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The nativity of Jesus, nativity of Christ, birth of Christ or birth of Jesus is described in the Biblical gospels of Gospel of Luke, Luke and Gospel of Matthew, Matthew. The two accounts agree that Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea (Roman province), Judea, Mary, mother of Jesus, his mother Mary was betrothed to a man named Saint Joseph, Joseph, who was Davidic line, descended from King David and was not his biological father, and that his birth was Virgin birth of Jesus, caused by divine intervention. The nativity is the basis for the Christianity, Christian holiday of Christmas on December 25, and plays a major role in the Christian liturgical year. Many Christians traditionally display small manger scenes depicting the nativity in their homes, or attend Nativity Plays or Christmas pageants focusing on the nativity cycle in the Bible. Elaborate nativity displays called "creche scenes", featuring life-sized statues, are a tradition in many continental European countries during the Christmas season. Christian congregations of the Western tradition (including the Catholic Church, the Western Rite Orthodoxy, Western Rite Orthodox, the Anglican Communion, and many other Protestants, such as the Moravian Church) begin observing the season of Advent four Sundays before Christmas. Christians of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Church observe a similar season, sometimes called Advent but also called the "Nativity Fast", which begins forty days before Christmas. Some Eastern Orthodox Christians (e.g. Greeks and Syrians) celebrate Christmas on December 25. Other Orthodox (e.g. Copts, Ethiopians, Georgians, and Russians) celebrate Christmas on (the Gregorian) January 7 (Koiak, Koiak 29 on the Coptic calendar) as a result of their churches continuing to follow the Julian calendar, rather than the modern day Gregorian calendar. The Armenian Apostolic Church however continues the original ancient Eastern Christian practice of celebrating the birth of Christ not as a separate holiday, but on the same day as the celebration of his baptism (Theophany), which is on January 6. The Nativity of Jesus in art, artistic depiction of the nativity has been an important subject for Christian artists since the 4th century. Artistic depictions of the nativity scene since the 13th century have emphasized the humility of Jesus and promoted a more tender image of him, a major change from the early "Lord and Master" image, mirroring changes in the common approaches taken by Christian pastoral ministry during the same era.


Date and place of birth

The Gospels of both Matthew and Luke place the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem. The Gospel of Luke states that Mary gave birth to Jesus and placed him in a manger “because there was no place for them in the inn". The Greek word ''kataluma'' may be translated as either “inn” or “guestroom”, and some scholars have speculated that Joseph and Mary may have sought to stay with relatives, rather than at an inn, only to find the house full, whereupon they resorted to the shelter of a room with a manger. Although Matthew does not explicitly state Joseph's place of origin or where he lived prior to the birth of Jesus, the account implies that the family lived in Bethlehem. s:Bible (American Standard)/Luke#1:26, Luke 1:26–27 states that Mary, mother of Jesus, Mary originally lived in Nazareth at the time of the Annunciation, before the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.''Matthew'' by David L. Turner (Apr 15, 2008), , page 98. In the 2nd century, Justin Martyr stated that Jesus had been born in a cave outside the town, while the Gospel of James, Protoevangelium of James described a legendary birth in a cave nearby. The Church of the Nativity inside the town, built by Helena of Constantinople, St. Helena, contains the cave-manger site traditionally venerated as the birthplace of Jesus, which may have originally been a site of the cult of the god Tammuz (deity), Tammuz. In ''Contra Celsum'' 1.51, Origen, who from around 215 travelled throughout Palestine, wrote of the "manger of Jesus". The date of birth for Jesus of Nazareth is not stated in the gospels or in any secular text, but a majority of scholars assume a date between 6 BC and 4 BC. The historical evidence is too ambiguous to allow a definitive dating, but the date has been estimated through known historical events mentioned in the Gospels of Luke Luke 2, chapter 2 and Matthew or by working backwards from the estimated start of the ministry of Jesus.Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus And Virgin Mary." in ''Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies'' by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 pp. 113–129''New Testament History'' by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 IBN 0-310-31201-9 pp. 121–124 states that Jesus was born during the census of Quirinius in 6 AD, but most scholars have concluded that Luke is in error. Like the Christian Gospels, Islam places the virgin birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.''The Everything Jesus Book'' by Jon Kennedy 2006 p. 20''What You Need to Know about Islam and Muslims'' by George W. Braswell 2000 p. 108


New Testament narratives


The two accounts: Matthew and Luke

Only two of the four canonical gospels, Gospel of Matthew, Matthew () and Gospel of Luke, Luke (), offer narratives regarding the birth of Jesus. Of these two, only Luke offers the details of Jesus' birth in Bethlehem. Genealogy of Jesus, Two differing genealogies are provided at and .


Gospel of Matthew

Mary, the mother of Jesus, was betrothed to Joseph, but was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit. Joseph intended to divorce her quietly, but an angel told him in a dream#in Abrahamic religions, dream that he should take Mary as his wife and name the child Jesus, because he would save his people from their sins. Joseph awoke and did all that the angel commanded. The infancy gospel is part of the Matthean Prologue in 1:1-4,16. In the main section 1:1.18-4:16 Jesus is introduced as the son of David, Joseph and God with the help of the noun "son", while Matthew in 1:2-17 portrays the origin of Jesus Christ with the help of the verb "to give or give birth". Matthew 1, Chapter 1 of Matthew's Gospel recounts Jesus's birth and naming and the beginning of Matthew 2, chapter 2 states that Jesus was born in Bethlehem during the time of Herod the Great. biblical Magi, Magi from the east came to Herod and asked him where they would find the Jesus, King of the Jews, King of the Jews, because they had seen his Star of Bethlehem, star. Advised by the chief priests and teachers, Herod sent the Magi to Bethlehem, where they worshiped the child and gave him gifts. When they had departed, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and warned him to take the child and his mother and flight to Egypt, flee to Egypt, for Herod intended to kill him. The Holy Family remained in Egypt until Herod died, when Joseph took them to Nazareth in Galilee for fear of Herod's son who now ruled in Jerusalem.


Gospel of Luke

In the days when Herod was king of Judea, God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth in Galilee to Annunciation, announce to a virgin named Mary, who was betrothed to a man named Joseph, that a child would be born to her and she was to name him Jesus, for he would be the son of God and rule over Israel forever. When the time of the birth drew near, Caesar Augustus commanded a census of Roman domains, and Joseph took Mary to Bethlehem, the ancient city of David, as he was of the Davidic Line, House of David. So it came to pass that Jesus was born in Bethlehem; and since there was nowhere for them to stay in the town, the infant was laid in a manger while Annunciation to the shepherds, angels announced his birth to a group of shepherds who Adoration of the shepherds, worshipped him as Messiah and Lord. In accordance with the Jewish law, his parents Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, presented the infant Jesus at the Temple in Jerusalem, where two people in the temple, Simeon (Gospel of Luke), Simeon and Anna the Prophetess, gave thanks to God who had sent his salvation. Joseph and Mary then returned to Nazareth. There "the child grew and became strong, and was filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was on him." Each year his parents went to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover, and when Jesus was twelve years old they found him in the Temple listening to the teachers and asking questions so that "all who heard him were amazed". His mother rebuked him for causing them anxiety, because his family had not known where he was, but he answered that he was in his Father's house. "Then he went down to Nazareth with them and was obedient to them, but his mother treasured all these things in her heart, and Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man."


Themes and analogies


Thematic analysis

Helmut Koester writes that while Matthew's narrative was formed in a Jewish environment, Luke's was modeled to appeal to the Greco-Roman world.Helmut Köster, "Ancient Christian gospels: their history and development", Continuum International Publishing Group, (2004). pp. 307–308 In particular, according to Koester, while shepherds were regarded negatively by Jews in Jesus's time, they were seen in Greco-Roman culture as "symbols of a golden age when gods and humans lived in peace and nature was at harmony". C. T. Ruddick Jr. writes that Luke's birth narratives of Jesus and John were modeled on passages from the Book of Genesis (). Regardless, Luke's nativity depicts Jesus as a savior for all people, tracing a genealogy all the way back to Adam, demonstrating his common humanity, and likewise for the lowly circumstances of his birth. Luke, writing for a gentile audience, portrays the infant Jesus as a savior for gentiles as well as Jews.Stephen L Harris, Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "Luke" pp. 297–301 Matthew uses quotations from Jewish scripture, scenes reminiscent of Moses' life, and a numerical pattern in his genealogy to identify Jesus as a son of David, of Abraham, and of God. Luke's prelude is much longer, emphasizing the age of the Holy Spirit and the arrival of a savior for all people, both Jew and Gentile. Mainstream scholars interpret Matthew's nativity as depicting Jesus as a new Moses with a genealogy going back to Abraham,Stephen L Harris, Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "Matthew" pp. 272–285 while Ulrich Luz views Matthew's depiction of Jesus at once as the new Moses and the inverse of Moses, and not simply a retelling of the Moses story. Luz also points out that in the massacre narrative, once again, a fulfilment quotation is given: Rachel, the ancestral mother of Israel, weeping for her dead children () Scholars who interpret Matthew as casting Jesus in the role of being a second Moses argue that, like Moses, the infant Jesus is saved from a murderous tyrant; and he flees the country of his birth until his persecutor is dead and it is safe to return as the savior of his people. In this view, the account in Matthew is based on an earlier narrative patterned on traditions about the birth of Moses. Moses's birth is announced to Pharaoh by Magi; the child is threatened and rescued; the male Israelite children are similarly put to death by an evil king. According to Ulrich Luz, the beginning of the narrative of Matthew is similar to earlier biblical stories, e.g., the Annunciation of Jesus' birth () is reminiscent of the biblical accounts of the births of Ishmael (, ), Isaac (), and Samson (, ), and it recalls the Haggadic traditions of the birth of Moses. Yet in Luz's view, the contours appear, in part, strangely overlapped and inverted: "Egypt, formerly the land of suppression becomes a place of refuge and it is the King of Israel who now takes on the role of Pharaoh. yet Matthew is not simply retelling the Moses story. Instead, the story of Jesus really is a new story: Jesus is at once the new Moses and the inverse of Moses."Ulrich Luz, The Theology of the Gospel of Matthew, p. 24/25


Old Testament parallels

Scholars have debated whether Matthew 1:22 and Matthew 2:23 refer to specific Old Testament passages. Fourth century documents such as the Codex Sinaiticus do not mention the prophet Isaiah in the statement in Matthew 1:22: "All this happened to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet" but some copies of Matthew from the 5th–6th centuries, such as the Codex Bezae, read "Isaiah the prophet". The statement in Matthew 1:23 "Behold the virgin shall be with child" uses the Greek term ''parthenos'' ("virgin") as in the Septuagint Isaiah, while the Book of Isaiah Isaiah 7:14, 7:14 uses the Hebrew ''almah'', which may mean "maiden," "young woman," or "virgin."Raymond E. Brown, Brown, Raymond E.; Paul J. Achtemeier, Achtemeier, Paul J. (1978). ''Mary in the New Testament: A Collaborative Assessment by Protestant and Roman Catholic Scholars''. Paulist Press. p. 92. . Raymond E. Brown states that the 3rd century BCE translators of the Septuagint may have understood the Hebrew word "almah" to mean virgin in this context. The statement in Matthew 2:23 "he will be called a Nazarene" does not mention a specific passage in the Old Testament, and there are multiple scholarly interpretations as to what it may refer to.''Matthew's Bible: the Old Testament text of the evangelist'' by M. J. J. Menken 2004 p. 161 Barbara Aland and other scholars consider the Greek "Ναζωραίος" (Nazoréos) used for Nazarene of uncertain etymology and meaning, but M. J. J. Menken states that it is a demonym that refers to an "inhabitant of Nazareth".''Matthew's Bible: the Old Testament text of the evangelist'' by M. J. J. Menken 2004 p. 164 Menken also states that it may be referring to Judges 13:5, 7. Gary Smith (theologian), Gary Smith states that Nazirite may mean one consecrated to God, i.e. an ascetic; or may refer to Isaiah 11:1. ''The Oxford Bible Commentary'' states that it may be word-play on the use of "nazirite," "Holy One of God," in , meant to identify Jesus with the Nazarene (sect), Nazarenes, a Jewish sect who differed from the Pharisees only in regarding Jesus as the Messiah. The Swiss theologian Ulrich Luz, who locates the Matthean community in Syria, has noted that Syriac Christianity, Syrian Christians also called themselves Nazarenes.


Christian theology

The theological significance of the Nativity of Jesus has been a key element in Christian teachings, from the early Church Fathers to 20th century theologians. The theological issues were addressed as early as Apostle Paul, but continued to be debated and eventually lead to both Christology, Christological and Mariology, Mariological differences among Christians that resulted in early schism (religion), schisms within the Church by the 5th century.


Birth of the new man

Paul the Apostle viewed the birth of Jesus as an event of cosmic significance which brought forth a "new man" who undid the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam and Eve, Adam. Just as the Gospel of John, Johannine view of Jesus as the incarnate Logos proclaims the universal relevance of his birth, the Pauline perspective emphasizes the birth of a new man and a new world in the birth of Jesus. Paul's eschatology, eschatological view of Jesus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam. Unlike Adam, the new man born in Jesus obeys God and ushers in a world of morality and salvation.''Systematic Theology, Volume 2'' by Wolfhart Pannenberg 2004 , pp. 297–303 In the Pauline view, Adam is positioned as the first man and Jesus as the second: Adam, having corrupted himself by his disobedience, also infected humanity and left it with a curse as inheritance. The birth of Jesus, on the other hand, counterbalanced the fall of Adam, bringing forth redemption and repairing the damage done by Adam.''An exposition of the epistle of Saint Paul to the Philippians'' by Jean Daille 1995 pp. 194–195 In patristic theology, Paul's contrasting of Jesus as the new man versus Adam provided a framework for discussing the uniqueness of the birth of Jesus and the ensuing events of his life. The Nativity of Jesus thus began to serve as the starting point for "cosmic Christology" in which the birth, life and Resurrection of Jesus have universal implications. The concept of Jesus as the "new man" repeats in the cycle of birth and rebirth of Jesus from his Nativity to his Resurrection of Jesus, Resurrection: following his birth, through his morality and obedience to the Father, Jesus began a ''new harmony'' in the relationship between God the Father and man. The Nativity and Resurrection of Jesus thus created the author and exemplar of a new humanity.''Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi'' by Karl Rahner 2004 pp. 474 and 1434 In the 2nd century Church Father Irenaeus writes:
"When He became incarnate and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam – namely to be according to the image and likeness of God – that we might recover in Christ Jesus."''An introduction to the early history of Christian doctrine'' by James Franklin Bethune-Baker 2005 p. 334''A History of the Christian Church'' by Williston Walker 2010 pp. 65–66
Irenaeus was also one of the early theologians to use the analogy of "second Adam and second Eve". He suggested the Virgin Mary as the "second Eve" and wrote that the Virgin Mary had "untied the knot of sin bound up by the virgin Eve" and that just as Eve had tempted Adam to disobey God, Mary had set a path of obedience for the second Adam (i.e. Jesus) from the Annunciation to Calvary so that Jesus could bring about salvation, undoing the damage of Adam. In the 4th century, this uniqueness of the circumstances related to the Nativity of Jesus, and their interplay with the mystery of the incarnation, became a central element in both the theology and hymnody of Saint Ephrem the Syrian. For him, the uniqueness of the Nativity of Jesus was supplemented with the sign of the Majesty of the Creator through the ability of a powerful God to enter the world as a small newborn. In the Middle Ages the birth of Jesus as the second Adam came to be seen in the context of Saint Augustine's ''Felix culpa'' (i.e. happy fall) and was intertwined with the popular teachings on the fall from grace of Adam and Eve. Augustine was fond of a statement on Nativity by Saint Gregory of Nyssa and he quoted it five times: "Venerate the Nativity, through which you are freed from the bonds of an earthly nativity".''Orthodox readings of Augustine'' by George E. Demacopoulos, Aristotle Papanikolaou 2008 pp. 92–96 And he liked to quote: "Just as in Adam all of us died, so too in Christ all of us will be brought to life". The theology persisted into the Protestant Reformation, and second Adam was one of the six modes of atonement discussed by John Calvin. In the 20th century, leading theologian Karl Barth continued the same line of reasoning and viewed the Nativity of Jesus as the birth of a new man who succeeded Adam. In Barth's theology, in contrast to Adam, Jesus acted as an Active obedience of Christ, obedient Son in the fulfilment of the divine will and was therefore free from sin and could hence reveal the righteousness of God the Father and bring about salvation.''Church dogmatics, Volume 4, Part 1'' by Karl Barth, Geoffrey William Bromiley, Thomas Forsyth Torrance 2004 pp. 256–259


Christology

The nativity of Jesus impacted the Christology, Christological issues about the Person of Christ from the earliest days of Christianity. Luke's Christology centers on the dialectics of the dual natures of the earthly and heavenly manifestations of existence of the Christ, while Matthew's Christology focuses on the mission of Jesus and his role as the savior. The belief in the divinity of Jesus leads to the question: "was Jesus a man to be born of a woman or was he God born of a woman?" A wide range of hypotheses and beliefs regarding the nature of the nativity of Jesus were presented in the first four centuries of Christianity. Some of the debates involved the title ''Theotokos'' (God bearer) for the Virgin Mary and began to illustrate the impact of Mariology on Christology. Some of these viewpoints were eventually declared as heresy, heresies, others led to schisms and the formation of new branches of the Church.''Toward the origins of Christmas'' by Susan K. Roll 1995 pp. 208–211 The Christian soteriology, salvific emphasis of s:Bible (American Standard)/Matthew#1:21, Matthew 1:21 later impacted the theological issues and the devotions to the Holy Name of Jesus.''All the Doctrines of the Bible'' by Herbert Lockyer 1988 p. 159 s:Bible (American Standard)/Matthew#1:23, Matthew 1:23 provides the only key to the ''Emmanuel Christology'' in the New Testament. Beginning with 1:23, Matthew shows a clear interest in identifying Jesus as "God with us" and in later developing the Emmanuel characterization of Jesus at key points throughout the rest of his Gospel.''Matthew's Emmanuel'' by David D. Kupp 1997 pp. 220–224 The name Emmanuel does not appear elsewhere in the New Testament, but Matthew builds on it in s:Bible (American Standard)/Matthew#28:20, Matthew 28:20 ("I am with you always, even unto the end of the world") to indicate that Jesus will be with the faithful to the end of the age.''Who do you say that I am?: essays on Christology'' by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 p. 17 According to Ulrich Luz, the Emmanuel motif brackets the entire Gospel of Matthew between 1:23 and 28:20, appearing explicitly and implicitly in several other passages. A number of ecumenical councils were convened in the 4th and 5th centuries to deal with these issues. The First Council of Ephesus, Council of Ephesus debated Hypostatic union, hypostasis (co-existing natures) versus Monophysitism (only one nature) versus Miaphysitism (two natures united as one) versus Nestorianism (disunion of two natures). The 451 Council of Chalcedon was highly influential and marked a key turning point in the Christological debates that divided the church of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 5th century. In Chalcedon the hypostatic union was decreed, namely that Jesus is both fully divine and fully human, making this part of the creed of orthodox Christianity. In the 5th century, leading Church Father Pope Leo I used the nativity as a key element of his theology. Leo gave 10 sermons on the nativity and 7 have survived. The one on December 25, 451, demonstrates his concern to increase the importance of the feast of nativity and along with it emphasize the two natures of Christ in defense of the Christological doctrine of hypostatic union.''Leo the Great'' by Pope Leo I, Bronwen Neil 2009 pp. 61–62 Leo often used his nativity sermons as an occasion to attack opposing viewpoints, without naming the opposition. Thus Leo used the occasion of the Nativity feast to establish boundaries for what could be considered a heresy regarding the birth and nature of Christ. In the 13th century Saint Thomas Aquinas addressed the Christologocal attribution of the nativity: Should it be attributed to the person (Logos (Christianity), the Word) or only to the assumed human nature of that person. Aquinas treated nativity in 8 separate articles in ''Summa Theologica'' each posing a separate question. "Does Nativity regard the nature rather than the Person?" "Should a temporal Nativity be attributed to Christ?" "Should the Blessed Virgin be called Christ's Mother?" "Should the Blessed Virgin be called the Mother of God?" "Are there two filiations in Christ?", etc. To deal with this issue, Aquinas distinguishes between the person born and the nature in which the birth takes place.''Aquinas on doctrine: a critical introduction'' by Thomas Gerard Weinandy, John Yocum 2004 p. 98 Aquinas thus resolved the question by arguing that in the hypostatic union Christ has two natures, one received from the Father from eternity, the other from his mother in time. This approach also resolved the Mariology, Mariological problem of Mary receiving the title of Theotokos for under this scenario she is the "Mother of God". During the Protestant Reformation, Reformation, John Calvin argued that Jesus was not sanctified to be "God manifested as Incarnate" (''Deus manifestatus in carne'') only due to his Virgin Birth, but through the action of the Holy Spirit ''at the instant of his birth''. Thus Calvin argued that Jesus was exempt from original sin because he was sanctified at the moment of birth so that his generation was without blemish; as generation was blemishless before the fall of Adam.


Impact on Christianity


Christmas, the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord

Christian Churches celebrate the Nativity of Jesus on Christmas, which is marked on December 25 by the Western Christian Churches, while many Eastern Christianity, Eastern Christian Churches celebrate the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord on January 7. This is not a disagreement over the date of Christmas as such, but rather a preference of which calendar should be used to determine the day that is December 25. In the Council of Tours 567, Council of Tours of 567, the Church, with its desire to be universal, "declared the Twelve Days of Christmas, twelve days between Christmas and Epiphany to be one Christmastide, unified festal cycle", thus giving significance to both the Western and Eastern dates of Christmas. The liturgical season of Advent precedes, and is used to prepare for the celebration of Christmas. Customs of the Christmastide, Christmas season include completing an Advent daily devotional and Advent wreath, Christmas carol, carol singing, gift giving, seeing Nativity plays, attending church services, and eating special food, such as Christmas cake. In many countries, such as Sweden, people start to set up their Advent and Christmas decorations on the Advent Sunday, first day of Advent. Christian liturgy, Liturgically, this is done in some parish church, parishes through a hanging of the greens ceremony.


History of feasts and liturgical elements

In the 1st and 2nd centuries, the Lord's Day (Sunday) was the earliest Christian celebration and included a number of theological themes. In the 2nd century, the Resurrection of Jesus became a separate feast as Easter and in the same century Epiphany (holiday), Epiphany began to be celebrated in the Churches of the East on January 6. The celebration of the feast of the Biblical Magi, Magi on January 6 may relate to a pre-Christian celebration for the blessing of the Nile in Egypt on January 5, but this is not historically certain. The festival of the Nativity which later turned into Christmas was a 4th-century feast in the Western Church notably in Rome and North Africa, although it is uncertain exactly where and when it was first celebrated. The earliest source stating December 25 as the date of birth of Jesus was Hippolytus of Rome (170–236), written very early in the 3rd century, based on the assumption that the conception of Jesus took place at the Spring equinox (Northern Hemisphere), Spring equinox which he placed on March 25, and then added nine months. There is historical evidence that by the middle of the 4th century the Christian churches of the East celebrated the birth and Baptism of Jesus on the same day, on January 6, while those in the West celebrated a Nativity feast on December 25 (perhaps influenced by the Winter solstice); and that by the last quarter of the 4th century, the calendars of both churches included both feasts.''Aspects of the liturgical year in Cappadocia (325–430)'' by Jill Burnett Comings 2005 pp. 61–71 The earliest suggestions of a feast of the Baptism of Jesus on January 6 during the 2nd century comes from Clement of Alexandria, but there is no further mention of such a feast until 361 when Emperor Julian attended a feast on January 6 in the year 361. The Chronography of 354 illuminated manuscript compiled in Rome includes an early reference to the celebration of a Nativity feast. In a sermon delivered in Antioch on December 25, c. 386, Saint John Chrysostom provides specific information about the feast there, stating that the feast had existed for about 10 years. By around 385 the feast for the birth of Jesus was distinct from that of the Baptism and was held on December 25 in Constantinople, Nyssa and Amaseia. In a sermon in 386, Gregory of Nyssa specifically related the feast of Nativity with that of the martyrdom of Saint Stephen, celebrated a day later. By 390 the feast was also held in Iconium on that day. Pope Leo I established a feast of the "Mystery of Incarnation" in the 5th century, in effect as the first formal feast for the Nativity of Jesus. Pope Sixtus III then instituted the practice of Midnight Mass just before that feast.''Sacred Christmas Music'' by Ronald M. Clancy 2008 pp. 15–19 In the 6th century, Emperor Justinian declared Christmas to be a legal holiday.''The Feast of Christmas'' by Joseph F. Kelly 2010 pp. 331–391 In the 14th and 15th centuries, the theological importance of the Nativity of Jesus, was coupled with an emphasis on the loving nature of the child Jesus in sermons by figures such as Jean Gerson. In his sermons Gerson emphasized the loving nature of Jesus at his Nativity, as well as his cosmic plan for the salvation of mankind. By the early part of the 20th century, Christmas had become a "cultural signature" of Christianity and indeed of the Western culture even in countries such as the United States which are officially non-religious. By the beginning of the 21st century these countries began to pay more attention to the sensitivities of non-Christians during the festivities at the end of the calendar year.


Transforming the image of Jesus

Early Christians viewed Jesus as "the Lord" and the word ''Kyrios'' appears over 700 times in the New Testament, referring to him.''Mercer dictionary of the Bible'' by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 pp. 520–525 The use of the word Kyrios in the Septuagint Bible also assigned to Jesus the Old Testament attributes of an omnipotent God. The use of the term Kyrios, and hence the Lordship of Jesus, pre-dated the Pauline epistles, but Saint Paul expanded and elaborated on that topic. Pauline writings established among early Christians the Kyrios image, and attributes of Jesus as not only referring to his eschatological victory, but to him as the "divine image" (Greek language, Greek ''eikōn'') in whose face the glory of God shines forth. This image persisted among Christians as the predominant perception of Jesus for a number of centuries. More than any other title, Kyrios defined the relationship between Jesus and those who believed in him as Christ: Jesus was their Lord and Master who was to be served with all their hearts and who would one day judge their actions throughout their lives. The lordship attributes associated with the Kyrios image of Jesus also implied his power over all creation. Paul then looked back and reasoned that the final lordship of Jesus was prepared from the very beginning, starting with Pre-existence of Christ, pre-existence and the Nativity, based on his obedience as the image of God.''Christology: Biblical And Historical'' by Mini S. Johnson ISBN p. 211 Over time, based on the influence of Anselm of Canterbury, Bernard of Clairvaux and others, the Kyrios image of Jesus began to be supplemented with a more "tender image of Jesus", and the Franciscan approach to popular piety was instrumental in establishing this image.''Christology: Biblical And Historical'' by Mini S. Johnson, 2005 pp. 74–76 The 13th century witnessed a major turning point in the development of a new "tender image of Jesus" within Christianity, as the Order of Saint Francis, Franciscans began to emphasize the humility of Jesus both at his birth and his death. The construction of the Nativity scene by Saint Francis of Assisi was instrumental in portraying a softer image of Jesus that contrasted with the powerful and radiant image at the Transfiguration of Jesus, Transfiguration, and emphasized how God had taken a humble path to his own birth.''The image of St Francis'' by Rosalind B. Brooke 2006 pp. 183–184 As the Black Death raged in Medieval Europe, the two mendicant orders of Order of Saint Francis, Franciscans and Dominican Order, Dominicans helped the faithful cope with tragedies. One element of the Franciscan approach was the emphasis on the humility of Jesus and the poverty of his birth: the image of God was the image of Jesus, not a severe and punishing God, but himself humble at birth and sacrificed at death.''The tradition of Catholic prayer'' by Christian Raab, Harry Hagan, St. Meinrad Archabbey 2007 pp. 86–87 The concept that the omnipotent Creator would set aside all power in order to conquer the hearts of men by love and that he would have been helplessly placed in a manger was as marvelous and as touching to the believers as the sacrifice of dying on the cross in Calvary.''The vitality of the Christian tradition'' by George Finger Thomas 1944 pp. 110–112 Thus by the 13th century the tender joys of the Nativity of Jesus were added to the agony of his Crucifixion of Jesus, Crucifixion and a whole new range of approved religious emotions was ushered in, with wide-ranging cultural impacts for centuries thereafter. The Franciscans approached both ends of this spectrum of emotions. On one hand the introduction of the Nativity scene encouraged the tender image of Jesus, while on the other hand Francis of Assisi himself had a deep attachment to the sufferings of Jesus on the Cross and was said to have received the Stigmata as an expression of that love. The dual nature of Franciscan piety based both on joy of Nativity and the sacrifice at Crucifixion of Jesus, Calvary had a deep appeal among city dwellers and as the Franciscan Friars travelled these emotions spread across the world, transforming the Kyrios image of Jesus to a more tender, loving, and compassionate image. These traditions did not remain limited to Europe and soon spread to the other parts of the world such as Latin America, the Philippines and the United States. According to Archbishop Rowan Williams this transformation, accompanied by the proliferation of the tender image of Jesus in Madonna and Child paintings, made an important impact within the Christian Ministry by allowing Christians to feel the living presence of Jesus as a loving figure "who is always there to harbor and nurture those who turn to him for help.''Christology: Key Readings in Christian Thought'' by Jeff Astley, David Brown, Ann Loades 2009 p. 106


Hymns, art and music


Canticles appearing in Luke

Luke's Nativity text has given rise to four well-known canticles: the ''Benedictus (Song of Zechariah), Benedictus'' and the'' Magnificat'' in the first chapter, and the ''Gloria in Excelsis'' and the ''Nunc dimittis'' in the second chapter.''An Introduction to the Bible'' by Robert Kugler, Patrick Hartin p. 394 These "Gospel canticles" are now an integral part of the Christian Liturgy, liturgical tradition. The parallel structure in Luke regarding the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, extends to the three canticles Benedictus (Song of Zechariah), the Nunc dimittis and the Magnificat. The Magnificat, in , is spoken by Mary and is one of the eight most ancient Christian hymns, perhaps the earliest Marian hymn.''The History and Use of Hymns and Hymn-Tunes'' by David R Breed 2009 p. 17 The Benedictus, in , is spoken by Zechariah (priest), Zechariah, while the Nunc dimittis, in , is spoken by Simeon (Gospel of Luke), Simeon.''Favourite Hymns'' by Marjorie Reeves 2006 pp. 3–5 The traditional Gloria in Excelsis is longer than the opening line presented in , and is often called the "Song of the Angels" given that it was uttered by the angels in the Annunciation to the Shepherds. The three canticles Benedictus, Nunc Dimittis and the Magnificat, if not originating with Luke himself, may have their roots in the earliest Christian liturgical services in Jerusalem, but their exact origins remain unknown.


Visual arts

One of the most visible traditions during the Christmas season is the display of manger scenes depicting the nativity, usually in the form of statues or figurines, in private homes, businesses and churches, either inside or outside the building. This tradition is usually attributed to Saint Francis of AssisiThomas, George F.. ''Vitality of the Christian Tradition''. Ayer Co. Publishing, 1944. who was described as creating such a display at Greccio, Italy, in 1223Johnson, Kevin Orlin. ''Why Do Catholics Do That?'' Random House, Inc., 1994.Mazar, Peter and Evelyn Grala. ''To Crown the Year: Decorating the Church Through the Year''. Liturgy Training, 1995. as related by St. Bonaventure in his ''Life of Saint Francis of Assisi'' written around 1260. Before the manger scene tradition developed, there were paintings depicting the subject. The earliest artistic depictions of the nativity were in the catacombs and on sarcophagi in Rome. As Gentile visitors, the Biblical Magi, Magi were popular in these scenes, representing the significance of the arrival of the Messiah to all peoples. The ox and ass were also taken to symbolize the Jews and the Gentiles, and have remained a constant since the earliest depictions. Mary was soon seated on a throne as the Magi visited.''The Feast of Christmas'' by Joseph F. Kelly 2010 pp. 22–31 Depictions of the Nativity soon became a normal component of cycles in art illustrating both the Life of Christ in art, Life of Christ and the Life of the Virgin. Nativity images also carry the message of redemption: God's unification with matter forms the mystery of the Incarnation, a turning point in the Christian perspective on Christian soteriology, Salvation. In the Eastern Church icons of Nativity often correspond to specific hymns to Mary, e.g. to the Kontakion: "The Virgin today bringeth forth the Transubstantial, and the eart offereth a cave to the Unapproachable."''The meaning of icons'' by Leonide Ouspensky, Vladimir Lossky 1999 p. 157 In many Eastern icons of Nativity (often accompanied by matching hymnody) two basic elements are emphasized. First the event portrays the mystery of incarnation as a foundation for the Christian faith, and the combined nature of Christ as divine and human. Secondly, it relates the event to the natural life of the world, and its consequences for humanity.


Hymns, music and performances

Like 1st century Jews, early Christians rejected the use of musical instruments in religious ceremonies and instead relied on chants and plainsong leading to the use of the term ''a cappella'' (in the chapel) for these chants. One of the earliest Nativity hymns was ''Veni redemptor gentium'' composed by Saint Ambrose in Milan in the 4th century. By the beginning of the 5th century, the Spanish poet Prudentius had written "From the Heart of the Father" where the ninth stanza focused on the Nativity and portrayed Jesus as the creator of the universe. In the 5th century the Gallic poet Coelius Sedulius, Sedulius composed "From the lands that see the Sun arise" in which the humility of the birth of Jesus was portrayed. The ''Magnificat'', one of the eight most ancient Christian hymns and perhaps the earliest Hymns to Mary, Marian hymn, is based on the Annunciation. Saint Romanus the Melodist had a dream of the Virgin Mary the night before the feast of the Nativity, and when he woke up the next morning, composed his first hymn "On the Nativity" and continued composing hymns (perhaps several hundred) to the end of his life. Re-enactments of Nativity which are now called Nativity plays were part of the ''troparion'' hymns in the liturgy of Byzantine Rite Churches, from Sophronius of Jerusalem, St. Sophronius in the 7th century. By the 13th century, the Franciscans had encouraged a strong tradition of popular Christmas songs in the native languages.Miles, Clement, ''Christmas customs and traditions'', Dover 1976, , pp. 31–37 Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work of John Audelay, John Awdlay, a Shropshire chaplain, who lists twenty-five "caroles of Cristemas".Miles, Clement, ''Christmas customs and traditions'', Dover 1976, , pp. 47–48 The largest body of musical works about Christ in which he does not speak are about the Nativity. A large body of liturgical music, as well as a great deal of para-liturgical texts, carols and folk music exist about the Nativity of Jesus. The Christmas carols have come to be viewed as a cultural-signature of the Nativity of Jesus.''Jesus in history, thought, and culture: an encyclopedia, Volume 1'' by James Leslie Houlden 2003 pp. 631–635 Most musical Nativity narrations are not biblical and did not come about until church music assimilated opera in the 17th century. But thereafter there was a torrent of new music, e.g., Heinrich Schütz's 1660, Marc-Antoine Charpentier ''(Midnight Mass, Pastorals, Oratorio, instrumental music'', 11 settings), ''The Christmas Story'' and Bach's ''Christmas Oratorio'' in the 18th century. And ''Christus (Liszt), Lisz's Christus'', Hector Berlioz, Berlioz’s ''L’Enfance du Christ (''1850)'','' List of compositions by Camille Saint-Saëns, Camille Saint-Saëns's Christmas Oratorio (1858), etc. John Milton's classic 1629 poem ''Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity'' was used by John McEwan in 1901.


Historical analysis


Traditional views

According to Christian fundamentalism, the two accounts are historically accurate and do not contradict each other,Mark D. Roberts ''Can We Trust the Gospels?: Investigating the Reliability of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John '' Good News Publishers, 2007 p. 102 with similarities such as the birthplace of Bethlehem and the Virgin birth of Jesus, virgin birth. George Kilpatrick and Michael Patella state that a comparison of the nativity accounts of Luke and Matthew show common elements in terms of the virgin birth, the birth at Bethlehem, and the upbringing at Nazareth, and that although there are differences in the accounts of the nativity in Luke and Matthew, a general narrative may be constructed by combining the two. A number of biblical scholars, have attempted to show how the text from both narratives can be interwoven as a gospel harmony to create one account that begins with a trip from Nazareth to Bethlehem, where Jesus is born, followed by the flight to Egypt, and ending with a return to Nazareth.Steven L. Cox, Kendell H. Easley, 2007 ''Harmony of the Gospels'' pp. 289–290 Neither Luke nor Matthew claims their birth narratives are based on direct testimony. Raymond E. Brown suggested in 1973 that Joseph was the source of Matthew's account and Mary of Luke's, but modern scholars consider this "highly unlikely", given that the story emerged so late. Roman Catholic scholars, such as John L. McKenzie, Raymond E. Brown, and Daniel J. Harrington express the view that due to the scarcity of ancient records, a number of issues regarding the historicity of some nativity episodes can never be fully determined, and that the more important task is deciding what the nativity narratives meant to the early Christian communities.


Critical analysis

Many modern scholars consider the birth narratives unhistorical because they are laced with theology and present two different accounts.''The New Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible: Volume 3'' Abingdon Press, 2008. pp. 42, 269–70. For instance, they point to Matthew's account of the appearance of an angel to Joseph in a dream; the wise men from the East; the massacre of the innocents; and the flight to Egypt, which do not appear in Luke, which instead describes the appearance of an angel to Mary; the Roman census; the birth in a manger; and the choir of angels. Most modern scholars accept the Marcan priority hypothesis, that the Luke and Matthew accounts are based on the Gospel of Mark, but that the birth narratives come from the evangelists' independent sources, known as M-Source, M source for Matthew and L source for Luke, which were added later.Robert W. Funk, Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. ''The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus.'' HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Birth & Infancy Stories" pp. 497–526. Scholars consider the accounts in Luke and Matthew as explaining the birth in Bethlehem in different ways, giving separate Genealogy of Jesus, genealogies of Jesus and probably not historical.Sanders, E. P. The historical figure of Jesus. Penguin, 1993. Sanders discusses both birth narratives in detail, contrasts them, and judges them not historical on pp. 85–88. While Géza Vermes and E. P. Sanders dismiss the accounts as pious fiction, Raymond E. Brown sees them as having been constructed from historical traditions which predate the Gospels. According to Brown, there is no uniform agreement among scholars on the historicity of the accounts, e.g., most of those scholars who reject the historicity of the birth at Bethlehem argue for a birth at Nazareth, a few suggest Capernaum, and other have hypothesized locations as far away as Chorazin. Bruce Chilton and archaeologist Aviram Oshri have proposed a birth at Bethlehem of Galilee, a site located from Nazareth at which remains dating to the time of Herod the Great have been excavated. Armand P. Tarrech states that Chilton's hypothesis has no support in either the Jewish or Christian sources, although Chilton seems to take seriously the statement in s:Bible (American Standard)/Luke#2:4, Luke 2:4 that Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem. Sanders considers Luke's census, for which everyone returned to their ancestral home, not historically credible, as this was contrary to Roman practice; they would not have uprooted everyone from their homes and farms in the Empire by forcing them to return to their ancestral cities. Moreover, people were not able to trace their own lineages back 42 generations. Many scholars do not see the Luke and Matthew nativity stories as historically factual.Marcus Borg, 'The Meaning of the Birth Stories' in Marcus Borg, N T Wright, ''The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions'' (Harper One, 1999) page 179: "I (and most mainline scholars) do not see these stories as historically factual." Many view the discussion of historicity as secondary, given that gospels were primarily written as theological documents rather than chronological timelines.''Interpreting Gospel Narratives: Scenes, ''People'', and Theology'' by Timothy Wiarda 2010 pp. 75–78''Jesus, the Christ: Contemporary Perspectives'' by Brennan R. Hill 2004 p. 89''The Gospel of Luke'' by Timothy Johnson 1992 p. 72''Recovering Jesus: the witness of the New Testament'' Thomas R. Yoder Neufeld 2007 p. 111 For instance, Matthew pays far more attention to the name of the child and its theological implications than the actual birth event itself.''Matthew'' by Thomas G. Long 1997 pp. 14–15 According to Karl Rahner the evangelists show little interest in synchronizing the episodes of the birth or subsequent life of Jesus with the secular history of the age.''Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi'' by Karl Rahner 2004 p. 731 As a result, modern scholars do not use much of the birth narratives for historical information.Jeremy Corley ''New Perspectives on the Nativity'' Continuum International Publishing Group, 2009 p. 22. Nevertheless, they are considered to contain some useful biographical information: Jesus being born near the end of Herod's reign and his father being named St Joseph, Joseph are considered historically plausible.Bruce M. Metzger, Michael D. Coogan, ''The Oxford Guide to People & Places of the Bible''. Oxford University Press US, 2004. p. 137


See also

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References


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * , in * * * , in * * * * * * * , in * * * , in * Berghorn, Matthias, ''Die Genesis Jesu Christi aber war so ...''. Die Herkunft Jesu Christi nah dem matthäischen Prolog (Mt 1,1-4,16), Göttingen 2019. * Raymond E. Brown, Brown, Raymond E. ''The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke''. London: G. Chapman, 1977. * Calkins, Robert G. ''Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages''. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1983. * Carter, Warren. ''Matthew and Empire.'' Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 2001. * France, R.T. ''The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary.'' Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985. * * Robert H. Gundry, Gundry, Robert H. ''Matthew a Commentary on his Literary and Theological Art.'' Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982. * Gundry, Robert H. "Salvation in Matthew." ''Society of Biblical Literature – 2000 Seminar Papers.'' Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2000. * Hill, David. ''The Gospel of Matthew''. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981 * Jones, Alexander. ''The Gospel According to St. Matthew.'' London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1965. * Levine, Amy-Jill. "Matthew." ''Women's Bible Commentary.'' Carol A. Newsom and Sharon H. Ringe, eds. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998. * Schaberg, Jane. ''Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (Biblical Seminar Series, No 28)'' Sheffield Academic Press (March 1995) * Eduard Schweizer, Schweizer, Eduard. ''The Good News According to Matthew.'' Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975 * Géza Vermes, Vermes, Géza ''The Nativity: History and Legend''. Penguin (2006)


External links


Icons of the Nativity (mostly Russian)
{{DEFAULTSORT:Nativity Of Jesus Nativity of Jesus, Gospel of Luke Gospel of Matthew Joyful Mysteries Christmas