Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 – October 5, 2003) was an American author, educator, media theorist and cultural critic, who eschewed technology, including personal computers in school and cruise control in cars, and is best known for twenty books regarding technology and education, including ''Amusing Ourselves to Death'' (1985), ''Conscientious Objections'' (1988), ''Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology'' (1992), ''The Disappearance of Childhood'' (1994), and ''The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School'' (1995).


Postman was born in New York City, where he would spend most of his life. In 1953, he graduated from the State University of New York at Fredonia and enlisted in the military but was released less than five months later. At Teachers College, Columbia University he was awarded a Master's degree in 1955 and an Ed.D (Doctor of Education) degree in 1958. Postman took a position with San Francisco State University's English Department in 1958. Soon after, in 1959, he began teaching at New York University (NYU). In 1971, at NYU's Steinhardt School of Education, he founded a graduate program in media ecology. He became the School of Education's only University Professor in 1993, and was chairman of the Department of Culture and Communication until 2002. At age 72, Postman died of lung cancer at a hospital in Flushing, Queens, on October 5, 2003.Wolfgang Saxon
''New York Times'' Obituary: Neil Postman, October 9, 2003
/ref> At the time, he had been married to his wife, Shelley Ross Postman, for 48 years. They had three children. He is buried in Cedar Park Cemetery, Paramus, New Jersey, where his headstone reads "Beloved Husband, Father Grandfather, Brother and Teacher."


Postman wrote 20 books and more than 200 magazine and newspaper articles in, for example, ''The New York Times Magazine'', ''The Atlantic Monthly'', ''Harper's Magazine'', ''Time'', ''Saturday Review'', ''Harvard Educational Review,'' ''The Washington Post'', ''Los Angeles Times'', ''Stern'', and ''Le Monde''. He was the editor of the quarterly journal ''ETC: A Review of General Semantics'' from 1976 to 1986. In 1976, Postman taught a course for NYU credit on CBS-TV's ''Sunrise Semester'' called "Communication: the Invisible Environment". He was also a contributing editor at ''The Nation''. Several of Postman's articles were reprinted after his death in the quarterly journal, ETC.: A Review of General Semantics as part of a 75th Anniversary Edition in October 2013. Postman never owned a computer or typewriter, and wrote exclusively in longhand. Despite his oft-quoted concerns about television, computers, and the role of technology in society, Postman used the medium of television to advance his ideas and sat for many television interviews. Later in life, Postman even had cable television in his home.

On education

In 1969 and 1970 Postman collaborated with New Rochelle educator Alan Shapiro on the development of a model school based on the principles expressed in ''Teaching as a Subversive Activity''. In ''Teaching as a Subversive Activity,'' Postman and co-author Charles Weingartner suggests that many schools have curricula that are trivial and irrelevant to students' lives. The result of Postman and Weingartner's critiques in ''Teaching as a Subversive Activity'' was the "Program for Inquiry, Involvement, and Independent Study" within New Rochelle High School. This "open school" experiment survived for 15 years, and in subsequent years many programs following these principles were developed in American high schools, current survivors include Walter Koral's Language class at the Village School in Great Neck, New York. In a 1973 address, "The Ecology of Learning," at the Conference on English Education, Postman proposes seven changes for schools that build on his critiques expressed in ''Teaching as a Subversive Activity''. First, Postman proposes that schools should be "convivial communities" for learning rather than places that try to control students through judgement and punishment. Secondly, Postman suggests that schools should either discard or dramatically change grading practices that lead to competition in school rather than an attitude of learning. Postman also proposes getting rid of homogeneous groupings of students that reinforce social and economic inequalities, standardized tests that promote competition, and permanently kept student records that are used to punish and control students. Proactively, Postman suggests that industries and professional schools, rather than K-12 schools, should develop criteria for selecting students and that schools should focus on civic education that teaches students their rights as citizens. In a television interview conducted in 1995 on PBS's ''MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour'', Postman spoke about his opposition to the use of personal computers in schools. He felt that school was a place to learn together as a cohesive group and that it should not be used for individualized learning. Postman also worried that the personal computer was going to take away from individuals socializing as citizens and human beings.From interview from PBS on ''MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour'' (1995).

''Amusing Ourselves to Death''

One of Postman's most influential works is ''Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business''. In ''Amusing'', Postman argued that by expressing ideas through visual imagery, television reduces politics, news, history, and other serious topics to entertainment. He worried that culture would decline if the people became an audience and their public business a "vaudeville act." Postman also argued that television is destroying the "serious and rational public conversation" that was sustained for centuries by the printing press.


In his 1992 book ''Technopoly: the Surrender of Culture to Technology'', Postman defines "Technopoly" as a society which believes "the primary, if not the only, goal of human labor and thought is efficiency, that technical calculation is in all respects superior to human judgment ... and that the affairs of citizens are best guided and conducted by experts." In an interview, Postman described ''Technopoly'' as being about the tendency of technology to be given cultural control of sovereign American social institutions. Postman argues that the United States is the only country to have developed into a technopoly. He claims that the U.S. has been inundated with technophiles who do not see the downside of technology. This is dangerous because technophiles want more technology and thus more information. However, according to Postman, it is impossible for a technological innovation to have only a one-sided effect. With the ever-increasing amount of information available, Postman argues that: "Information has become a form of garbage, not only incapable of answering the most fundamental human questions but barely useful in providing coherent direction to the solution of even mundane problems." Postman was not opposed to all forms of technology. In page 7 of ''Technopoly'', he agrees that technological advancements, specifically "the telephone, ocean liners, and the reign of hygiene," have lengthened and improved modern life. In his words, this agreement proves that he is not a "one-eyed technophobe". In ''Technopoly'', Postman discusses Luddism, explaining that being a Luddite often is associated with a naive opposition to technology. But, according to Postman, historical Luddites were trying to preserve their way of life and rights given to them prior to the advancement of new technologies.

Selected bibliography

* ''Television and the Teaching of English'' (1961). * ''Linguistics: A Revolution in Teaching'', with Charles Weingartner (Dell Publishing, 1966). * ''Teaching as a Subversive Activity'', with Charles Weingartner (Delacorte Press, 1969). * "Bullshit and the Art of Crap-Detection" – speech given at National Convention for the Teachers of English (1969)I
this speech
Postman encouraged teachers to help their students "distinguish useful talk from bullshit". He argued that it was the most important skill students could learn, and that teaching it would help students understand their own values and beliefs.
* ''The Soft Revolution: A Student Handbook For Turning Schools Around'', with Charles Weingartner (Delacorte Press, 1971). * ''The School Book: For People Who Want to Know What All the Hollering is About'', with Charles Weingartner (Delacorte Press, 1973). * ''Crazy Talk, Stupid Talk: How We Defeat Ourselves By the Way We Talk and What to Do About It'' (1976). Postman's introduction to general semantics. * ''Teaching as a Conserving Activity'' (1979). * ''The Disappearance of Childhood'' (1982). * ''Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business'' (1985). * ''Conscientious Objections: Stirring Up Trouble About Language, Technology and Education'' (1988). * ''How to Watch TV News'', with Steve Powers (1992). * ''Technopoly: the Surrender of Culture to Technology'' (1992). * ''The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School'' (1995). * ''Building a Bridge to the 18th Century: How the Past Can Improve Our Future'' (1999). * MacNeil, R. (Writer/Host).''Visions of Cyberspace: With Charlene Hunter Gault'' (July 25, 1995). Arlington, Virginia: MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.


External links

The Neil Postman Information PageNeil Postman: Collected Online ArticlesNeil Postman, Defender of The Word
by Lance Strate
Discussion on Technology
with Scott London (MP3) *

30min. media compilation illustrating the critical merits of technological determinism 25 years later – by Cultural Farming. * * *

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