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The Neo-Assyrian Empire (
Assyrian cuneiform Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, ...
: ''mat Aš-šur KI'', "Country of the
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
of god Aššur"; also phonetically ''mat Aš-šur'') was an
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
n empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up until that time. Many of the early imperial techniques perfected by the
Assyrians Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS Assyrian, SS ''Assyrian'', seve ...
became standard in later empires. Iron weapons were first used by Assyrians, and their troops employed advanced military tactics that were highly effective. Following the conquests of
Adad-nirari IIAdad-nirari II (reigned from 911 to 891 BC) is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. Biography Adad-nirari II's father was Ashur-dan II, whom he succeeded after a minor dynastic struggle. It is probable t ...
in the late 10th century BC,
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
emerged as the most powerful state in the world at the time, coming to dominate the
Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol is a mark ...
,
East Mediterranean Eastern Mediterranean is a loose definition of the eastern approximate half, or third, of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely encl ...
,
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
,
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
, and parts of the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, eclipsing and conquering rivals such as
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
,
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
,
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
,
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
, the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
,
Phrygians The Phrygians (Greek language, Greek: Φρύγες, ''Phruges'' or ''Phryges'') were an ancient Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited central-western Anatolia in antiquity. They were related to the Greeks. Ancient ...

Phrygians
,
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...
,
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
,
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
,
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
,
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
, the Kushite Empire, the
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
, and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
. The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the
Old Assyrian Empire The Old Assyrian Empire was the second stage of Assyrian history, covering the history of the city of Assur Aššur (; Sumerian language, Sumerian: AN.ŠAR2KI, Assyrian cuneiform: ''Aš-šurKI'', "City of God Ashur (god), Aššur"; syr, ܐܫ ...
(c. 2025–1378 BC), and the
Middle Assyrian Empire The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BCE (in the form of the city-s ...
(1365–934 BC) of the
Late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
. During the early Neo-Assyrian period, the
AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages' ...

Akkadian
language continued to be the main language of the Empire, but starting from the second half of the 8th century BC, due to territorial expansion, the
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
language was also accepted as an additional language of public life and administration, gradually gaining importance. Newly created
bilingualism in Seattle Seattle ( ) is a port, seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the county seat, seat of King County, Washington, King County, Washington (state), Washington. With a 2020 population of 737,015, it is the la ...
of the late Neo-Assyrian period was a reflection of cultural diversity within expanding borders of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Upon the death of
Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal, also spelled Assurbanipal, Asshurbanipal and Asurbanipal (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbrevi ...
in 631 BC, the empire began to disintegrate due to a brutal and unremitting series of civil wars in Assyria proper. In 616 BC,
Cyaxares Cyaxares ( grc, Κυαξάρης; peo, 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼 ; Avestan: ''Huxšaθra'' "Good Ruler"; Akkadian language, Akkadian: ''Umakištar''; Phrygian language, Old Phrygian: ''ksuwaksaros''; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable ...
, king of the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
and
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
, made alliances with
Nabopolassar Nabopolassar ( Babylonian cuneiform: ''Nabû-apla-uṣur'', meaning " Nabu, protect the son") was the founder and first king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, ruling from his coronation as king of Babylon in 626 BC to his death in 605 BC. Though initi ...
, ruler of the
Babylonians Babylonia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – ...
and
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
ns, and also the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
and
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
against Assyria. At the
Fall of Harran The Fall of Harran refers to the siege and capture of the Assyrian city of Harran by the Median Empire, Median and Neo-Babylonian Empire, Neo-Babylonian empires. Background The Neo-Assyrian Empire, from the year 639 BC, had been suffering from a ...
(609 BC), the Babylonians and Medes defeated an Assyrian-Egyptian alliance, after which Assyria largely ceased to exist as an independent state.


Background

Assyria was originally an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th centuries BC. The earliest Assyrian kings such as
Tudiya Tudiya or Tudia ( akk, 𒂅𒁲𒅀, Ṭu-di-ia) is the earliest Assyrian king named in the ''Assyrian King List'', and the first of the “seventeen kings who lived in tents.” His existence is unconfirmed archaeologically and uncorroborated by ...
were relatively minor rulers, and after the founding of the
Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of ...
, which lasted from 2334 BC to 2154 BC, these kings became subject to
Sargon of Akkad Sargon of Akkad (; akk, 𒊬𒊒𒄀 ''Šar-ru-gi''), also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer ...

Sargon of Akkad
, who united all the Akkadian- and
Sumerian
Sumerian
-speaking peoples of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
(including the Assyrians) under one rule. The urbanised Akkadian-speaking nation of Assyria emerged in the mid 21st century BC, evolving from the dissolution of the
Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of ...
. In the Old Assyrian period of the
Early Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical composition * Period, ...
, Assyria had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia (modern-day northern
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
), competing for dominance initially with the
Hattians The Hattians () were an ancient Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the ...
and
Hurrians The Hurrians (; cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by th ...
of
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
, and the ancient
Sumero-Akkadian Babylonia () was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Syriac language, Classical Syriac: ...
"city states" such as
Isin Isin (, modern Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countrie ...
,
Ur
Ur
and
Larsa Larsa (Sumerian logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures ...
, and later with
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
which was founded by
Amorites The Amorites (; Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 ''MAR.TU''; AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''Th ...

Amorites
in 1894 BC, and often under
Kassite The Kassites () were people of the ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratificatio ...
rule. During the 20th century BC, it established colonies in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
, and under the 20th century BC King Ilushuma, Assyria conducted many successful raids against the states of the south. Assyria fell under the control of the Amorite chieftain
Shamshi-Adad I Shamshi-Adad ( akk, Šamši-Adad; Amorite language, Amorite: ''Shamshi-Addu'' ), ruled 1808–1776 BC, was an Amorite conqueror who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia.Some of the Mari letters addressed to Sha ...

Shamshi-Adad I
(c. 1809 – 1776 BC), who established a dynasty and was unusually energetic and politically canny, installing his sons as puppet rulers at Mari and Ekallatum Following this it found itself under short periods of
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
n and
Mitanni Mitanni (; Hittite cuneiform ; ''Mittani'' '), also called Hanigalbat or Hani-Rabbat (''Hanikalbat'', ''Khanigalbat'', cuneiform ') in Assyrian or Naharin in Ancient Egypt, Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian language, Hurrian-speaking state in nor ...

Mitanni
-
Hurrian The Hurrians (; Cuneiform script, cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Ancient Near East, Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language cal ...
domination in the 17th and 15th centuries BC respectively, followed by another period of power from 1365 BC to 1074 BC, that included the reigns of kings such as
Ashur-uballit IAshur-uballit I ''(Aššur-uballiṭ I)'', who reigned between 1365 and 1330 BC, was the first king of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC). After his father Eriba-Adad I (1392-1366 BC) had broken Mitanni influence over Assyria, Ashur-uballit ...
,
Tukulti-Ninurta ITukulti-Ninurta I (meaning: "my trust is in he warrior god Ninurta"; reigned 1243–1207 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366–1050 BC). He is known as the first king to use the title "King of Kings". Biography Tukul ...
(r. 1244–1208 BC), and
Tiglath-Pileser I Tiglath-Pileser I (; from the Hebrew language, Hebraic form of akk, , Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the Ashur (god), son of Ešarra") was a Kings of Assyria, king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC). According t ...
.


Middle Assyrian Empire

Ashur-uballit extended Assyrian control over the rich farming lands of Nineveh and Arbela to the north."Assyria, 1365–609 B.C." in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, (originally published October 2004, last revised April 2010,)
/ref> Tiglath-Pileser controlled the lucrative caravan routes that crossed the fertile crescent from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf. Much campaigning by Tiglath-Pileser and succeeding kings was directed against Aramaean pastoralist groups in Syria, some of whom were moving against Assyrian centers. By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Aramaean expansion had resulted in the loss of much Assyrian territory in Upper Mesopotamia. After the death of
Tiglath-Pileser I Tiglath-Pileser I (; from the Hebrew language, Hebraic form of akk, , Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the Ashur (god), son of Ešarra") was a Kings of Assyria, king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC). According t ...
in 1076 BC, Assyria was in comparative decline for the next 150 years. The period from 1200 BC to 900 BC was a
Dark Age The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World ...
for the entire
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
,
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
,
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
,
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
and
Balkan The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch t ...

Balkan
regions, with great upheavals and mass movements of people. Assyria was in a stronger position during this time than potential rivals such as
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
,
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
,
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
,
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
,
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
and
Media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...

Media
.


History


Adad-nirari II and Ashurnasirpal II (911–859 BC)

Beginning with the campaigns of
Adad-nirari IIAdad-nirari II (reigned from 911 to 891 BC) is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. Biography Adad-nirari II's father was Ashur-dan II, whom he succeeded after a minor dynastic struggle. It is probable t ...
, Assyria again became a great power, ultimately overthrowing the
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXV, alternatively 25th Dynasty or Dynasty 25), also known as the Nubian Dynasty, the Kushite Empire and the Black Pharaohs, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt T ...
and conquering
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
,
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
,
Media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...

Media
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
,
Mannea The Mannaeans (, country name usually Mannea; Akkadian language, Akkadian: ''Mannai'', Biblical Hebrew: ''Minni'', (מנּי)) were an ancient people who lived in the territory of present-day northwestern Iran south of Lake Urmia, around the 10th ...
,
Gutium The Guti () or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of West Asia, around the Zagros Mountains (Modern Iran) during ancient times. Their homeland was known as Gutium (Sumerian language, Sumerian: ,''Gu-t ...
,
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
/
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
,
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...
,
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
,
Philistia Philistia (, ''Pəlešeṯ'', Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
,
Edom Edom (; Edomite Edom (; Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ''’Edām''; he, אֱדוֹם ''ʼÉḏōm'', lit.: "red"; akk, 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 ''Uduma'') was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah Th ...

Edom
,
Moab Moab ''Mōáb''; Akkadian language, Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Mu'aba'', 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Ma'ba'', 𒈠𒀪𒀊 ''Ma'ab''; Egyptian language, Egyptian: 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 ''Mū'ībū'', name=, group= () is the name of an anci ...
,
Samarra Samarra ( ar, سَامَرَّاء, ') is a city in Iraq Iraq ( ar, ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku, عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق '), is a c ...

Samarra
,
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the litera ...

Cilicia
,
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...

Cyprus
,
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
,
Nabatea The Nabataean Kingdom ( ar, المملكة النبطية, al-Mamlakah an-Nabaṭiyyah), also named Nabatea (), was a political state of the Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , p ...
,
Commagene The Kingdom of Commagene ( grc, Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς) was an ancient Greco-Iranian kingdom ruled by a Hellenized branch of the Iranian Orontid dynasty. The kingdom was located in and around the ancient city of Samosata ...

Commagene
,
Dilmun Dilmun, or Telmun, (Sumerian: , later 𒉌𒌇(𒆠), ni.tukki = DILMUNki; ar, دلمون) was an ancient East Semitic The East Semitic languages are one of three divisions Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematic ...
,
Shutu Shutu or Sutu is the name given in ancient sources to certain ic groups of the ian highlands, extending deep into and Southern . Many scholars have speculated that "Shutu" may be a variant of the term '. An Egyptian of the 17th century BCE ...
and
Neo-Hittites and Arameans, Aramean states ( 800 BCE) The states that are called Syro-Hittite (in older literature), or Luwian-Aramean (in modern scholarly works), were Luwians, Luwian and Arameans, Aramean regional polities of the Iron Age, situated in southeast ...
; driving the
Nubians Nubians () are an ethno-linguistic group of people who are indigenous to the region which is now present-day Northern Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودا ...

Nubians
/
Kushites The Kingdom of Kush (; Egyptian: 𓎡𓄿𓈙 𓈉 ''kꜣš'', Assyrian: ''Ku-u-si'', in LXX grc, Κυς and Κυσι; cop, ; he, כּוּשׁ, ''Oromiffa Oromo ( or ; Oromo: ''Afaan Oromoo'') is an Afroasiatic language Afroasiatic ( ...
from Egypt; defeating the
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
and
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
; and exacting tribute from
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
among others. Adad-nirari II and his successors campaigned on an annual basis for part of every year with an exceptionally well-organized army. He subjugated the areas previously under only nominal Assyrian vassalage, conquering and deporting
Aramean The Arameans (Old Aramaic language, Old Aramaic: 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Greek language, Greek: Ἀραμαῖοι; Syriac language, Syriac: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ / Ārāmāyē) were an ancient Semitic languages, Semitic-speaking people in the Near East, fi ...
and
Hurrian The Hurrians (; Cuneiform script, cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Ancient Near East, Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language cal ...
populations in the north to far-off places. Adad-nirari II then twice attacked and defeated
Shamash-mudammiq Šamaš-mudammiq, inscribed md''Šamaš-''mu''mudammiq'' (mdUTU-''mu''-SIG5),''Synchronistic King List'' fragment, KAV 182, Ass 13956dh, iii 9. meaning “Shamash, Šamaš shows favor,” was the 4th king of Babylon in a sequence designated as the ...
of
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
, annexing a large area of land north of the river and the towns of
Hit Hit means to strike (attack), strike someone or something. Hit or HIT may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional entities * Hit, a fictional character from ''Dragon Ball Super'' * Homicide International Trust, or HIT, a fictional ...
and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia. He made further gains over Babylonia under
Nabu-shuma-ukin I Nabû-šuma-ukin I, inscribed md''Nābû-šuma-ú-kin'',''Synchronistic King List'' iii 16 and variant fragments KAV 10 ii 7, KAV 182 iii 10. meaning “ Nabû has established legitimate progeny,” was the 5th king listed in the sequence of the so ...
later in his reign. He was succeeded by
Tukulti-Ninurta II Tukulti-Ninurta II was King of Assyria from 891 BC to 884 BC. He was the second king of the Neo Assyrian Empire. History His father was Adad-nirari II, the first king of the Neo-Assyrian period. Tukulti-Ninurta consolidated the gains made by his f ...
in 891 BC, who further consolidated Assyria's position and expanded northwards into
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
and the
Zagros Mountains The Zagros Mountains ( fa, کوه‌های زاگرس, ''Kuh hā-ye Zāgros;'' Luri language, Luri: کویل زاگروس‎, ''Koyal Zagros;'' Turkish language, Turkish: ''Zagros Dağları;'' ku, چیاکانی زاگرۆس, translit=Çiyakani ...
during his short reign. The next king,
Ashurnasirpal II Ashur-nasir-pal II (: ''Aššur-nāṣir-apli'', meaning " is guardian of the heir") was king of from 883 to 859 BC. Ashurnasirpal II succeeded his father, , in 883 BC. During his reign he embarked on a vast program of expansion, first conqueri ...
(883–859 BC), embarked on a vast program of expansion. During his rule, Assyria recovered much of the territory that it had lost around 1100 BC at the end of the Middle Assyrian period. Ashurnasirpal II also campaigned in the
Zagros Mountains The Zagros Mountains ( fa, کوه‌های زاگرس, ''Kuh hā-ye Zāgros;'' Luri language, Luri: کویل زاگروس‎, ''Koyal Zagros;'' Turkish language, Turkish: ''Zagros Dağları;'' ku, چیاکانی زاگرۆس, translit=Çiyakani ...
in modern
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, repressing a revolt against Assyrian rule by the
Lullubi Lullubi, Lulubi ( akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈: ''Lu-lu-bi'', akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈𒆠: ''Lu-lu-biki'' "Country of the Lullubi"), more commonly known as Lullu, were a group of tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as ''Lulubum'', now the Shar ...

Lullubi
and
Gutians The Guti () or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of West Asia, around the Zagros Mountains (Modern Iran) during ancient times. Their homeland was known as Gutium (Sumerian language, Sumerian: ,''Gu-tu ...
. The Assyrians began boasting in their ruthlessness around this time. Ashurnasirpal II also moved his capital to the city of
Kalhu Nimrud (; syr, ܢܢܡܪܕ ar, النمرود) is an ancient Assyrian people, Assyrian city located in Iraq, south of the city of Mosul, and south of the village of Selamiyah ( ar, السلامية), in the Nineveh Plains in Upper Mesopotamia ...
(
Calah Nimrud (; syr, ܢܢܡܪܕ ar, النمرود) is an ancient Assyrian people, Assyrian city located in Iraq, south of the city of Mosul, and south of the village of Selamiyah ( ar, السلامية), in the Nineveh Plains in Upper Mesopotamia ...
/
Nimrud Nimrud (; syr, ܢܢܡܪܕ ar, النمرود) is an ancient Assyrian city located south of the city of Mosul, and south of the village of Selamiyah ( ar, السلامية), in the Nineveh plains in Upper Mesopotamia. It was a major Assyri ...
). The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth and art. Ashurnasirpal II introduced a policy of mass deportation of conquered people, which continued on a greatly increased scale under his son,
Shalmaneser III Shalmaneser III (''Šulmānu-ašarēdu'', "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent") was king of Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσ ...

Shalmaneser III
.


Shalmaneser III to Adad-nirari III (859–783 BC)

Ashurnasirpal's son,
Shalmaneser III Shalmaneser III (''Šulmānu-ašarēdu'', "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent") was king of Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσ ...

Shalmaneser III
(859–824 BC), had a long reign of 35 years, in which the capital was converted into an armed camp. Each year the Assyrian armies marched out to campaign.
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
was occupied, and Babylonia reduced to vassalage. He fought against
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
and marched an army against an alliance of
Aramean The Arameans (Old Aramaic language, Old Aramaic: 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Greek language, Greek: Ἀραμαῖοι; Syriac language, Syriac: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ / Ārāmāyē) were an ancient Semitic languages, Semitic-speaking people in the Near East, fi ...
states headed by
Hadadezer Hadadezer (; " he godHadad is help"); also known as Adad-Idri ( akk, 𒀭𒅎𒀉𒊑, Dingir, dIM-id-ri), and possibly the same as Bar-Hadad II (Aramaic language, Aram.) or Ben-Hadad II (Hebrew language, Heb.), was the king of Aram Damascus ...
of
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
and including
Ahab Ahab (; akk, , Aḫabbu; grc-koi, ''Achaáb''; la, Achab) was the seventh king of Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel, the son and successor of King Omri and the husband of Jezebel of Sidon, according to the Hebrew Bible. The Hebrew Bible pr ...

Ahab
, king of
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...
, at the
Battle of Qarqar The Battle of Qarqar (or Ḳarḳar) was fought in 853 BCE when the army of the Neo-Assyrian Empire led by Emperor Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of eleven kings at Qarqar led by Hadadezer, called in Assyrian ''Adad-idir'' and possibly ...
in 853 BC. Despite Shalmaneser's description of 'vanquishing the opposition', it seems that the battle ended in a deadlock, as the Assyrian forces were withdrawn soon afterwards. Shalmaneser took the neo
Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptions ** Hittite laws ** Hittite religion ** ...
state of
Carchemish Carchemish (Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, ...

Carchemish
in 849 BC, and in 842 BC, marched an army against
Hazael Hazael (; ; : חזאל, from the ''h-z-y'', "to see"; his full name meaning, "/God has seen"; akk, 𒄩𒍝𒀪𒀭, Ḫa-za-’-) was an who is mentioned in the . Under his reign, became an empire that ruled over large parts of and the Lan ...
, King of
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
, besieging the city and forcing tribute, but not taking it. In 841 BC, he also brought under tribute
Jehu ) as depicted on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III , succession = Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), King of Northern Israel , reign = c. 841–814 BCE , coronation = Ramoth-Gilead, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel , death_date = c. 81 ...

Jehu
of
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...
, and the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
n states of
Tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Heritage site * Tyre District, Lebanon * Tyre, New York, a town in t ...
, and
Sidon Sidon ( ), known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western A ...

Sidon
. His black obelisk, discovered at Kalhu, records many military exploits of his reign. The last four years of Shalmaneser's life were disturbed by the rebellion of his eldest son Ashur-nadin-aplu that nearly proved fatal to Assyria. Twenty seven cities, including
Assur Aššur (; Sumerian language, Sumerian: AN.ŠAR2KI, Assyrian cuneiform: ''Aš-šurKI'', "City of God Ashur (god), Aššur"; syr, ܐܫܘܪ ''Āšūr''; Old Persian ''Aθur'', fa, آشور: ''Āšūr''; he, אַשּׁוּר: ', ar, اشور), ...

Assur
, ,
Arrapha Arrapha or Arrapkha ( Akkadian: ''Arrapḫa''; ar, أررابخا ,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq Iraq ( ar, ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku, عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُور ...
(
Kirkuk Kirkuk ( ar, كركوك, ku, کەرکووک, translit=Kerkûk, , tr, Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad. The city is home to a diverse population of Iraqi Turkmen, Turkmens, A ...

Kirkuk
) and other places joined the pretender. The rebellion was not directed primarily against the king, but rather against the provisional governors such as Dayan-Ashur who had assumed disproportionate power. The revolt was quashed with difficulty by
Shamshi-Adad VShamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria The king of Assyria (Akkadian language, Akkadian: ''šar māt Aššur''),' called the governor or viceroy of Assyria (Akkadian: ''Išši’ak Aššur'')' in the Early Period (Assyria), Early and Old Assyrian E ...
, Shalmaneser's second son, who succeeded him upon his death in 824 BC. The long and bitter civil war had allowed the
Babylonians Babylonia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – ...
to the south, the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
, Manneans, the
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
ns to the north and east, the
Arameans The Arameans (Old Aramaic Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language Aramaic ( Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Aramaic alphabet, Imperial Aramaic: ; Hebrew alphabet, square script ) is a language t ...
, and the Neo-
Hittites The Hittites () were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kanesh or Nesha kingdom (c. 1750–1650 BC), and next an empire centered on Hattusa Hattusa (also ...

Hittites
in the west to largely shake off Assyrian rule, and
Shamshi-Adad VShamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria The king of Assyria (Akkadian language, Akkadian: ''šar māt Aššur''),' called the governor or viceroy of Assyria (Akkadian: ''Išši’ak Aššur'')' in the Early Period (Assyria), Early and Old Assyrian E ...
spent the remainder of his reign reasserting control over those peoples. During this period,
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
took the opportunity to reassert its influence on the region. As a result of all these events, Assyria did not expand further during the reign of Shamshi-Adad V.
Adad-nirari III Adad-nirari III (also Adad-narari) was a King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC. Family Adad-nirari was a son and predecessor of king Shamshi-Adad V, and was apparently quite young at the time of his accession, because for the first five years of his ...
was a boy when succeeding his father in 811 BC, and for five years until 806 BC, his mother, Queen Sammuramat (also depicted as
Semiramis ''Semíramis'', hy, Շամիրամ ''Šamiram'') was the mythological Lydians, Lydian-Neo-Babylonian Empire, Babylonian wife of Onnes (general), Onnes and Ninus, who succeeded the latter to the throne of Assyria, as in the fables of Movses Khorena ...

Semiramis
) ruled as regent in his stead. Despite the numerous legends regarding this queen, she is mentioned little in Assyrian records of the time. In 806 BC,
Adad-nirari III Adad-nirari III (also Adad-narari) was a King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC. Family Adad-nirari was a son and predecessor of king Shamshi-Adad V, and was apparently quite young at the time of his accession, because for the first five years of his ...
took the reins of power. He invaded the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
and subjugated the
Arameans The Arameans (Old Aramaic Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language Aramaic ( Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Aramaic alphabet, Imperial Aramaic: ; Hebrew alphabet, square script ) is a language t ...
,
Phoenicians Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0 ...

Phoenicians
,
Philistines The Philistines were an ancient people who lived on the south coast of Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of th ...
,
Israelites The Israelites (; ) were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israel and Judah, tribal and monarchic peri ...

Israelites
, Neo-
Hittites The Hittites () were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kanesh or Nesha kingdom (c. 1750–1650 BC), and next an empire centered on Hattusa Hattusa (also ...

Hittites
and
Edomites Edom (; Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ''’Edām''; he, אֱדוֹם ''ʼÉḏōm'', lit.: "red"; akk, 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 ''Uduma'') was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Ar ...
. He entered
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
and forced tribute upon its king
Ben-Hadad III Bar-Hadad III ( Aram.) (ܒܪ ܚܕܕ) or Ben-Hadad III ( Heb.) (בֶּן-הֲדַד) was king of Aram Damascus Aram-Damascus ( or ) was an Aramean state around Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto ...
. He next turned to
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, and subjugated the
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
ns,
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
and Manneans, penetrating as far as the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
. His next targets were the
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
n and Sutu tribes of southeastern Mesopotamia whom he conquered and reduced to vassalage.


Period of stagnation, 783–745 BC

Adad-nirari III died prematurely in 783 BC, and this led to a period of true stagnation.
Shalmaneser IVShalmaneser IV was king of Assyria (783–773 BC). He succeeded his father Adad-nirari III, and was succeeded by his brother Ashur-dan III. Very little information about his reign has survived. According to the eponym canon, he led several campaigns ...
(783–773 BC) seems to have wielded little authority, and a victory over
Argishti I Argishti I (), was the sixth known monarch, king of Urartu, reigning from 786 BC to 764 BC. He founded the citadel of Erebuni Fortress, Erebuni in 782 BC, which is the present capital of Armenia, Yerevan. Alternate transliterations of the name inclu ...

Argishti I
, king of
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
at
Til Barsip Til Barsip or Til Barsib (Hittite language, Hittite Masuwari, modern Tell Ahmar; ar, تل أحمر) is an ancient site situated in Aleppo Governorate, Syria by the Euphrates river about 20 kilometers south of ancient Carchemish. History The site ...
, is accredited to a general ('
Turtanu"Turtanu" or "Turtan" (AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of ...
') named
Shamshi-ilu Shamshi-ilu (Šamši-ilu) was an influential court dignitary and commander in chief ( turtanu) of the Assyrian army who rose in high prominence. Origins Shamshi-ilu probably was not born in Assyria, though he was from noble lineage of the Bit Adi ...
who does not even bother to mention his king. Shamshi-ilu also scored victories over the
Arameans The Arameans (Old Aramaic Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language Aramaic ( Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Aramaic alphabet, Imperial Aramaic: ; Hebrew alphabet, square script ) is a language t ...
and Neo-
Hittites The Hittites () were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kanesh or Nesha kingdom (c. 1750–1650 BC), and next an empire centered on Hattusa Hattusa (also ...

Hittites
, and again, takes personal credit at the expense of his king.
Ashur-dan IIIAshur-dan III was King of Assyria from 772 to 755 BC. Ashur-dan III was the son of Adad-nirari III, and succeeded his brother Shalmaneser IV in 773 BC. Ashur-dan's reign was a difficult age for the Assyrian monarchy. The rulership was severely limit ...
ascended the throne in 772 BC. He proved to be a largely ineffectual ruler who was beset by internal rebellions in the cities of
Ashur Ashur () was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. Ashur's brothers were Biblical Elam, Elam, Arpachshad, Arphaxad, Lud son of Shem, Lud, and Aram, son of Shem, Aram. Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there was contention in acade ...

Ashur
, Arrapkha, and
Guzana Tell Halaf ( ar, تل حلف) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah , parts_type = Control , parts_style = para , p1 = Autonomous Administration of North and East S ...
. He failed to make further gains in Babylonia and Aram (Syria). His reign was also marred by Plague and an ominous
Solar Eclipse A solar eclipse occurs when a portion of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...

Solar Eclipse
.
Ashur-nirari VAshur-nirari V was King of Assyria from 755 to 745 BC. He was succeeded by Tiglath-Pileser III. Ashur-nirari V was a son of Adad-nirari III, and preceded by his brother, Ashur-dan III. He inherited a difficult situation from his predecessor. The Ass ...
became king in 754 BC, but his reign seems to have been one of permanent revolution, and he appears to have barely left his palace in Nineveh before he was deposed by
Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser III (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_ ...
in 745 BC, bringing a resurgence to Assyria.


Tiglath-Pileser III, 744–727 BC

When
Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser III (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_ ...
ascended the throne, Assyria was in the throes of a revolution.
Civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
and pestilence were devastating the country, and many of Assyria's most northerly colonies in Asia Minor had been wrested from it by Urartu. In 746 BC, the city of Kalhu joined the rebels, but on the 13th of ''Iyyar'' in the following year, an Assyrian general (Turtanu) named Pulu seized the crown under the name of
Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser III (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_ ...
, and made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. The conquered provinces were organized under an elaborate bureaucracy, with the king at the head—each district paying a fixed tribute and providing a military contingent. The Assyrian forces at this time became a professional standing army. Assyrian policy was henceforth directed toward reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire, throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands. These changes are often identified as the beginning of the "Second Assyrian Empire". When Tiglath-Pileser III had ascended the throne of Assyria, he invaded Babylonia, defeated its king
Nabonassar Nabû-nāṣir was the king of Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿 ...
, and abducted the gods of Šapazza; these events are recorded in the Assyrian-Babylonian Chronicle. After subjecting Babylon to tribute, defeating Urartu and conquering the Medes, Persians and
Neo-Hittite and Arameans, Aramean states ( 800 BCE) The states that are called Syro-Hittite, Neo-Hittite (in older literature), or Luwian-Aramean (in modern scholarly works), were Luwians, Luwian and Arameans, Aramean regional polities of the Iron Age, situated ...
s, Tiglath-Pileser III directed his armies into Aramea, of which large swathes had regained independence, and the commercially successful
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
seaports of Phoenicia. He took Arpad near
Aleppo )), is an adjective which means "white-colored mixed with black". , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = , map_caption = , image_map1 ...

Aleppo
in 740 BC after a siege of three years, and razed
Hamath , timezone = Eastern European Time, EET , utc_offset = +2 , timezone_DST = Eastern European Summer Time, EEST , utc_offset_DST = +3 , postal_code_type ...
. Azariah, king of
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
had been an ally of the king of Hamath, and thus was compelled by Tiglath-Pileser to do him homage and pay yearly tribute.


Invasion of Israel (738 BC)

In 738 BC, during the reign of king
Menahem Menahem or Menachem (, from a Hebrew word meaning "the consoler" or "comforter"; akk, 𒈪𒉌𒄭𒅎𒈨 ''Meniḫîmme'' 'me-ni-ḫi-im-me'' Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

Menahem
of Israel, Tiglath-Pileser III occupied
Philistia Philistia (, ''Pəlešeṯ'', Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
(modern-day southwestern Israel and the
Gaza Strip The Gaza Strip (;The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza.. ...
) and invaded
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...
, imposing on it a heavy tribute.
Ahaz Ahaz (; gr, Ἄχαζ, Ἀχάζ ''Akhaz''; la, Achaz) an abbreviation of Jehoahaz II (of Judah), "Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. His origins reach at least ...

Ahaz
, king of
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
, engaged in a war against Israel and Aramea, appealed for help to the Assyrian king by means of presents of gold and silver; Tiglath-Pileser III accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put king
Rezin King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is ...
to death, and besieged the city itself". Leaving part of his army to continue the siege, he advanced, ravaging with fire and sword the provinces east of the
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It in ...

Jordan
(
Nabatea The Nabataean Kingdom ( ar, المملكة النبطية, al-Mamlakah an-Nabaṭiyyah), also named Nabatea (), was a political state of the Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , p ...
,
Moab Moab ''Mōáb''; Akkadian language, Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Mu'aba'', 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Ma'ba'', 𒈠𒀪𒀊 ''Ma'ab''; Egyptian language, Egyptian: 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 ''Mū'ībū'', name=, group= () is the name of an anci ...
and
Edom Edom (; Edomite Edom (; Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ''’Edām''; he, אֱדוֹם ''ʼÉḏōm'', lit.: "red"; akk, 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 ''Uduma'') was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah Th ...

Edom
),
Philistia Philistia (, ''Pəlešeṯ'', Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
, and
Samaria Samaria, , also known as , 'Nablus Mountains' () is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the Land of Israel, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set t ...

Samaria
; and in 732 BC he took the chief Aramean state of
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
, deporting many of its inhabitants and the
Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israe ...
inhabitants of Samaria to Assyria. He also forced tribute from the
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
of the deserts in the
Arabian peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
. In 729 BC, Tiglath-Pileser III went to Babylonia and captured
Nabu-mukin-zeri Nabû-mukin-zēri, inscribed mdAG-DU-NUMUN, also known as Mukin-zēri,''Kinglist A'', BM 33332, iv 7. was the king of Babylon 731–729 BC. The Ptolemaic Canon gives his name as Χινζηρος. His reign was brought to its eventual end by the ca ...
, the king of Babylon. He had himself crowned as King Pulu of Babylon. Tiglath-Pileser III died in 727 BC, and was succeeded by
Shalmaneser V Shalmaneser V ( Neo-Assyrian cuneiform: , meaning " Salmānu is foremost") was the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire ( Assyrian cuneiform: ''mat Aš-šur KI'', "Country of the city A city is a large human settlement.Gooda ...

Shalmaneser V
. However, King
Hoshea Hoshea ( he, הוֹשֵׁעַ, ''Hōšē‘a'', "salvation"; akk, 𒀀𒌑𒋛𒀪 ''Aúsiʾa'' 'a-ú-si-ʾ'' la, Osee) was the nineteenth and last king of the Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a ...
of Israel suspended paying tribute, and allied himself with
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
against Assyria in 725 BC. This led Shalmaneser to invade Syria and besiege Samaria (capital city of Israel) for three years.


Sargonid dynasty


Sargon II, 721–705 BC

Shalmaneser V died suddenly in 722 BC, while laying siege to Samaria, and the throne was seized by
Sargon II Sargon II (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_.ht ...
, the ''Turtanu'' (commander-in-chief of the army, which the Jewish sources record as ''Tartan''), who then quickly took Samaria, effectively ending the northern Kingdom of Israel and carrying 27,000 people away into captivity into the Israelite diaspora. Sargon II waged war in his second year (721 BC) against the king of
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
, Humban-Nikash I, and his ally
Marduk-apal-iddina II Marduk-apla-iddina II (cuneiform spelling ᴰMES.A.SUM-na; in the Bible Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan, lit. ''Marduk has given me an heir'') was a Chaldean leader from the Bit-Yakin tribe, originally est ...
(the biblical ), the
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
n ruler of Babylon, who had thrown off Assyrian rule, but Sargon was unable to dislodge him on this occasion. Sargon, able to contain the revolt but not actually retake Babylon on this occasion, turned his attention again to
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
and Aramea, taking
Carchemish Carchemish (Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, ...

Carchemish
in 717, as well as re-conquering the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
, Persians and Manneans, penetrating the as far as Mount Bikni and building several fortresses. Urartu suffered a crushing defeat—its capital city was sacked and its king Rusas committed suicide in shame. The
Neo-Hittite and Arameans, Aramean states ( 800 BCE) The states that are called Syro-Hittite, Neo-Hittite (in older literature), or Luwian-Aramean (in modern scholarly works), were Luwians, Luwian and Arameans, Aramean regional polities of the Iron Age, situated ...
states of northern
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
were conquered, as well as
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the litera ...

Cilicia
and
Commagene The Kingdom of Commagene ( grc, Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς) was an ancient Greco-Iranian kingdom ruled by a Hellenized branch of the Iranian Orontid dynasty. The kingdom was located in and around the ancient city of Samosata ...

Commagene
. Assyria was belligerent towards
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
for ten years while Marduk-apla-iddina ruled Babylon. In 710 BC, Sargon attacked Babylonia and defeated Marduk-apla-iddina, who fled to his protectors in Elam. As a result of this victory the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
rulers of
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...

Cyprus
gave allegiance to Assyria and king
Midas Midas (; grc-gre, Μίδας) is the name of one of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia. The most famous King Midas is popularly remembered in Greek mythology for his ability to turn everything he touched into gold. This ca ...

Midas
of
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
, fearful of Assyrian power, offered his hand in friendship. Sargon also built a new capital at Dur Sharrukin ("Sargon's City") near Nineveh, with all the tribute Assyria had collected from various nations.


Sennacherib, 705–681 BC

In 705 BC, Sargon was killed in battle while driving out the
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
, who had come down from their homeland on the shores of the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
and attacked the Assyrian-ruled colonies and peoples in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, forcing its
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
n subjects southwards from their original lands around
Urmia Urmia or Orumiyeh ( fa, ارومیه, ;Variously transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of sp ...

Urmia
. He was succeeded by his son
Sennacherib Sennacherib (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_Press_. ...

Sennacherib
. His first task was to affirm his control over
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the litera ...

Cilicia
, which was attempting to rebel with Greek help. Sennacherib marched into Cilicia, defeating the rebels and their Greek allies. He also reasserted Assyria's mastery of
Corduene Corduene ('; '' hy, Կորճայք, translit=Korchayk''; '; ) was an ancient region located south of Lake Van, present-day eastern Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Eu ...
in Asia Minor. Sennacherib decided to move the capital from Sargon's Dur-Sharrukin to the city of
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
, and in Nineveh he built the famous "the Palace without a Rival", he made Nineveh a beautiful city and improved the city, planting orchards and gardens. The Egyptians had begun agitating peoples within the Assyrian empire in an attempt to gain a foothold in the region. As a result, in 701 BC, Hezekiah of
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
, Lule king of
Sidon Sidon ( ), known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western A ...

Sidon
, Sidka, king of Ashkelon, Ascalon and the king of Ekron formed an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. Sennacherib attacked the rebels, conquering Ascalon, Sidon and Ekron and defeating the Egyptians and driving them from the region. He marched toward Jerusalem, destroying 46 towns and villages (including the heavily defended city of Lachish) in his path. This is graphically described in Isaiah 10; exactly what happened next is unclear (the Bible says an angel of the Lord killed 185,000 Assyrian soldiers at Jerusalem after Hezekiah prayed in the temple). Sennacherib's account says Judah paid him tribute and he left. The Hebrew Bible states that Hezekiah did pay tribute once, and the Assyrians left, but returned a second time when the soldiers were then killed; however what is certain is that Sennacherib failed to actually capture Jerusalem. Marduk-apla-iddina had returned to Babylonia during the reign of Sennacherib. The Assyrian king attacked him in 703 BC outside Kish (Sumer), Kish and defeated him. Sennacherib plundered Babylonia and pursued Marduk-apla-iddina through the land. At his return to Assyria, Sennacherib installed a puppet ruler, Bel-ibni, as king of Babylon. Bel-ibni, however, committed hostilities, so Sennacherib returned to Babylon in 700 BC and captured him and his officers. Sennacherib instead installed his own son Ashur-nadin-shumi on the throne of Babylon. Sennacherib launched a campaign against
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
in 694 BC and ravaged the land. In retaliation, the king of Elam attacked Babylonia. Ashur-nadin-shumi was captured and brought back to Elam and a new king called Nergal-ushezib was installed as ruler of Babylon. The Assyrians returned the next year to Babylonia and plundered the gods of Uruk. Nergal-ušezib and his Elamite allies were defeated by Assyria, and he was taken prisoner and transported to Assyria. Another native ruler, called Mushezib-Marduk, soon seized the throne of Babylon. He held on to it with help of his Elamite allies for four years until 689 BC, when the Assyrians retook the city. Sennacherib responded swiftly by opening the canals around Babylon and flooding the outside of the city until it became a swamp, resulting in its destruction, and its inhabitants were scattered. In 681 BC, Sennacherib was murdered while praying to the god Nisroch by one or more of his own sons (allegedly named Adremelech, Abimlech, and Sharezer), perhaps as retribution for his destruction of Babylon.


Esarhaddon, 681–669 BC

Sennacherib was succeeded by his son Esarhaddon (''Ashur-ahhe-iddina''), who had been governor of Babylonia; at the time of his father's murder he was campaigning in the Caucasus Mountains against
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
, where he won a victory at Malatia (Milid). During the first year of Esarhaddon's rule, a rebellion broke out in the south of Babylonia. Nabu-zer-kitti-lišir, an ethnic Elamite governor of the ''mat Tamti'', with the help of the
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
ns, laid siege to . The Elamite and his Chaldean allies were defeated and he fled to his kinsmen in Elam (''Hal-Tamti''); however, "the king of Elam took him prisoner and put him to the sword" (ABC 1 Col.3:39–42); also in (ABC 14:1–4). In 679 BC the
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
and
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
(a horse-riding horde from what is now southern Russia) crossed the Taurus Mountains and harassed Assyrian colonies in
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the litera ...

Cilicia
. Esarhaddon swiftly attacked and drove these marauders away. As king of Assyria, Esarhaddon immediately had Babylon rebuilt. Defeating the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
,
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
and
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
(again penetrating to Mt. Bikni), he then turned his attention westward to
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
—now allying itself with the Nubian people, Nubian/Kushite rulers of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
against him—and sacked
Sidon Sidon ( ), known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western A ...

Sidon
in 677 BC. He also captured Manasseh of Judah, King Manasseh of
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
and kept him prisoner for some time in Babylon (2 Chronicles 33:11). Having had enough of Egyptian meddling, Esarhaddon raided Egypt in 673 BC. Two years later he launched a full invasion and conquered Egypt, chasing the Pharaoh Taharqa back to Nubia, thus bringing to an end Nubian-Kushite rule in Egypt, and destroying the Kushite Empire which had begun in 760 BC. ''The Babylonian Chronicles'' retells how Egypt "was sacked and its gods were abducted". Tirhakah fled Egypt, and a stele commemorating the victory, was set up at Sinjerli in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
, north of the Gulf of Antioch; it is now in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The Bible graphically recounts Egypt's demise in Isaiah 20:4 "So shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the People of Ethiopia, Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot, even with their buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt. 5 And they shall be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation, and of Egypt their glory." Assyria defeated
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
, annexed much of its territory and reduced it to vassalage, and expanded southwards as far as
Dilmun Dilmun, or Telmun, (Sumerian: , later 𒉌𒌇(𒆠), ni.tukki = DILMUNki; ar, دلمون) was an ancient East Semitic The East Semitic languages are one of three divisions Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematic ...
(Bahrain) and into
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
at this time. This was perhaps Assyria's greatest territorial extent. However, the Assyrian governors and local puppet rulers Esarhaddon had appointed over Egypt were obliged to flee the restive native Egyptian populace who yearned for independence now that the Kushites and Nubians had been ejected. A new campaign was launched by Esarhaddon in 669 BC. However, he became ill on the way and died. His elder son Shamash-shum-ukin became king of Babylon and his son
Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal, also spelled Assurbanipal, Asshurbanipal and Asurbanipal (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbrevi ...
became king of Assyria, with Ashurbanipal holding the senior position and Babylon subject to Nineveh. Bel (god), Bel and the gods of Babylonia returned from their exile in Assur to Babylon in the first year of Shamash-shum-ukin's reign, and the akitu festival could be celebrated for the first time in twenty years.


Ashurbanipal, 668–631 BC

Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal, also spelled Assurbanipal, Asshurbanipal and Asurbanipal (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbrevi ...
, or "Ashur-bani-apli" (''Ashurbanapli, Asnapper''), succeeded his father Esarhaddon to the throne. He continued to campaign in and to dominate Egypt, when not distracted by having to deal with pressures from the Medes to the east, and
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
and
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
to the north of Assyria. He installed a native Egyptian Pharaoh, Psammetichus I, Psammetichus, as a vassal king in 664 BC. However, after Gyges of Lydia's appeal for Assyrian help against the Cimmerians was rejected,
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
n mercenaries were sent to Psammetichus. By 652 BC, this vassal king was able to declare outright independence from Assyria with impunity, particularly as Ashurbanipal's older brother, Shamash-shum-ukin of Babylon, became infused with Babylonian nationalism, and began a major civil war in that year. However, the new dynasty in Egypt wisely maintained friendly relations with Assyria. Shamash-shum-ukin attempted to raise a huge rebellion encompassing many vassal peoples against Ashurbanipal; however, this largely failed. This rebellion lasted until 648 BC, when Babylon was sacked, and Shamash-shum-ukin set fire to the palace, killing himself. Ashurbanipal then set about punishing the
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
ns,
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
and Nabateans who had supported the Babylonian revolt. He invaded the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
and routed and subjugated the Arabs, including the powerful Qedar tribe, taking much booty back to
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
and killing the Arab kings, Abiate and Uate. The Nabateans who dwelt south of the Dead Sea and in northern Arabia, and the Chaldeans in the far south east of Mesopotamia were also defeated and subjugated.
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
was the next target; it was attacked in 646 and 640 BC, and its capital Susa sacked. After the crushing of the Babylonian revolt Ashurbanipal appeared master of all he surveyed. To the east,
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
was devastated and prostrate before Assyria, the Manneans and the Iranian peoples, Iranian
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
ns and
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
were vassals. To the south,
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
was occupied, the Ancient Chaldean people, Chaldeans,
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
, Sutu and Nabateans subjugated, the Nubian empire destroyed, and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
paid tribute. To the north, the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
and
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
had been vanquished and driven from Assyrian territory,
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
,
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
,
Corduene Corduene ('; '' hy, Կորճայք, translit=Korchayk''; '; ) was an ancient region located south of Lake Van, present-day eastern Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Eu ...
and the neo
Hittites The Hittites () were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kanesh or Nesha kingdom (c. 1750–1650 BC), and next an empire centered on Hattusa Hattusa (also ...

Hittites
were in vassalage, and
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
pleaded for Assyrian protection. To the west, Aramea (Syria), the
Phoenicians Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0 ...

Phoenicians
, Israel,
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...
,
Samarra Samarra ( ar, سَامَرَّاء, ') is a city in Iraq Iraq ( ar, ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku, عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق '), is a c ...

Samarra
and
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...

Cyprus
were subjugated, and the Hellenised inhabitants of Caria,
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the litera ...

Cilicia
, Cappadocia and
Commagene The Kingdom of Commagene ( grc, Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς) was an ancient Greco-Iranian kingdom ruled by a Hellenized branch of the Iranian Orontid dynasty. The kingdom was located in and around the ancient city of Samosata ...

Commagene
paid tribute to Assyria. Assyria now appeared stronger than ever. However, his long struggle with Babylonia and Elam and their allies, and the constant campaigning to control and expand its vast empire in all directions, left Assyria exhausted. It had been drained of wealth and manpower; the devastated provinces could yield nothing to supply the needs of the imperial exchequer, and it was difficult to find sufficient troops to garrison the huge empire. Assyria, therefore, was ill-prepared to face the renewed hordes of
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
who now began to harass the frontiers to the north and north east. After the Assyrians destroyed Elam, the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
had begun to grow powerful, becoming the dominant force among the Iranian peoples, Iranian peoples who had begun to settle the regions to the east of Mesopotamia circa 1000 BC at the expense of the Achaemenid Empire, Persians and the pre-Iranian Elamites and Manneans, and they were by the end of Ashurbanipal's reign only nominally under Assyrian vassalage.
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
too was full of hostile
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
and
Cimmerians The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
who had overrun
Urartu Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the for the kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its , the Kingdom of Van, centered around in the historic . The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into grad ...

Urartu
,
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
and
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
, before being driven back by the Assyrians. However, while Ashurbanipal lived, he was able to contain these potential threats.


Fall of Assyria, 631–609 BC

The empire began to disintegrate rapidly after a series of bitter civil wars broke out involving a number of claimants to the throne. Ashur-etil-ilani succeeded Ashurbanipal, but his reign was short and he was succeeded in 627 BC by his brother Sinsharishkun. After dealing with the revolt of the general Sin-shumu-lishir, Sinsharishkun faced a much larger threat. His Babylonian vassal state had taken advantage of the upheavals in Assyria and rebelled under the previously unknown
Nabopolassar Nabopolassar ( Babylonian cuneiform: ''Nabû-apla-uṣur'', meaning " Nabu, protect the son") was the founder and first king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, ruling from his coronation as king of Babylon in 626 BC to his death in 605 BC. Though initi ...
, a member of the
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
n tribe, in 625 BC. What followed was a long war fought in the Babylonian heartland. Nabopolassar tried to capture Nippur, the main Assyrian center of power in Babylonia, but was defeated by Sinsharishkun. However, Nabopolassar did take the actual city of Babylon after a popular uprising there, and was crowned king of the city in 625 BC. Sinsharishkun then lost more ground, before he succeeded in recapturing Uruk in about 624 BC, only to quickly lose it again. When Sinsharishkun led a large army to Babylonia in 623 BC, in an attempt to finally crush the rebellion, yet another war broke out in the Assyrian homeland. A relief army was sent back from the Babylonian campaign but changed sides, thereby allowing the usurper to reach the capital, Nineveh, without interference, and claim the throne. Sinsharishkun was able to quell the homeland rebellion, but precious time was lost to solve the Babylonian problem, and Nabopolassar was able to consolidate his position. In 620 BC, Nabopolassar finally captured Nippur, becoming master of Babylonia. While these events were unfolding, the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
had also freed themselves from Assyrian domination and consolidated power in what was to become
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
. In October or November 615, the Medes under King
Cyaxares Cyaxares ( grc, Κυαξάρης; peo, 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼 ; Avestan: ''Huxšaθra'' "Good Ruler"; Akkadian language, Akkadian: ''Umakištar''; Phrygian language, Old Phrygian: ''ksuwaksaros''; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable ...
invaded Assyria and conquered the region around the city of
Arrapha Arrapha or Arrapkha ( Akkadian: ''Arrapḫa''; ar, أررابخا ,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq Iraq ( ar, ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku, عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُور ...
in preparation for a great final campaign against the Assyrians. That same year, they defeated Sinsharishkun at the Fall of Tarbisu, Battle of Tarbisu, and in 614, they Fall of Assur, conquered Assur, plundering the city and killing many of its inhabitants. Nabopolassar only arrived at Assur after the plunder had already begun and met with Cyaxares, allying with him, signing an anti-Assyrian pact and Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar married a Median princess. Assyria now faced overwhelming odds, and after four years of bitter fighting, the coalition destroyed Nineveh in 612 BC, after a three-month siege, followed by house-to-house fighting, with the Medes playing a major part in the city's downfall. Although Sinsharishkun's fate is not entirely certain, it is commonly accepted that he died in the defense of Nineveh. The Battle of Nineveh (612 BC), Fall of Nineveh marked the beginning of the end of the Assyrian Empire. A general called Ashur-uballit II was declared king of Assyria, and with belated military support from the Egyptian pharaoh Necho II, whose dynasty had been installed with the help of the Assyrians, held out at Harran until 609 BC.Grant, R G. ''Battle a Visual Journey Through 5000 Years of Combat''. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2005 pg 19 After the Fall of Assur, destruction of Assur in 614, the traditional Assyrian coronation was impossible, so Ashur-uballit II was crowned in Harran, which he made his new capital. While the Babylonians saw him as the Assyrian king, the few remaining subjects Ashur-uballit II governed likely did not share this view, and his formal title remained crown prince (''mar šarri'', literally meaning "son of the king"). However, Ashur-uballit not formally being king does not indicate that his claim to the throne was challenged, only that he had yet to go through with the traditional ceremony. In 609 BC, at the Battle of Megiddo (609 BC), Battle of Megiddo, an Egyptian force defeated a Judean force under king Josiah and managed to reach the last remnants of the Assyrian army. In a final Fall of Harran, battle at Harran in 609 BC, the Babylonians and Medes defeated the
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
n-Ancient Egypt, Egyptian alliance, after which Assyria ceased to exist as an independent state. It is not known if Ashur-uballit II was killed at Harran or if he survived; anyway, he subsequently disappeared from the pages of history. In 605 BC, another Egyptian force fought the Babylonians (Battle of Carchemish), helped by the remnants of the army of the former Assyria, but this too met with defeat. In the mid-6th century BC, Babylonia and Assyria Achaemenid Assyria, became provinces of the Persian Empire. In 520 BC, Assyria made a final attempt to regain independence, with a large-scale rebellion against the Achaemenid Empire, which was suppressed by king Darius the Great. Though the Assyrians during the reign of
Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal, also spelled Assurbanipal, Asshurbanipal and Asurbanipal (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbrevi ...
destroyed the
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite: ''hatamti''; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronz ...

Elam
ite civilization, the Assyrians' culture did influence the succeeding empires of the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
and the
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
ns, Indo-Iranians, Indo-Iranian peoples who had been dominated by Assyria.


Environmental factors

A.W. Schneider and S.F. Adah have suggested that increased population coupled with severe drought contributed to significant economic and political instability. Conquered peoples were often Resettlement policy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, deported great distances and resettled in Assyrian provinces to minimize the possibility of revolts. The Assyrian heartland had undergone a population explosion during the late 8th and early 7th centuries, largely due to the forced resettlement of conquered peoples into the empire. However, a study on mineral deposits in two stalagmites taken from northern Iraq's Kuna Ba Cave, indicates to a shift from a wet climate to a dry one between 675 and 550 BC, which might have contributed to the fall of Neo-Assyrian Empire.


Assyria after the fall

After its fall, Assyria came to be ruled by the Median Empire as Athura for a short period. Ironically, Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon, was Kings of Assyria, Assyrian, originating from Harran, as was his son Belshazzar. After this it was ruled by Achaemenid Persia (Assyria revolted against Persia in 520 BC), the Greek Seleucid kings, then again by various Persian dynasties, Parthian Empire, Parthians, Sassanids etc. For a brief period under Trajan, it was ruled by Rome. Assyria survived as an entity, a subject province. The name survived also in various forms (Athura, Asuristan, Assyria (Roman province), Roman Province of Assyria, Seleucid Syria, etc.) and the land was recognised as such by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Armenians, Georgians and Byzantines. After the Arab conquest of the late 7th century AD the province of Assyria was finally dissolved. Assyrian culture survived; Assyrio-Babylonian gods were worshipped well into Christian times, as late as the 4th century A

and temples were still being dedicated to the god Ashur (god), Ashur in his home city in the late 3rd century AD. A number of kingdoms that had Assyrian identity, such as Assur, Hatra, Osrhoene and Adiabene, sprung up in Assyria between the 2nd century BC and 4th century AD. Christianity took hold between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, and Parthian and Sassanid Assyria (Asuristan) became the center of the Assyrian Church of the East, Syriac Christianity and Syriac literature (the term "Syria" being an Indo-European languages, Indo-European (Luwian) corruption of "Assyria" adopted by the Greeks), where it still survives.


Language

Initially, during the early Neo-Assyrian period (from the 10th to the 8th century),
AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages' ...

Akkadian
language continued to be the main and dominant language of the Empire. Due to territorial expansion towards western regions, and consequent annexation of various Arameans, Aramean states during the second half of the 8th century BC,
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
language also gained importance and was gradually accepted as an additional language of public life and administration. Tiglath Pileser III made Aramaic the official language of the empire, replacing Akkadian, which had been the language of the empire for centuries. Aramaic was simpler to write than Akkadian so older documents that were collected by rulers such as Ashurbanipal were interpreted from Akkadian into Aramaic, whereas more current ones were written in Aramaic and overlooked the Akkadian. Aramaic was the common language of the people and traders, but the official government language was the Neo-Assyrian dialect of
AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages' ...

Akkadian
. By the 6th century, however, Aramaic had marginalised the Akkadian language so much that Aramaic came to be the Imperial Aramaic, imperial language of Achaemenid Assyria. One of the key factors contributing to the use of Aramaic was the rise and fall of Assyria; during its rule, deportations, colonisations, and intermarriage increased contact between Arameans and Assyrians. In effect the populations of both Assyria and Babylonia had become an ethnic mix of native Akkadians and Arameans. Even though Aramaic was the common tongue of the empire, Akkadian continued to be the preferred language of royalty and the elites. Rulers, royalty and elites were all trained to speak both Aramaic and Akkadian until, by the 7th century BC, the ruling class was fully bilingual. The rest of the empire was divided into two sects: those who spoke Aramaic and those who spoke Akkadian. Generally, the common people and traders were also bilingual but Aramaic continued to dominate the empire outside Assyria proper. As the Empire fell, only the elite knew how to read and write the Akkadian cuneiform, Akkadian script. The savage sacking of Nineveh and Assur, as well as numerous other Assyrian cities, ensured that few of these elites survived to pass on the language, but some cities such as Arrapkha were spared the destruction. Akkadian survived the fall of Assyria; the last recorded writings in Akkadian cuneiform date from the 1st century AD.


Administration

The Assyrian empire expanded through establishing provinces and vassal states.Parker, Bradley J. ''The Mechanics of Empire: The Northern Frontier of Assyria as a Case Study in Imperial Dynamics''. University of Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. 2001. Many of these lands were under control by members of the king's court. Most of these offices had names that were titular, but holders of these offices may have enacted their namesakes in ceremonial manners. The provinces were a form of territorial control and were made up of the capital city, farming villages, road stations, outposts, and garrisons. The province itself was managed by the provincial governor, who also had militaristic duties like gathering and reporting military intelligence, or leading Assyrian armies in battle. As governors, they only answered to the king, and certain officials of the king's high court. A State communications in the Neo-Assyrian Empire, state communication system, consisting of mule riders travelling in royal road with change stations within certain intervals, allowed the imperial court to communicate efficiently with the governors. Those directly beneath the governors were their deputy governors, and they oversaw a number of auxiliary officials like bureaucrats, scribes, and accountants. The lowest rank in the provincial government were the village managers who mostly supervised local farming efforts and projects. The vassal states were under Hegemony, hegemonic control and these were territories gained through a show of military dominance – by either forcing their way through or proving that they could. Those who submitted peacefully remained relatively autonomous and their ruling elites were permitted to stay in power. Those who resisted were overthrown and had their rulers replaced with Puppet state, puppet officials loyal to Assyria. The terms for vassalage were that the vassal state was to pay Assyria tribute in the form of goods, labor, and soldiers in exchange for military protection. The protection provided by Assyria seemed to suit the needs of Assyria more than the needs of the vassal states, as Assyria have used a perceived threat toward a vassal state as an excuse to invade nearby settlements, and the vassal states have also been left to fend for themselves. Assyrians invented a new way of dealing with conquered people. After conquering a land, its people would be resettled to other areas within the empire, with land and state assistance. This policy was used to create a uniform population, although it produced some hotbeds of dissent. By the 7th century BC, the royal entourage included scholars, craftsmen and singers from Babylonia, Anatolia, Egypt, and Iran.


Army

The Assyrian empire has been described as the "first List of pre-modern great powers, military power in history".
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
was the site of some of the earliest recorded battles in history. The Assyrian army's hierarchy was typical of the Mesopotamian armies at the time. The King whose rule was sanctioned by the gods, would be the commander of the entire army of the Empire. He would appoint senior officers on certain occasions to campaign in his place if his presence on the battlefield could or had to be spared.Healy, ''The Ancient Assyrians'', p. 19 The Neo-Assyrian Empire took advantage of many different types and styles of militaristic vessels and engines for warfare. This includes chariots, cavalry, and siege engines. File:Assyrian relief of attack on an enemy town during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III 720-743 BCE from his palace at Kalhu (Nimrud).jpg,
Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser III (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_ ...
besieging a town with siege engines Assyrian military campaign in southern Mesopotamia, Assyrian king in his royal chariot, 7th century BC, from Nineveh, Iraq. The British Museum.jpg, Assyrian king on a chariot Assyrian military campaign in southern Mesopotamia, beheaded enemies, 7th century BC, from Nineveh, Iraq. The British Museum.jpg, Assyrian military in Southern Meospotamia File:Assyrian military campaign in southern Mesopotamia, beheaded enemies, 7th century BC, from Nineveh, Iraq. The British Museum.jpg, Beheaded enemies in Southern Mesopotamia File:Assyrian battering ram.jpg, Assyrian battering ram


Yanghai leather scale armor

The neo-assyrian empire created the Yanghai leather scale armor which was a leather Scale armour, scaled armor sold to china 2700 years ago (1st millennium BC, first millennium) BCE. The piece was buried with a 30 year old Equestrianism, horse rider which itself is rare because armors made during the time it took lots of Labour (human activity), labor to make a single piece.


Society

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a warlike society with an expansionist ideology and, as a result of their constant expansion, they acquired a diverse and multi-ethnic empire. One Assyrian identity did not happen until, ironically, Ashurnasirpal II began deporting people from the empire. The majority of the displaced peoples were settled in the urban heart of the empire bringing with them what would become the common language: Aramaic, the first unifying factor. The spreading of Aramaic is known as the Aramaization period and soon the new language would become the common language as well as the imperial language. As the people settled in the new land, they became exposed to Assyrian cultural ideas such as "royal ideologies, religious ideas and mythologies..." and it "was incessantly propagated to all segments of the population through imperial art, emperor cult, religious festivals, and the cults of Aššur, Ištar, Nabû, Sîn and other Assyrian gods." This was a process known as "Assyrianization." The process of Assyrianization was a gradual process that occurred through generations of intermarriages, military participation, and daily interaction with Assyrian people (those who were not descended from the deportees generations earlier). Through the generations of cultural and linguistic exchange there came to be a homogenous Assyrian identity.


Eunuchs in elite society

Eunuchs often filled roles as servants to the kings and accompanied him in almost all aspects of ruling, such as administrative duties and rituals. Royal eunuchs were regularly promoted to being provincial governors and they could rule the lands as they saw fit; they could "erect their own steles, place their names before that of the king's, and grant zakatu (tax-free status) to their subjects." As governors of their own lands, they had the right to declare war on other governances and collect any tribute that may have resulted from the battles.


Culture

Several of the most ancient works of Mesopotamian literature are best preserved in Neo-Assyrian copies. Thus, there are 7th-century copies of both the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Enûma Eliš from
Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal, also spelled Assurbanipal, Asshurbanipal and Asurbanipal (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbrevi ...
's library in
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
, as well as Neo-Assyrian versions of the Atra-Hasis. Neo-Assyrian cuneiform is the final stage of the long evolution of the cuneiform script. The number of glyphs was reduced, and the glyph shapes were standardized and simplified, so that modern List of cuneiform signs, cuneiform sign inventories are usually based on the Neo-Assyrian glyph shapes. Neo-Assyrian cuneiform remained in use alongside the Aramaic alphabet well into Parthian Empire, Parthian times. The Aramaic language from the 8th century BC was adopted as the Lingua Franca of the Assyrian Empire and continued by the Achaemenid Empire. Assyrian scribes are often depicted in pairs: one writing in Akkadian on the cuneiform tablet, the other writing in Aramaic on the parchment or papyrus. The main cities that existed in Assyria itself were
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
,
Ashur Ashur () was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. Ashur's brothers were Biblical Elam, Elam, Arpachshad, Arphaxad, Lud son of Shem, Lud, and Aram, son of Shem, Aram. Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there was contention in acade ...

Ashur
,
Kalhu Nimrud (; syr, ܢܢܡܪܕ ar, النمرود) is an ancient Assyrian people, Assyrian city located in Iraq, south of the city of Mosul, and south of the village of Selamiyah ( ar, السلامية), in the Nineveh Plains in Upper Mesopotamia ...
(
Calah Nimrud (; syr, ܢܢܡܪܕ ar, النمرود) is an ancient Assyrian people, Assyrian city located in Iraq, south of the city of Mosul, and south of the village of Selamiyah ( ar, السلامية), in the Nineveh Plains in Upper Mesopotamia ...
,
Nimrud Nimrud (; syr, ܢܢܡܪܕ ar, النمرود) is an ancient Assyrian city located south of the city of Mosul, and south of the village of Selamiyah ( ar, السلامية), in the Nineveh plains in Upper Mesopotamia. It was a major Assyri ...
), Sippar, Opis,
Arrapha Arrapha or Arrapkha ( Akkadian: ''Arrapḫa''; ar, أررابخا ,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq Iraq ( ar, ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku, عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُور ...
(
Kirkuk Kirkuk ( ar, كركوك, ku, کەرکووک, translit=Kerkûk, , tr, Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad. The city is home to a diverse population of Iraqi Turkmen, Turkmens, A ...

Kirkuk
), Harran, (Erbil) and Ekallatum. Outside of Assyria proper, major cities at various times under Assyrian domination were
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
,
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
(Dimashq), Thebes, Egypt, Thebes, Memphis, Egypt, Memphis, Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre,
Sidon Sidon ( ), known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western A ...

Sidon
, Ecbatana, Hattusa, Jerusalem, Susa, Persepolis,
Carchemish Carchemish (Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, ...

Carchemish
, Sardis, , Uruk, Nippur and Antioch. At the end of the Bronze Age, Nineveh was much smaller than
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
, but still one of the world's major cities (population about 33,000). By the end of the Neo-Assyrian period, it had grown to a population of some 120,000, and was possibly the largest city of that time. All free male citizens were obliged to serve in the army for a time, a system which was called the ilkum-service. The Assyrian law code was compiled during this period.


See also

* Timeline of the Assyrian Empire * Mesopotamian Religion * Military history of the Neo-Assyrian Empire * Assyrian conquest of Aram * Name of Syria


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Roux, Georges (1982) ''Ancient Iraq'', (Penguin, Harmondsworth) * * * *
Women and their Agency in the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Saana Teppo, Master's Thesis, April 2005. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Institute for Asian and African Studies, Assyriology. * *


External links


Chart of World Kingdoms, Nations and Empires – All Empires

Lanfranchi, Giovanni B., "The Expansion of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and itsperipheries: Military, Political and Ideological Resistance"


h2>

Articles from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica

* * * {{Iraq topics Neo-Assyrian Empire, 10th-century BC disestablishments in Assyria 10th-century BC establishments in Assyria 11th century BC 1st millennium BC in Assyria 2nd-millennium BC establishments 609 BC 7th-century BC disestablishments in Assyria Ancient Anatolia Ancient Armenia Ancient Egypt Ancient Levant Ancient Mesopotamia Ancient Near East Ancient history of Iran Ancient history of Turkey Archaeological cultures of the Near East Archaeology of Iraq Bronze Age Asia Countries in ancient Africa Former countries in the Middle East Former empires in Asia, Assyrian Empire, Neo Ancient Upper Mesopotamia History of Western Asia Iron Age Anatolia Iron Age countries in Asia States and territories disestablished in the 10th century BC States and territories disestablished in the 7th century BC States and territories established in the 10th century BC States and territories established in the 2nd millennium BC it:Assiria ku:Împeratoriya Asûr