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Navarro-Aragonese is a
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo- ...
once spoken in a large part of the
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
River basin, south of the middle
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
, although it is only currently spoken in a small portion of its original territory. The areas where it was spoken might have included most of Aragón, southern
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...
, and
La Rioja La Rioja (, , ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution ...
. It was also spoken across several towns of central Navarre in a multilingual environment with
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evol ...
, where
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
was the native language. Navarro-Aragonese gradually lost ground throughout most of its geographic areas to
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...
, with its last remnants being the dialects of the
Aragonese language Aragonese (; ''aragonés'' in Aragonese) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial L ...
still spoken in northern Aragon.


Origins and distribution

The language was not defined by clear-cut boundaries, but rather it was a continuum of the Romance language spoken on the stretch extending north of the Muslim realms of the Ebro, under the influence of
Mozarabic Mozarabic, also called Andalusi Romance ( mxi, latino, link=no), was a continuum Continuum may refer to: * Continuum (measurement) Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt ch ...
and Basque, towards the Pyrenees. The
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
Banu Qasi The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Muwallad dynasty that in the 9th century ruled the Upper March, a frontier territory of the Umayyads, Um ...
, lords of
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
in the 9th century, may have mostly spoken a variant of Navarro-Aragonese. Early evidence of the language can be found in place-names like ''Murillo el Fruto'' attested as ''Murello Freito'' and ''Muriel Freito'' (stemming from Latin "Murellus Fractus") and ''Cascante'', ''Olite'' or ''Urzante'' with a typical restored -e ending after "t" in this area. The language is also attested in major towns of
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
(in Estella and
Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo ...

Pamplona
too) in a multilingual environment where
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
was the natural language, used by most of the people,
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evol ...
was spoken by the ''Franks'' in their ethnic boroughs, while
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
was used for written purposes in the ''
aljama ''Aljama'' (, , ) is a term of Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey ...
s'' along with Basque and Navarro-Aragonese as
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
s in their respective linguistic regions. At the westernmost tip of this middle Ebro stretch a Romance variant was developed in La Rioja, recorded in the
Glosas Emilianenses The Glosas Emilianenses (Spanish for "glosses of he monastery of SaintMillán/Emilianus") are gloss (annotation), glosses written in the 10th or 11th century to a 9th-century Latin codex. These marginalia are important as early examples of w ...
dating from roughly 1000 AD. They have been diversely classified from "cradle of Spanish" to a Navarro-Aragonese variant, while it is widely accepted the glosses show more similarities with the latter. However, political events were going to tip the scale in favour of an increasing assimilation to Castilian in the following centuries, especially after the disputed region was annexed to Castile in 1177 at the expense of Navarre. Another focal point for the emergence and expansion of Romance in High Aragon and eastern border of Navarre was the ancient Roman road and Way of St. James crossing the Pyrenees to the south from
Gascony Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region ...
and extending west via Jaca through the Corridor of Berdún, while the territory was largely Basque-Romance bilingual back in 1349. However, early Navarro-Aragonese speaking communities may have ebbed and become assimilated in some spots on the strength of a predominant Basque-speaking population (overwhelmingly so in Navarre) north away from the Ebro plains, due to demographic, economic and political shifts, e.g. the eastern borders of Navarre in Leire, Sangüesa, Liédena, Romanzado altogether, were densely Basque-speaking in mid and late 16th century. Navarro-Aragonese had a strong Basque substratum and adstratum, the former being in close contact with Basque, which in turn was rapidly losing ground to the Romance language in the Kingdom of Aragon during the High and Late Middle Ages.


Status and written language

Navarro-Aragonese was chosen in the High Middle Ages by the Navarrese aristocracy and royal institutions for official records and documents in the 14th century when
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evol ...
variants fell much in decay after the last devastating war among boroughs in Pamplona, dubbing it ''ydiomate navarre terrae'' or ''lengoage de Navarra'' (as opposed to the ''lingua navarrorum'', the Basque language). Navarro-Aragonese is a modern term coined for linguistic classification purposes, while its speakers may have referred to it as "Romanz(e) (Aragonés/Navarro)" in the Middle Ages. The language's features at this last stage in the 14th and 15th century grew closer to those of
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
, showing a clear trend towards convergence, as attested in the telling opening sentence of
Charles II of Navarre Charles II (10 October 1332 – 1 January 1387), called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387. Besides the Pyrenees, Pyrenean Kingdom of Navarre, he had extensive lands in Normandy, inherited from his fa ...

Charles II of Navarre
at his coronation ceremony (1350): "Nos Karlos, por la gracia de Dios, rey de Navarra et conté d'Evreux, juramos a nuestro pueblo de Navarra, es assaber, prelados, ricoshombres, cavailleros, hombres de buenas villas et a todo el pueblo de Navarra, todos lures fueros, usos, costumbres, franquezas, libertades."


Eventual development

The language merged with
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
during the 15th and early 16th century in Navarre, while it further survived in Aragon, eventually developing into Aragonese language, Aragonese, expanding south along with the Kingdom of Aragon's lands conquered to the kingdoms in Al-Andalus, and reaching at one point as far south as Murcia, while the Mediterranean coastal strip came to be settled by Catalan language, Catalan speakers. These geo-linguistic gains could not prevent Navarro-Aragonese from gradually losing ground to
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
both territorially and socially after the House of Trastámara, Trastámara dynasty's access to the Aragonese crown and the 1469 wedding between Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who favoured Castilian (Spanish) in the royal court. However, the language has lasted, while keeping a low profile and increasingly confined to the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
, up to modern days.


Vocabulary

The vocabulary below illustrates the language's Romance roots, its relationship to neighbouring languages (''adstratum'', and possibly also as ''substratum'' in the case of Basque), as well as meanings in English.Spanish, Basque, and English meaning refer to present-day forms. Bearnese dialect, Bearnese refers to modern attested forms (19-20th century), while Navarro-Aragonese refers to the Late Middle Ages, so no synchrony can be established. Orthography delivered according to traditional usage, not actual phonetics.


See also

* History of the Basque language


References

{{Romance languages Aragonese language Medieval languages