territory of Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...
(NCT), these are distinct entities, with both the municipality and the district of New Delhi forming a relatively small part of the
megacity A megacity is a very large city, typically with a population of more than 10 million people. Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2018 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban ...
of Delhi. The
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighbouring states, including
Ghaziabad Ghaziabad () is a city in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countrie ...

Ghaziabad
,
Noida Noida, short for New Okhla Industrial Development Authority, is a planned city 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and ...
,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
and
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
. The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother ...

George V
during the Delhi Durbar of 1911. It was designed by British architects
Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens ( ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country house An Englis ...

Edwin Lutyens
and
Herbert Baker Sir Herbert Baker (9 June 1862 – 4 February 1946) was an English architect remembered as the dominant force in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over De ...
. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General
IrwinIRWIN is a collective of Slovenian artists, primarily painters, and an original founding member of Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK). History In 1983, the artists Dušan Mandič, Miran Mohar, Andrej Savski, Roman Uranjek, and Borut Vogelnik, coming fr ...
.


History


Establishment

Until December 1911
Calcutta Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...
was the capital of India during the British Rule. However, it had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy
Lord Curzon George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), was styled as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911, and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, was a British Conservative ...
. This created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta. The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to a complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and immediately shift the capital to New Delhi.
Old Delhi Old Delhi or Purani Dilli is an area in the city of Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddli ...

Old Delhi
had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of
ancient India According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by mod ...
and the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see int ...
, most notably of the
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was officially named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi. The
Government of British India A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department o ...

Government of British India
felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, which is in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the
Delhi Durbar The Delhi Durbar (meaning "Court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of it ...
on 12 December 1911,
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother ...

George V
,
Emperor of India Emperor or Empress of India was a title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 (with the Royal Titles Act 1876) to 22 June 1948, that was used to signify their rule over British Raj, British India, as its imperial head of state. Royal Procl ...
, while laying the foundation stone for the viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp, declared that the capital of the Raj would be shifted from
Calcutta Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...

Calcutta
to
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
. Three days later, George V and his consort, Queen Mary, laid the foundation stone of New Delhi at Kingsway Camp. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by
Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens ( ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country house An Englis ...

Edwin Lutyens
, who first visited Delhi in 1912, and
Herbert Baker Sir Herbert Baker (9 June 1862 – 4 February 1946) was an English architect remembered as the dominant force in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over De ...
, both leading 20th-century British architects. The contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the
Tughlaqabad Fort Tughlaqabad Fort is a ruined fort A fortification is a military construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1 ...

Tughlaqabad Fort
, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction really began after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and was completed by 1931. The gardening and planning of plantations was led by A.E.P. Griessen, and later William Mustoe. The city that was later dubbed "
Lutyens' Delhi Lutyens' Delhi is an area in New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and an administrative district of NCT Delhi. New Delhi is also the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hostin ...
" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Viceroy
Lord Irwin Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), known as The Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a senior British Conservative Party (UK), Conservati ...
. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's . Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, and John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both north and south sites. However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at
India Gate The India Gate (formerly known as the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath, on the eastern edge of the "ceremonial axis" of New Delhi, India, New Delhi, formerly called Kingsway. It stands as a memorial to 90,0 ...

India Gate
, was previously meant to be a north–south axis linking the
Viceroy's House The Rashtrapati Bhavan (, rásh-tra-pa-ti bha-vun; ; formerly Viceroy's House) is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious ...

Viceroy's House
at one end with
Paharganj Paharganj ( literally 'hilly neighbourhood') is a neighbourhood of Central Delhi Central Delhi is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially th ...
at the other. Eventually, owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites on the north side, the committee settled on the south site. A site atop the
Raisina Hill Raisina Hill (''Rāyasīnā Pahāṛī''), often used as a metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept. Etymology The words ''m ...
, formerly Raisina Village, a
MeoMeo may refer to: * Meo (ethnic group), Muslim inhabitants of Mewat, a region in North-Western India * MEO (telecommunication company), a brand of Portugal Telecom used for services targeting individuals and homes * Méo, a place in Ivory Coast * Me ...
village, was chosen for the , then known as the Viceroy's House. The reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the citadel, which was also considered the site of
Indraprastha Indraprastha ("Plain of Indra Indra (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch ...
, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of
Delhi Durbar The Delhi Durbar (meaning "Court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of it ...
of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, and embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat. The
Rajpath Rajpath (formerly known as Kingsway) is a ceremonial boulevard A boulevard ( French, originally meaning bastion, abbreviated as bd in Metropolitan French, boul in Canadian French, and Blvd in English), is a type of large road, circ ...
, also known as King's Way, stretched from the
India Gate The India Gate (formerly known as the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath, on the eastern edge of the "ceremonial axis" of New Delhi, India, New Delhi, formerly called Kingsway. It stands as a memorial to 90,0 ...

India Gate
to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the government of India, and the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the
Sansad Marg Sansad Marg ( en, Parliament Street, formerly ''N-Block'') is a street located in New Delhi, India. The street gets its name from the Parliament House (India), Parliament House (Sansad Bhavan). The Parliament House, designed by Sir Herbert Ba ...
and run parallel to the Rajpath. In the south, land up to
Safdarjung's Tomb Safdarjung's Tomb is a sandstone and marble mausoleum in Delhi, India. It was built in 1754 in the late Mughal architecture, Mughal Empire style for Nawab Safdarjung. The monument has an ambience of spaciousness and an imposing presence with it ...

Safdarjung's Tomb
was acquired to create what is today known as
Lutyens' Bungalow Zone Lutyens Bungalow Zone or LBZ is the area spread over 2,800-hectare area in Lutyens' Delhi Lutyens' Delhi is an area in New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and an administrative district of N ...
. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House (now Parliament House), called the ''Imperial Delhi Railway'', was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years. The last stumbling block was the
Agra Agra (, ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...

Agra
-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial (
India Gate The India Gate (formerly known as the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath, on the eastern edge of the "ceremonial axis" of New Delhi, India, New Delhi, formerly called Kingsway. It stands as a memorial to 90,0 ...

India Gate
) and Kingsway (
Rajpath Rajpath (formerly known as Kingsway) is a ceremonial boulevard A boulevard ( French, originally meaning bastion, abbreviated as bd in Metropolitan French, boul in Canadian French, and Blvd in English), is a type of large road, circ ...
), which was a problem because the
Old Delhi Railway Station Lee Minho Delhi Junction, also known as Old Delhi railway station (station code: DLI), is the oldest railway station of Delhi city and a junction station. It is one of the busiest railway stations in India in terms of frequency. Around 250 train ...

Old Delhi Railway Station
served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the
Yamuna River The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of East ...

Yamuna River
, and it began operating in 1924. The opened in 1926, with a single platform at
Ajmeri Gate The Gates of Delhi were city gates in Delhi, India, built under dynastic rulers in the period that could be dated from the 8th century to the 20th century. They are the gates in * the ancient city of Qila Rai Pithora or Lal Kot, also called the fi ...
near
Paharganj Paharganj ( literally 'hilly neighbourhood') is a neighbourhood of Central Delhi Central Delhi is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially th ...
, and was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House (the present Rashtrapati Bhavan), Central Secretariat, Parliament House, and All-India War Memorial (
India Gate The India Gate (formerly known as the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath, on the eastern edge of the "ceremonial axis" of New Delhi, India, New Delhi, formerly called Kingsway. It stands as a memorial to 90,0 ...

India Gate
) was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza,
Connaught Place Connacht ( ; ga, Connachta or ), formerly spelled Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the west of Ireland. Until the ninth century it consisted of several independent major Gaelic kingdoms (Lúighne, Uí Maine, and Iar Connach ...

Connaught Place
, began in 1929, and was completed by 1933. Named after , 1st
Duke of Connaught The title of Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was granted by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to her third son, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Prince Arthur, on 24 May 1874. At the same time, he wa ...
(1850–1942), it was designed by
Robert Tor Russell Robert Tor Russell, Order of the Indian Empire, CIE Distinguished Service Order, DSO (1888–1972) was a British architect. In his position as Chief Architect to the Public Works Department of the Government of India, he is primarily associated w ...
, chief architect to the
Public Works Department This list indicates government departments in various countries dedicated to public works or infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving ...
(PWD). After the capital of India moved to Delhi, a temporary secretariat building was constructed in a few months in 1912 in
North Delhi Image:Delhi district map.jpg, 250px, Map showing the 11 districts of Delhi. North Delhi is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India. Alipur is the administrative headquarters of this district. North Delhi is ...
. Most of the government offices of the new capital moved here from the 'Old secretariat' in
Old Delhi Old Delhi or Purani Dilli is an area in the city of Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddli ...

Old Delhi
(the building now houses the
Delhi Legislative Assembly The Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, also known as the Delhi Vidhan Sabha, is a unicameral law making body of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, one of the eight union territory, union territories in India. ...
), a decade before the new capital was inaugurated in 1931. Many employees were brought into the new capital from distant parts of India, including the
Bengal Presidency The Bengal Presidency, officially the Presidency of Fort William and later Bengal Province, was a subdivision of the British India, British Empire in India. At the height of its territorial jurisdiction, it covered large parts of what is now So ...
and
Madras Presidency The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, also known as Madras Province, was an Presidencies and provinces of British India, administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India. At its greatest extent, the presidency inc ...
. Subsequently, housing for them has developed around Gole Market area in the 1920s. Built in the 1940s, to house government employees, with bungalows for senior officials in the nearby Lodhi Estate area, Lodhi colony near historic
Lodhi Gardens Lodi Gardens or Lodhi Gardens is a city park situated in New Delhi, India. Spread over , it contains, Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty), Mohammed Shah's Tomb, Tomb of Sikandar Lodi, Shisha Gumbad and Bara Gumbad, architecture, architectural works o ...

Lodhi Gardens
, was the last residential areas built by the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
.


Post-independence

After India gained
independence Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state, state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independe ...
in 1947, limited autonomy was conferred to New Delhi and was administered by a Chief Commissioner appointed by the
Government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requiremen ...
. In 1966, Delhi was converted into a
union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , ...
and eventually the Chief Commissioner was replaced by a Lieutenant Governor. The declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi. A system was introduced under which the elected government was given wide powers, excluding law and order which remained with the Central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993. The first major extension of New Delhi outside of
Lutyens' Delhi Lutyens' Delhi is an area in New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and an administrative district of NCT Delhi. New Delhi is also the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hostin ...
came in the 1950s when the
Central Public Works Department The Central Public Works Department of India (Hindi: केंद्रीय लोक निर्माण विभाग), commonly referred to as the CPWD, is a premier Government of India, Central Government authority in charge of public sec ...
(CPWD) developed a large area of land southwest of Lutyens' Delhi to create the diplomatic enclave of
Chanakyapuri Chanakyapuri (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is b ...
, where land was allotted for embassies, chanceries, high commissions and residences of ambassadors, around a wide central vista, '' Shanti Path''.


Geography

With a total area of , the municipal council of New Delhi forms a small part of the Delhi metropolitan area. Since the city is located on the
Indo-Gangetic Plain #REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain#REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain Image:India-Pakistan Borderlands at Night.JPG, 250px, Clusters of yellow lights on the Indo-Gangetic Plain reveal numerous cities large and small in this astronaut photograph of norther ...

Indo-Gangetic Plain
, there is little difference in elevation across the city. New Delhi and surrounding areas were once a part of the
Aravali Range The Aravalli Range (also spelled ''Aravali'') is a mountain range in Northwestern India, running approximately 670 km (430 mi) in a south-west direction, starting near Delhi, passing through southern Haryana and Rajasthan Raj ...

Aravali Range
; all that is left of those mountains is the
Delhi Ridge Delhi Ridge, sometimes simply called The Ridge, is a ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. The sides of the ridge s ...
, which is also called the Lungs of Delhi. While New Delhi lies on the floodplains of the
Yamuna River The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of East ...

Yamuna River
, it is essentially a landlocked city. East of the river is the urban area of
Shahdara Shahdara is an administrative and revenue district of Delhi, India, situated near the banks of Yamuna river. It is one of the oldest inhabited areas of Delhi and integral to what is known as ''Purani Dilli'' (Old Delhi). Shahdara district was fo ...
.


Seismology

New Delhi falls under the seismic zone-IV, making it vulnerable to earthquakes. It lies on several fault lines and thus experiences frequent earthquakes, most of them of mild intensity. There was a spike in the number of earthquakes between 2011 and 2015, most notable being a 5.4 magnitude earthquake in 2015 with its epicentre in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
, a 4.7-magnitude earthquake on 25 November 2007, a 4.2-magnitude earthquake on 7 September 2011, a 5.2-magnitude earthquake on 5 March 2012, and a swarm of twelve earthquakes, including four of magnitudes 2.5, 2.8, 3.1, and 3.3, on 12 November 2013.


Climate

The climate of New Delhi is a
hot semi-arid climate A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending ...
( Köppen ''BSh'') bordering on a dry-winter
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
( Köppen ''Cwa'') with high variation between summer and winter in terms of both temperature and rainfall. The temperature varies from in summers to around in winters. The area's version of a humid subtropical climate is noticeably different from many other cities with this climate classification in that it features long and very hot summers with
dust storm A dust storm, also called a sandstorm, is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Deve ...

dust storm
s, relatively dry and mild winters with
wildfire A wildfire, bushfire, wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, unwanted, uncontrolled fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction ...

wildfire
haze Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon Optical phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter. See also list of optical topics and optics. A mirage is an example of an optical phenomenon ...

haze
, and a
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
al period. Summers are long, extending from early April to October, with the monsoon season occurring in the middle of the summer. Winter starts in November and peaks in January. The annual mean temperature is around ; monthly daily mean temperatures range from approximately . New Delhi's highest temperature ever recorded is on 26 May 1998 while the lowest temperature ever recorded is on 11 January 1967, both of which are recorded at Indira Gandhi International Airport (formerly known as
Palam Airport Indira Gandhi International Airport is the primary international airport serving Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the ca ...
). The average annual rainfall is , most of which is during the monsoons in July and August.


Air quality

In
Mercer Mercer may refer to: Business * Mercer (car), a defunct American automobile manufacturer (1909–1925) * Mercer (consulting firm), a large human resources consulting firm headquartered in New York City * Mercer (occupation), a merchant or trader, ...
's 2015 annual quality-of-living survey, New Delhi ranks at number 154 out of 230 cities due to bad
air quality Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gas ...
and pollution. The
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
ranked New Delhi as the world's worst polluted city in 2014 among about 1,600 cities the organisation tracked around the world. In 2016,
United States Environmental Protection Agency The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters. President Richard Nixon pro ...
listed New Delhi as the most polluted city on
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
and
IQAir IQAir is a Swiss air quality technology company, specializing in protection against airborne pollutants, developing air quality monitoring and air cleaning products. IQAir also operates AirVisual, a real-time air quality information platform. As ...
listed New Delhi as the world's most polluted capital city for the second straight year in year 2019. In an attempt to lessen
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

air pollution
in New Delhi, which gets worse during the winter, a temporary alternate-day travel scheme for cars using the odd- and even-numbered licence plates system was announced by
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
government in December 2015. In addition, trucks were to be allowed to enter India's capital only after 11 pm, two hours later than the existing restriction. The driving restriction scheme was planned to be implemented as a trial from 1 January 2016 for an initial period of 15 days. The restriction was in force between 8 am and 8 pm, and traffic was not restricted on Sundays. Public transportation service was increased during the restriction period. On 16 December 2015, the
Supreme Court of India The Supreme Court of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scie ...

Supreme Court of India
mandated several restrictions on Delhi's transportation system to curb pollution. Among the measures, the court ordered to stop registrations of diesel cars and sport utility vehicles with an engine capacity of 2,000 cc and over until 31 March 2016. The court also ordered all taxis in the Delhi region to switch to compressed natural gas by 1 March 2016. Transportation vehicles that are more than 10 years old were banned from entering the capital. Analysing real-time vehicle speed data from Uber Delhi revealed that during the odd-even program, average speeds went up by a statistically significant 5.4 per cent (2.8 standard deviation from normal). This means vehicles have lesser idling time in traffic and vehicle engines would run closer to minimum fuel consumption. "In bordering areas, PM 2.5 levels were recorded more than 400 (ug/m3) while in inner areas in Delhi, they were recorded between 150 and 210 on an average." However, the subcity of Dwarka, located in the southwest district, has a substantially low level of air pollution. At the NSIT University campus, located in sector 3 Dwarka, pollution levels were as low as 93 PPM. On 7 November 2017, the Indian Medical Association declared a public health emergency due to high pollution levels. The highest being in the Punjabi Bagh district with an air quality index of 999 and in the Rama Krishna Puram, RK Puram district with an index of 852. The lowest index recorded was in the Anand Vihar district with an index of 319. Levels of PM2.5 were recorded at 710 μg/m3, more than 11 times the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
's safe limit. In a 2018 study, New Delhi was found to be the most polluted capital out of 61 capital cities around the world. In December 2019, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, IIT Bombay, in partnership with the McKelvey School of Engineering of Washington University in St. Louis, launched the Aerosol and Air Quality Research Facility to study air pollution in New Delhi, among other Indian cities. During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in India, The water quality of the Yamuna and Ganges river basins have improved as industries are closed due to the lockdown. The air quality has also significantly improved during the lockdown. On 5 November 2020, New Delhi recorded its most toxic day in a year, as the concentration of poisonous PM2.5 particles was recorded at 14 times the WHO's safe limit.


Demographics

As of 2011, the New Delhi Municipal Council area has a population of 249,998. Hindi is the most widely spoken language in New Delhi and the lingua franca of the city. English is primarily used as the formal language by business and government institutes. New Delhi has a literacy rate of 89.38% according to 2011 census, which is the highest in Delhi.


Religion

According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the religion of 89.8% of New Delhi's population. There are also communities of Muslims (4.5%), Christians (2.9%), Sikhs (2.0%), Jains (0.4%). In the downloaded Excel file, scroll down to ''row number 56'' which mentions religious data for NDMC. Other religious groups include Parsi people, Parsis, Buddhists and Jews. Laxminarayan Temple in New Delhi 03-2016.jpg, Laxminarayan Temple a Hindu Mandir in New Delhi. Sacred Heart Cathedral (New Delhi) sky adj.jpg, The Sacred Heart Cathedral, New Delhi, Sacred Heart Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral and designed by British architect Henry Medd based on Italian architecture. Gurudwara Bangla Sahib in New Delhi 03-2016 img3.jpg, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib a Sikhism, Sikh Gurdwara in New Delhi. Digambar Jain Lal Mandir, Chandni Chowk, Delhi.jpg, Lal Mandir a Jain Temple in New Delhi.


Government

The national capital of India, New Delhi is jointly administered by both the Central
Government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requiremen ...
and the local Government of Delhi, it is also the capital of the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. New Delhi is administered through a municipal government, known as the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC). Other urban areas of the metropolis of Delhi are administered by the North Delhi Municipal Corporation, South Delhi Municipal Corporation, East Delhi Municipal Corporation and Delhi Cantonment Board. , the government structure of the New Delhi Municipal Council includes a chairperson, three members of New Delhi's Legislative Assembly, two members nominated by the Chief Minister of Delhi, Chief Minister of the NCT of Delhi and five members nominated by the central government. The districts of the NCT were redrawn in 2012 and include a district called New Delhi, albeit with different borders than the municipality. The New Delhi district includes not only the area of the municipality of the same name, but also encompasses the Delhi Cantonment and sizeable parts of the muncipality administered by the South Delhi Municipal Corporation.


Economy

New Delhi is the largest commercial city in northern India. It has an estimated net State Domestic Product (FY 2010) of in nominal terms and ~ in Purchasing power parity, PPP terms. , the per capita income of Delhi was Rs. 230000, second highest in India after Goa. GSDP in Delhi at the prices for 2012–13 is estimated at Rs 3.88 trillion (Long and short scales, short scale) against Rs 3.11 trillion (Long and short scales, short scale) in 2011–12.
Connaught Place Connacht ( ; ga, Connachta or ), formerly spelled Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the west of Ireland. Until the ninth century it consisted of several independent major Gaelic kingdoms (Lúighne, Uí Maine, and Iar Connach ...

Connaught Place
, one of North India's largest commercial and financial centres, is located in the northern part of New Delhi. Adjoining areas such as Barakhamba Road, ITO are also major commercial centres. Government and quasi-government sector was the primary employer in New Delhi. The city's service sector has expanded due in part to the large skilled English-speaking workforce that has attracted many multinational companies. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media, and tourism. The 2011 World Wealth Report ranks economic activity in New Delhi at 39, but overall the capital is ranked at 37, above cities like Jakarta and Johannesburg. New Delhi with Beijing shares the top position as the most targeted emerging markets retail destination among Asia-Pacific markets. The government of National Capital Territory of Delhi does not release any economic figures specifically for New Delhi but publishes an official economic report on the whole of Delhi annually. According to the ''Economic Survey of Delhi'', the metropolis has a net State Domestic Product (SDP) of Indian rupee, Rs. 830.85 billion (for the year 2004–05) and a per capita income of Rs. 53,976 ($1,200). In the year 2008–09 New Delhi had a per capita Income of Rs. ($2,595). It grew by 16.2% to reach Rs. ($3,018) in 2009–10 fiscal. New Delhi's per capita GDP (at PPP) was at $6,860 during 2009–10 fiscal, making it one of the richest cities in India. The Tertiary sector of industry, tertiary sector contributes 78.4% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by Secondary sector of industry, secondary and Primary sector of industry, primary sectors with 20.2% and 1.4% contribution respectively. The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Delhi at prices for the year 2011–12 has been estimated at Rs 3.13 trillion (Long and short scales, short scale), which is an increase of 18.7 percent over the previous fiscal.


Culture

New Delhi is a cosmopolitan city due to the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural presence of the vast Indian bureaucracy and political system. The city's capital status has amplified the importance of national events and holidays. National events such as Republic Day (India), Republic Day, Independence Day (India), Independence Day and ''Gandhi Jayanti'' (Gandhi's birthday) are celebrated with great enthusiasm in New Delhi and the rest of India. On India's Independence Day (15 August), the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most wiktionary:Delhiite#Noun, Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military might. Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of light), Maha Shivaratri, Teej, Durga Puja, Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Holi, Lohri, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, Easter, Raksha Bandhan, and Christmas. The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as the chosen backdrop of the event. Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival, Delhi, International Mango Festival and ''Vasant Panchami'' (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. In 2007, the Japanese Buddhist organisation Nipponzan Myohoji decided to build a Peace Pagoda in the city containing Buddha relics. It was inaugurated by the 14th Dalai Lama, Dalai Lama.


Historic sites, museums and gardens

New Delhi is home to several historic sites and museums. The National Museum, which began with an exhibition of Indian art and artefacts at the Royal Academy in London in the winter of 1947–48, was later at the end was shown at the in 1949. Later it was to form a permanent National Museum. On 15 August 1949, the National Museum was formally inaugurated and has 200,000 works of art, both of Indian and foreign origin, covering over 5,000 years. The
India Gate The India Gate (formerly known as the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath, on the eastern edge of the "ceremonial axis" of New Delhi, India, New Delhi, formerly called Kingsway. It stands as a memorial to 90,0 ...

India Gate
, which was built in 1931, was inspired by the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. It is the national monument of India commemorating the 90,000 soldiers of the Indian Army who lost their lives while fighting for the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and the Third Anglo-Afghan War. The monument is barricaded now with entry to inside arch restricted. The
Rajpath Rajpath (formerly known as Kingsway) is a ceremonial boulevard A boulevard ( French, originally meaning bastion, abbreviated as bd in Metropolitan French, boul in Canadian French, and Blvd in English), is a type of large road, circ ...
, which was built similar to the Champs-Élysées in Paris, is the ceremonial boulevard for the Republic of India, located in New Delhi. The annual Delhi Republic Day parade, Republic Day parade takes place here on 26 January. The Beating retreat takes place here two days later. Gandhi Smriti in New Delhi is the location where Mahatma Gandhi spent the last 144 days of his life and was assassinated on 30 January 1948. Raj Ghat and associated memorials, Rajghat is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated on 31 January 1948 after his assassination and his ashes were buried and make it a final resting place beside the sanctity of the Yamuna River. The Raj Ghat in the shape of large square platform with black marble was designed by architect Vanu Bhuta. Jantar Mantar (Delhi), Jantar Mantar located in
Connaught Place Connacht ( ; ga, Connachta or ), formerly spelled Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the west of Ireland. Until the ninth century it consisted of several independent major Gaelic kingdoms (Lúighne, Uí Maine, and Iar Connach ...

Connaught Place
was built by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur. It consists of 13 architectural astronomical, astronomy instruments. The primary purpose of the observatory was to compile astronomical tables, and to predict the times and movements of the sun, moon and planets. New Delhi is home to Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum, National Gallery of Modern Art, National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi, National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum, New Delhi, National Rail Museum, National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum, New Delhi, National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum, National Philatelic Museum, New Delhi, National Philatelic Museum, Nehru Planetarium, Shankar's International Dolls Museum. and Supreme Court of India Museum, In the coming years, a new National War Memorial (India), National War Memorial and Museum will be constructed in New Delhi for . New Delhi is particularly renowned for its beautifully landscaped gardens that can look quite stunning in spring. The largest of these include Buddha Jayanti Park and the historic Lodi Gardens. In addition, there are the gardens in the Presidential Estate, the gardens along the Rajpath and India Gate, the gardens along Shanti Path, the Rose Garden, Nehru Park and the Railway Garden in Chanakya Puri. Also of note is the garden adjacent to the Jangpura Metro Station near the Defence Colony Flyover, as are the roundabout and neighbourhood gardens throughout the city. The New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) area was declared the cleanest in North India, based on solid waste management, access to sanitation and other parameters of cleanliness, under the zone-wise Swachh Survekshan 2017.


Transport


Air

Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the South West Delhi, southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2012–13, the airport was used by more than 35 million passengers,Indira Gandhi International Airport making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually. The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named ''Delhi'' and ''Roshanara'', was based at ''Safdarjung Airport'' which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India. The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following 9/11, the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses, and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister. In 2010, Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) was conferred the fourth best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, and ''Best Improved Airport'' in the Asia-Pacific Region by Airports Council International.ACI Airport Service Quality Awards 2009, Asia Pacific airports sweep top places in worldwide awards
from the Wayback Machine
The airport was rated as the ''Best airport in the world'' in the 25–40 million passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International. Delhi Airport also bags two awards for ''The Best Airport in Central Asia/India'' and ''Best Airport Staff in Central Asia/India'' at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015.


Road

New Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. Buses are operated by the state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), which owns the largest fleet of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled buses in the world and Delhi Transit. Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on New Delhi roads. New Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis and Auto Rickshaws also ply on New Delhi roads in large numbers. New Delhi has one of the highest road density in India and average vehicle speed is around in peak hours in the city. Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of New Delhi's road infrastructure: * Inner Ring Road is one of the most important "state highways" in New Delhi. It is a 51 km long circular road, which connects important areas in New Delhi. Owing to more than 2 dozen grade-separators/flyovers, the road is almost signal-free. * Outer Ring Road is another major artery in New Delhi that links far-flung areas of Delhi. * The Delhi Noida Direct Flyway (DND Flyway) is an eight-laned access controlled tolled expressway which connects New Delhi and Delhi to
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(an important satellite city of Uttar Pradesh). The acronym DND stands for "Delhi-Noida Direct". * 'The Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) expressway connecting New Delhi to
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
, an important satellite city of Haryana. * The Delhi Faridabad Skyway is controlled tolled expressway which connects New Delhi to
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, an important satellite city of Haryana. National Highways passing through New Delhi New Delhi is connected by road to the rest of India through National highways: * National Highway 19 (India) (old number: NH 2), commonly referred as Delhi-Kolkata Road is a busy Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. * National Highway 44 (India) is a National Highway that connects Srinagar with Kanyakumari and passes through Delhi. * National Highway 48 (India) is a National Highway that connects New Delhi with Chennai. * National Highway 9 (India) is a National Highway that connects Malout in Punjab to Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand and passes through Delhi.


Railway

New Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway (India), Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway station, Old Delhi Railway Station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla. The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
,
Ghaziabad Ghaziabad () is a city in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countrie ...

Ghaziabad
,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
and
Noida Noida, short for New Okhla Industrial Development Authority, is a planned city 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and ...
. As of December 2016, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of and List of Delhi metro stations, 160 stations. Several other lines are under construction and expected to be commissioned in 2017 adding another 150 km length. It carries almost three million passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.


Metro

The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi,
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
,
Ghaziabad Ghaziabad () is a city in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countrie ...

Ghaziabad
,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
and
Noida Noida, short for New Okhla Industrial Development Authority, is a planned city 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and ...
in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's 12th largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's first modern public transportation system, which had revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. Presently, the Delhi Metro network consists of of track, with 285 stations. The network has now crossed the boundaries of Delhi to reach Ghaziabad and Noida in Uttar Pradesh, and Faridabad and Gurgaon in Haryana. All stations have escalators, elevators, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. According to a study, Delhi Metro has helped in removing about 390,000 vehicles from the streets of Delhi. Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the managing director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC, taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded with the Legion of Honour by the French government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.


Cityscape

Much of New Delhi, planned by the leading 20th-century British architect
Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens ( ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country house An Englis ...

Edwin Lutyens
, was laid out to be the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial ambitions. New Delhi is structured around two central promenades called the
Rajpath Rajpath (formerly known as Kingsway) is a ceremonial boulevard A boulevard ( French, originally meaning bastion, abbreviated as bd in Metropolitan French, boul in Canadian French, and Blvd in English), is a type of large road, circ ...
and the Janpath. The Rajpath, or King's Way, stretches from the
Rashtrapati Bhavan The Rashtrapati Bhavan (, rásh-tra-pa-ti bha-vun; ; originally Viceroy's House and later Government House) is the official residence of the President of India at the western end of Rajpath in New Delhi, India. Rashtrapati Bhavan may refer ...

Rashtrapati Bhavan
to the
India Gate The India Gate (formerly known as the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath, on the eastern edge of the "ceremonial axis" of New Delhi, India, New Delhi, formerly called Kingsway. It stands as a memorial to 90,0 ...

India Gate
. The Janpath (Hindi: "Path of the People"), formerly Queen's Way, begins at Connaught Circus and cuts the Rajpath at right angles. 19 foreign embassies are located on the nearby Shantipath (Hindi: "Path of Peace"), making it the largest diplomatic enclave in India. At the heart of the city is the magnificent Rashtrapati Bhavan (formerly known as Viceroy's House) which sits atop
Raisina Hill Raisina Hill (''Rāyasīnā Pahāṛī''), often used as a metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept. Etymology The words ''m ...
. The Secretariat, which houses ministries of the government of India, flanks out of the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The Parliament House, designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath.
Connaught Place Connacht ( ; ga, Connachta or ), formerly spelled Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the west of Ireland. Until the ninth century it consisted of several independent major Gaelic kingdoms (Lúighne, Uí Maine, and Iar Connach ...

Connaught Place
is a large, circular commercial area in New Delhi, modelled after the Royal Crescent in England. Twelve separate roads lead out of the outer ring of Connaught Place, one of them being the Janpath.


Architecture

The New Delhi town plan, like its architecture, was chosen with one single chief consideration: to be a symbol of British power and supremacy. All other decisions were subordinate to this, and it was this framework that dictated the choice and application of symbology and influences from both Hindu and Islamic architecture. It took about 20 years to build the city from 1911. Many elements of New Delhi architecture borrow from indigenous sources; however, they fit into a British Classical/Palladian architecture, Palladian tradition. The fact that there were any indigenous features in the design were due to the persistence and urging of both the Viceroy Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, Lord Hardinge and historians like Ernest Binfield Havell, E.B. Havell. In the year 2019, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and
Government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requiremen ...
introduced the Central Vista redevelopment project proposing the redevelopment of over 440 Hectares, costing


Sports

The city hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games and annually hosts Delhi Half Marathon foot-race. The city has previously hosted the 1951 Asian Games and the 1982 Asian Games. New Delhi was interested in bidding for the 2019 Asian Games but was turned down by the government on 2 August 2010 amid allegations of corruption in 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major sporting venues in New Delhi include the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Ambedkar Stadium, Indira Gandhi Arena, Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Arun Jaitley Stadium, R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex, Dhyan Chand National Stadium and Siri Fort Sports Complex.


International relations and organisations

The city is home to numerous international organisations. The Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology of the UNESCAP servicing the Asia-Pacific region is headquartered in New Delhi. New Delhi is home to most UN regional offices in India namely the UNDP, UNODC, UNESCO, UNICEF, WFP, United Nations Office at Vienna, UNV, UNCTAD, FAO, UNFPA, WHO, World Bank, International Labour Organization, ILO, International Monetary Fund, IMF, UNIFEM, International Finance Corporation, IFC and UNAIDS. UNHCR Representation in India is also located in the city. New Delhi List of diplomatic missions in India, hosts 145 foreign embassies and high commissions.


Summits, conferences and conventions

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development#Meetings, hosted its second meeting conference in the year 1968 at New Delhi. New Delhi hosted the NAM Summit, 7th NAM Summit in 1983, 2012 BRICS summit, 4th BRICS Summit in 2012, IBSA Dialogue Forum, IBSA Summit in 2015, and 5th Global Conference on CyberSpace in 2017. India will also host the G20 summit in 2022 in New Delhi.


Sister cities

* Moscow, Russia * Beijing, China (2013)


See also

* Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation


References


Bibliography

* * * * Johnson, David A. "A British Empire for the twentieth century: the inauguration of New Delhi, 1931," ''Urban History'', Dec 2008, Vol. 35 Issue 3, pp 462–487 * * * Ridley, Jane. "Edwin Lutyens, New Delhi, and the Architecture of Imperialism," ''Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth History,'' May 1998, Vol. 26 Issue 2, pp 67–83. * * Sonne, Wolfgang. ''Representing the State: Capital City Planning in the Early Twentieth Century'' (2003) 367pp; compares New Delhi, Canberra, Washington & Berlin. *


External links


New Delhi Government Portal

New Delhi Municipal Council

Official Website of Delhi Tourism
{{Authority control New Delhi, Indian capital cities, N Capitals in Asia Delhi, . New Delhi district, . Indian union territory capitals Neighbourhoods in Delhi North India Planned capitals Cities and towns in New Delhi district Populated places established in 1911 1911 establishments in British India 1911 establishments in India