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The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA)The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1. is a senior aide in the
Executive Office of the President Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief e ...
, based at the
West Wing The West Wing of the White House houses the offices of the president of the United States. The West Wing contains the Oval Office, the Cabinet Room (White House), Cabinet Room, the White House Situation Room, Situation Room, and the Roosevelt Ro ...

West Wing
of the
White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, D.C., NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the residence of every U.S. preside ...

White House
. The National Security Advisor serves as the principal advisor to the
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

President of the United States
on all
national security National security or national defence is the security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics ...
issues. The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President and does not require
confirmation In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and wi ...
by the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
. However, an appointment of a three or four-star General to the role requires Senate reconfirmation of military rank. The National Security Advisor participates in meetings of the
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
(NSC) and usually chairs meetings of the Principals Committee of the NSC with the Secretary of State and
Secretary of Defense A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
(those meetings not attended by the President). The NSA also sits on the
Homeland Security Council The Homeland Security Council (HSC) is an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States The Executive Office of the President (EOP) comprises the offices and agencies that support the work of the president at the ...
(HSC). The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce classified research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President.


Role

The influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but also on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent president. The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 17-21. Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the president in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda. The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 10-14. The National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have
line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The Line'' (2009 film) * ''The Line'', a 2009 independent film by Nancy Schwartzman Lite ...
or budget authority over either the
Department of State The United States Department of State (DOS), or State Department, is an executive department of the U.S. federal government responsible for the nation's foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and ...
or the
Department of DefenseDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) The Department of Defence (DoD) is a Government department, department of the Government of Australia charged with ...
, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments.See for the Secretary of State and for the Secretary of Defense. The National Security Advisor is able to offer daily advice (due to the proximity) to the president independently of the vested interests of the large bureaucracies and clientele of those departments. In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor is likely to operate from the
White House Situation Room The Situation Room, officially known as the John F. Kennedy Conference Room, is a conference room and intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογικ ...

White House Situation Room
or the
Presidential Emergency Operations Center The Presidential Emergency Operations Center (PEOC, ) is a bunker The north entrance to the Cheyenne Mountain Complex in Colorado, United States">Colorado.html" ;"title="Cheyenne Mountain Complex in Colorado">Cheyenne Mountain Complex in ...

Presidential Emergency Operations Center
(as on
September 11, 2001 The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Wahhabi Wahhabism ( ar, الوهابية, ') is a religious reform movement and doctrine associated with the teachings of ...
), updating the president on the latest events in a crisis situation.


History

The National Security Council was created at the start of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
under the
National Security Act of 1947 The National Security Act of 1947 (Act of Congress, Pub.L.]80-253 61 United States Statutes at Large, Stat.]495 enacted July 26, 1947) was a law enacting major restructuring of the Federal government of the United States, United States government' ...
to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, and intelligence; this was part of a large reorganization that saw the creation of the Department of Defense and the
Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. fed ...
. The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff. In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President. Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953, and held the job twice, both times during the
Eisenhower administration The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower began at noon EST on January 20, 1953, with his inauguration as the 34th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of t ...
. The system has remained largely unchanged since then, particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff. President
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
's National Security Advisor,
Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (; ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, diplomat, and Geopolitics, geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor (Unite ...

Henry Kissinger
, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the president and meeting with him multiple times per day. Kissinger also holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975. He holds the record for longest term of service (2,478 days), and Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term at just 24 days. Brent Scowcroft held the job in two non-consecutive administrations: the
Ford administration The presidency of Gerald Ford began on August 9, 1974, when Gerald Ford became President of the United States upon the resignation of Richard Nixon from office, and ended on January 20, 1977, a period of days. Ford, a Republican from Michig ...
and the G.H.W. Bush administration.


List of National Security Advisors


See also

*
White House Chief of Staff The White House chief of staff position is the successor to the earlier role of the Secretary to the President of the United States, secretary to the president of the United States. The role was formalized as the assistant to the president in 194 ...
*
Homeland Security Council The Homeland Security Council (HSC) is an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States The Executive Office of the President (EOP) comprises the offices and agencies that support the work of the president at the ...
* Homeland Security Advisor


Notes


References


Further reading

*Falk, Stanley L. "The National Security Council under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy." ''Political Science Quarterly'' 79.3 (1964): 403–434
online
* George, Robert Z. and Harvey Rishikof, eds. ''The National Security Enterprise: Navigating the Labyrinth'' (2nd ed. Georgetown UP, 2017)
Excerpt
* Preston, Andrew, "The Little State Department: McGeorge Bundy and the National Security Council Staff, 1961‐65." ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'' 31.4 (2001): 635–659
Online
* Rothkopf, David. ''Running the world: The inside story of the National Security Council and the architects of American power.'' (PublicAffairs, 2009).


External links


WhiteHouse.gov/NSC
{{DEFAULTSORT:National Security Advisor Assistants to the President of the United States United States National Security Council United States diplomacy