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The National Film Board of Canada (NFB; french: Office national du film du Canada (ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary films, animation, web documentaries, and alternative dramas. In total, the NFB has produced over 13,000 productions since its inception, which have won over 5,000 awards. The NFB reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. It has English-language and French-language production branches.

Mission



Partial timeline

*1939: The government of Canada proposes the creation of a National Film Commission to complement the activities of the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau. The legislation stipulates that the NFB was to “make and distribute films designed to help Canadians in all parts of Canada to understand the ways of living and the problems of Canadians in other parts.” Legislation also stated that the NFB would co-ordinate the film activities of federal departments. *1950: Canada's Parliament passes the ''National Film Act'', which states that NFB's mandate is "to produce and distribute and to promote the production and distribution of films designed to interpret Canada to Canadians and to other nations." This act also stipulates that the NFB is to engage in film research. *1965: As a result of a report written by producer Gordon Sheppard on Canadian cultural policies and activities, the NFB began regionalizing its English production activities, with producers appointed in major cities across Canada. *1984: Minister of Communications Francis Fox released a ''National Film and Video Policy'', which added two new elements to the mandate, with the NFB also tasked with being "a world centre of excellence in production of films and videos" and "a national training and research centre in the art and technique of film and video." *2008: The NFB announces a Strategic Plan that includes its first digital strategy.

Operations

The National Film Board currently maintains its head office in Saint-Laurent, a borough of Montreal, in the Norman McLaren electoral district, named in honour of the NFB animation pioneer. The NFB HQ building is also named for McLaren, and is home to much of its production activity. In spring 2019, the NFB moved its headquarters from the Norman McLaren Building in the Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent to the new Îlot Balmoral building located at Montreal's Quartier des spectacles, adjacent to the square. The NFB will occupy the first six floors of the building, which will allow it to have closer contact with the public, and will also feature expanded digital media research and production facilities. In addition to the English and French-language studios in its Montreal HQ, there are centres throughout Canada. English-language production occurs at centres in Toronto (Ontario Centre), Vancouver (Pacific & Yukon Centre, located in the Woodward's Building), Edmonton (North West Centre), Winnipeg (Prairie Centre), and Halifax (Atlantic Centre). As of October 2009, the Atlantic Centre also operates an office in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. In June 2011, the NFB appointed a producer to work with film and digital media makers across Saskatchewan, to be based in Regina. Outside Quebec, French language productions are also made in Moncton (Studio Acadie) and Toronto (Canadian Francophone Studio). The NFB also offers support programs for independent filmmakers: in English, via the Filmmaker Assistance Program (FAP) and in French through its Aide du cinéma indépendant – Canada (ACIC) program. The organization has a hierarchical structure headed by a ''Board of Trustees'', which is chaired by the ''Government Film Commissioner and NFB Chairperson''. It is overseen by the ''Board of Trustees Secretariat and Legal Affairs''. Funding is derived primarily from government of Canada transfer payments, and also from its own revenue streams. These revenues are from print sales, film production services, rentals, and royalties, and total up to $10 million yearly; the NFB lists this as ''Respendable Revenues'' in its financial statements. As a result of cuts imposed by 2012 Canadian federal budget, by 2015 the NFB's public funding will be reduced by $6.7 million, to $60.3 million. As part of the 2016 Canadian federal budget, the NFB will receive an additional $13.5 million in funding, spread out over a five-year period.

History

In 1938, the Government of Canada invited John Grierson, a British documentary film producer who introduced the term "documentary" to English-speaking film criticism, to study the state of the government's film production. Up to that date, the Government Motion Picture Bureau, established in 1918, had been the major Canadian film producer. The results of Grierson's report were included in the National Film Act of 1939. In , the Act led to the establishment of the National Film Commission, which was subsequently renamed the National Film Board (NFB). The NFB was founded in part to create propaganda in support of the Second World War.Ann Curthoys, Marilyn Lakebr>Connected worlds: history in transnational perspective, Volume 2004
p.151. Australian National University Press
In 1940, with Canada at war, the NFB launched its ''Canada Carries On'' series of morale boosting theatrical shorts. The success of ''Canada Carries On'' led to the creation of ''The World in Action'', which was more geared to international audiences. In this period, other NFB films were issued as newsreels, such as ''The War Is Over'' (1945), intended for theatrical showings. These films were based on current news and often tackled wartime events as well as contemporary issues in Canadian culture. Early in its history, the NFB was a primarily English-speaking institution. Based in Ottawa, 90% of its staff were English and the few French Canadians in production worked with English crews. There was a French Unit that was responsible for versioning films into French but it was headed by an Anglophone. And in NFB annual reports of the time, French films were listed under "foreign languages". Screenwriter Jacques Bobet, hired in 1947, worked to strengthen the French Unit and retain French talent and was appointed producer of French versions in 1951. During that period, commissioner Albert Trueman, sensitive to how the Quiet Revolution was beginning to transform Quebec society, brought in Pierre Juneau as the NFB's "French Advisor". Juneau recommended the creation of a French production branch to enable francophone filmmakers to work and create in their own language. During the 1940s and early 1950s, the NFB employed 'travelling projectionists' who toured the country, bringing films and public discussions to rural communities.

Mandate revisions

In 1950, a revision of the National Film Act removed any direct government intervention into the operation and administration of the NFB. In 1956, the NFB's headquarters was relocated from Ottawa to Montreal, improving the NFB's reputation in French Canada and making the NFB more attractive to French-speaking filmmakers. In 1964, a separate French production branch was finally established, with Bobet as one of its four initial executive producers. In 1967, the creation of the Canadian Film Development Corporation (now known as Telefilm Canada) refined the mandate for the National Film Board. The Canadian Film Development Corporation would become responsible for promoting the development of the film industry. The Challenge for Change was also created the same year as a community media project which would develop the use of film and video as a tool for initiating social change. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the National Film Board produced several educational films in partnership with Parks Canada, including Bill Schmalz's ''Bears and Man''. In the early 1970s, the NFB began a process of decentralization, opening film production centres in cities across Canada. The move had been championed by NFB producers such as Rex Tasker, who became the first executive producer of the NFB's studio in Halifax.

''Canada Vignettes''

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the National Film Board produced a series of vignettes, some of which aired on CBC and other Canadian broadcasters as interstitial programs. The vignettes became popular because of their cultural depiction of Canada, and because they represented its changing state, such as the vignette ''Faces'' which was made to represent the increasing cultural and ethnic diversity of Canada. In 1996, the NFB operating budget was cut by 32%, forcing it to lay off staff and to close its film laboratory, sound stage (now privatized) and other departments.

21st century

In 2006, the NFB marked the 65th anniversary of NFB animation with an international retrospective of restored Norman McLaren classics and the launch of the DVD box set, ''Norman McLaren – The Master's Edition''. The NFB budget has since been cut again. The six-storey John Grierson Building at its Montreal headquarters has been unused for several years – with HQ staff now based solely in its adjacent Norman McLaren Building. In October 2009, the NFB released a free app for Apple's iPhone that would allow users to watch thousands of NFB films directly on their cell phones. In 2010, the NFB released an iPad version of their app that streams NFB films, many in high definition. In March 2012, the NFB's funding was cut 10%, to be phased in over a three-year period, as part of the 2012 Canadian federal budget. The NFB eliminated 73 full and part-time positions. Beginning on 2 May 2014, the NFB's 75th anniversary was marked by such events as the release of a series of commemorative stamps by Canada Post, and an NFB documentary about the film board's early years, entitled ''Shameless Propaganda''.

Documentary



Cinéma vérité and Direct Cinema

In the post-war era the NFB became a pioneer in new developments in documentary film. The NFB played a key role in both the Cinéma vérité and Direct Cinema movements, working on technical innovations to make its 16 mm synchronized sound equipment more light-weight and portable—most notably the "Sprocketape" portable sound recorder invented for the film board by Ches Beachell in 1955. Influenced by the work of Henri Cartier-Bresson, the NFB's Studio B production unit experimented with cinema verite in its 1958 ''Candid Eye'' series. ''Candid Eye'' along with such NFB French-language films as ''Les Raquetteurs'' (1958) have been credited as helping to inspire the cinéma vérité documentary movement. Other key cinéma vérité films during this period included ''Lonely Boy'' (1961) and ''Ladies and Gentlemen... Mr. Leonard Cohen'' (1965).

''Challenge for Change''/''Societé Nouvelle''

Running from 1967 to 1980, ''Challenge for Change'' and its French-language equivalent ''Societé Nouvelle'' became a global model for the use of film and portable video technology to create community-based participatory documentary films to promote dialogue on local issues and promote social change. Over two hundred such films were produced, including 27 films about Fogo Island, Newfoundland, directed by Colin Low and early NFB efforts in Indigenous filmmaking, such as Willie Dunn's ''The Battle of Crowfoot'' (1968).
Challenge for Change: Activist Documentary at the National Film Board of Canada
' (2010). Thomas Waugh, Michael Brendan Baker, Ezra Winton (eds). Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press., pp. 5-6


Giant-screen cinema

NFB documentarians played a key role in the development of the IMAX film format, following the NFB multi-screen experience ''In the Labyrinth'', created for Expo 67 in Montreal. The film was the centrepiece of a $4.5 million pavilion, which attracted over 1.3 million visitors in 1967, and was co-directed by Roman Kroitor, Colin Low and Hugh O'Connor, and produced by Tom Daly and Kroitor. After Expo, Kroitor left the NFB to co-found what would become known as IMAX Corporation, with Graeme Ferguson and Robert Kerr. The NFB continued to be involved with IMAX breakthroughs at subsequent world's fairs, with NFB director Donald Brittain directing the first-ever IMAX film ''Tiger Child'' for Expo 70 in Osaka, and with the NFB producing the first full-colour IMAX-3D film ''Transitions'' for Expo 86 in Vancouver and the first 48 fps IMAX HD film ''Momentum'' for Seville Expo '92.

Alternative drama

In the 1980s, the National Film Board also produced a number of "alternative drama" films, which combined documentary and narrative fiction filmmaking techniques. Generally starring non-professional actors, these films used a documentary format to present a fictionalized story and were generally scripted by the filmmakers and the cast through a process of improvisation, and are thus classified as docufiction. The alternative drama films were ''The Masculine Mystique'' (1984), ''90 Days'' (1985), ''Sitting in Limbo'' (1986), ''The Last Straw'' (1987), ''Train of Dreams'' (1987), ''Welcome to Canada'' (1989) and ''The Company of Strangers'' (1990).

Animation

When Norman McLaren joined the organization in 1941, the NFB began production of animation. The animation department eventually gained distinction, particularly with the pioneering work of McLaren, an internationally recognized experimental filmmaker. The NFB's French-language animation unit was founded in 1966 by René Jodoin.

Drawn-on-film animation

When McLaren joined the NFB, his first film at the film board was the drawn-on-film short, ''Mail Early''. He would go on to refine his technique make a series of hand-drawn films at the NFB during and after the Second World War, most notably ''Boogie-Doodle'' (1940), ''Hen Hop'' (1942), ''Begone Dull Care'' (1949) and ''Blinkity Blank'' (1955).

Pinscreen animation

The NFB was a pioneer in several novel techniques such as pinscreen animation, and as of June 2012, the NFB is reported to have the only working animation pinscreen in the world.

Stop-motion animation

McLaren's Oscar-winning ''Neighbours'' popularized the form of character movement referred to as pixilation, a variant of stop motion. The term pixilation itself was created by NFB animator Grant Munro in an experimental film of the same name. In 2015, the NFB's animation studios were credited as helping to lead a revival in stop-motion animation in Canada, building on the tradition of NFB animators such as McLaren and Co Hoedeman.

Computer animation

The NFB was a pioneer in computer animation, releasing one of the first CGI films, the Oscar-nominated ''Hunger'', in 1974, then forming its Centre d'animatique in 1980 to develop new CGI technologies. Staff at the Centre d'animatique included Daniel Langlois, who left in 1986 to form Softimage. The NFB was licensed by IMAX Corporation to develop new artistic applications using its SANDDE system for hand-drawn stereoscopic computer animation, with the NFB producing a number of films including ''Falling in Love Again'' (2003) and ''Subconscious Password'' (2013).

Traditional animation

Traditional animators included Richard Condie, John Weldon, Alison Snowden, Janet Perlman, Cordell Barker, Brad Caslor, Michael Mills, Paul Driessen among others (some draw on paper rather than cels).

Sand animation

Caroline Leaf used this technique on films such as ''The Metamorphosis Of Mr. Samsa'' and ''The Owl Who Married A Goose''. ''The Sand Castle'' was the first (and so far only) sand animation to win an Oscar.

Paint on glass animation

Wendy Tilby and Amanda Forbes perfected the paint on glass technique (mixing oil paint with glycerine) on films such as ''Strings'' and ''Wild Life''. This technique was also used on Caroline Leaf's film ''The Street''.

Interactive



Works

As of March 2013, the NFB devotes one quarter of its production budget to interactive media, including web documentaries. The NFB is a pioneer in interactive web documentaries, helping to position Canada as a major player in digital storytelling, according to transmedia creator Anita Ondine Smith, as well as Shari Frilot, programmer for Sundance Film Festival's New Frontier program for digital media. ''Welcome to Pine Point'' received two Webby Awards while ''Out My Window'', an interactive project from the NFB's ''Highrise'' project, won the IDFA DocLab Award for Digital Storytelling and an International Digital Emmy Award. Loc Dao is the executive producer and "creative technologist" responsible for NFB English-language digital content and strategy, based in the Woodward's Building in Vancouver. Jeremy Mendes is an interactive artist producing English-language interactive works for the NFB, whose projects include a collaboration with Leanne Allison (''Being Caribou'', ''Finding Farley'') on the webdoc ''Bear 71''. Dao's counterpart for French-language interactive media production at the NFB is Hugues Sweeney, based in Montreal. Sweeney's recent credits include the online interactive animation work, ''Bla Bla''.

Virtual reality

The NFB is also recognized as a leader in virtual reality, with works such as the Webby Award-winning ''The Unknown Photographer'', ''Way to Go'' and ''Cardboard Crash''.

Platforms

In January 2009, the NFB launched its online Screening Room, NFB.ca, offering Canadian and international web users the ability to stream hundreds of NFB films for free as well as embed links in blogs and social sites. By mid-2013, the NFB's digital platforms had received approximately 41 million views. In October 2009, the NFB launched an iPhone application that was downloaded more than 170,000 times and led to more than 500,000 film views in the first four months. In January 2010, the NFB added high-definition and 3D films to the over 1400 productions available for viewing online. The NFB introduced a free iPad application in July 2010, followed by its first app for the Android platform in March 2011. When the BlackBerry PlayBook launched on April 19, 2011, it included a pre-loaded app offering access to 1,500 NFB titles. In January 2013, it was announced that the NFB film app would be available for the BlackBerry 10, via the BlackBerry World app store. In September 2011, the NFB and the Montreal French-language daily ''Le Devoir'' announced that they would jointly host three interactive essays on their websites, ONF.ca and ledevoir.com. The NFB is a partner with China's ifeng.com on NFB Zone, the first Canadian-branded web channel in China, with 130 NFB animated shorts and documentary films available on the company's digital platforms. NFB documentaries are also available on Netflix Canada. In April 2013, the NFB announced that it was "seeking commercial partners to establish a subscription service for Internet television and mobile platforms next year. The service would be available internationally and would feature documentaries from around the world as well as the NFB’s own catalogue." As of April 2015, NFB.ca offered VOD films from partners Excentris and First Weekend Club along with NFB productions, with over 450 English and French VOD titles scheduled to be added in 2015.

Indigenous production

On June 20, 2017, the NFB announced a three-year plan entitled "Redefining the NFB's Relationship with Indigenous Peoples" that commits the organization to hiring more Indigenous staff, designating 15% of its production spending for Indigenous works and offering cross-cultural training to all employees. The plan also sees the NFB building on its relationships with Canadian schools and organizations to create more educational materials about Indigenous peoples in Canada. One of the most notable filmmakers in the history of the NFB is Alanis Obomsawin, an Abenaki director who will be completing her 50th film with the NFB in 2017.


Programs




Inuit film and animation

In November 2011, the NFB and partners including the Inuit Relations Secretariat and the Government of Nunavut introduced a DVD and online collection entitled ''Unikkausivut: Sharing Our Stories'', makes over 100 NFB films by and about Inuit available in Inuktitut and other Inuit languages, as well as English and French. In November 2006, the National Film Board of Canada and the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation announced the start of the Nunavut Animation Lab, offering animation training to Nunavut artists. Films from the Nunavut Animation Lab include Alethea Arnaquq-Baril's 2010 digital animation short ''Lumaajuuq'', winner of the Best Aboriginal Award at the Golden Sheaf Awards and named Best Canadian Short Drama at the imagineNATIVE Film + Media Arts Festival.

First Stories and Second Stories

In 2005, the NFB introduced its "First Stories" program for emerging Indigenous directors from Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Twelve five-minute films were produced through the program, with four from each province. First Stories was followed by "Second Stories," in which three filmmakers from the previous program—Gerald Auger, Tessa Desnomie and Lorne Olson—were invited back to create 20 minute films.


Wapikoni Mobile


The NFB was a founding partner in Wapikoni Mobile, a mobile film and media production unit for emerging First Nations filmmakers in Quebec.

Early programs

The Indian Film Crew was an early effort in First Nations filmmaking at the NFB, through its Challenge for Change program (established in 1964 on the initiative of George Stoney, the executive producer of Challenge for Change), and was jointly sponsored by the Company of Young Canadians and the Department of Indian Affairs. Barbara Wilson, Tom O’Connor, Noel Starblanket, Roy Daniels, Morris Isaac, Willie Dunn, and Mike Kanentakeron Mitchell were on Canada’s first all-Indigenous production unit, making groundbreaking work that helped galvanize Indigenous movements across the continent. After only five months' training about various aspects of filmmaking, participants worked on community development projects and research for future films. The unit's first release was ''The Ballad of Crowfoot'' (1968), described as "the first NFB film to present First Nations experience from an Indigenous point of view." Subsequent films included the 1969 documentaries ''These Are My People'' and ''You Are on Indian Land''. A documentary was also made about the effort to increase aboriginal representation in filmmaking.

Women's production

The NFB has been a leader in films by women, with the world's first publicly funded women's film's studio, Studio D, followed subsequently by its French-language equivalent, Studio des femmes. Beginning on March 8, 2016, International Women's Day, the NFB began introducing a series of gender parity initiatives.

Studio D

In 1974, in conjunction with International Women's Year, the NFB created Studio D on the recommendation of long-time employee Kathleen Shannon. Shannon was designated as Executive Director of the new studio—the first government-funded film studio dedicated to women filmmakers in the world— which became one of the NFB's most celebrated filmmaking units, winning awards and breaking distribution records. Notable films produced by the studio include three Academy Award-winning documentaries ''I'll Find a Way'' (1977), ''If You Love This Planet'' (1982) and ''Flamenco at 5:15'' (1983), as well as ''Not a Love Story'' (1982) and ''Forbidden Love: The Unashamed Stories of Lesbian Lives'' (1992). Studio D was shut down in 1996, amidst a sweeping set of federal government budget cuts, which impacted the NFB as a whole. As of March 8, 2016, researchers and librarians at the University of Calgary announced an archival project to preserve records of Studio D.

Gender parity initiatives

On March 8, 2016, NFB head Claude Joli-Coeur announced a new gender-parity initiative, with the NFB committing that half of all its production spending will be earmarked for films directed by women. The following year, the NFB announced that it also plans to achieve gender balance by 2020 in such creative positions as editing, scriptwriting, musical composition, cinematography and artistic direction. As of 2017, 53% of its producers and executive producers are women, as well as half of its administrative council. While it is claiming success, directing credits and budget shares have barely changed. In 2016-2017, 44 per cent of NFB productions were directed by women (compared to 51 per cent directed by men and five per cent by mixed teams). Budget-wise, 43 per cent of production funds were given to projects led by women (vs. 40 per cent to projects directed by men and 15 per cent to ones overseen by mixed teams). In 2018-19, 48% of NFB works were directed by women (38% by men and 14% by mixed teams), and 44% of the NFB production budget was allocated to works created by women (41% for works by men and 15% for works by mixed teams

Production personnel are between 10-25%.

Training

NFB training programs include:

Animation

Hothouse, a program for emerging animators that marked its tenth anniversary in 2015. Notable Hothouse alumni include Academy Award nominee Patrick Doyon, part of its 2006 edition. Cinéaste recherché(e) is a similar program for French-language emerging animators. Past graduates include Michèle Cournoyer, who took part in the program's 9th edition in 1989.

Theatrical documentaries

A collaboration with the Canadian Film Centre on a theatrical documentary development program. First launched in January 2009, the program has led to the production of Sarah Polley’s ''Stories We Tell'', Yung Chang‘s ''The Fruit Hunters'' and Su Rynard’s ''The Messenger''. In May 2015, the CFC and NFB announced a new version of the program entitled the NFB/CFC Creative Doc Lab.

NFB structure



Branches and studios

As of 2015, the NFB is organized along the following branches: *Director General, Creation and Innovation: René Bourdages. The heads of the NFB's English and French production branches are Michelle van Beusekom and Michèle Bélanger, respectively. *Finance, Operations and Technology: Director General: Luisa Frate *Marketing and Communications: Director General: Jérôme Dufour *Digital Platforms: Chief Digital Officer: Loc Dao. *Human Resources: Director General: François Tremblay With six regional studios in English Program: *Digital Studio in Vancouver, headed by Executive Producer Rob McLaughlin *Animation Studio based in Montreal, headed by Executive Producer Michael Fukushima and Producers Maral Mohammadian and Jelena Popović *Atlantic Centre based in Halifax, headed by Executive Producer Annette Clarke and Producer Paul McNeill *Quebec Centre based in Montreal, also headed by Executive Producer Annette Clarke *Ontario Centre based in Toronto, headed by Executive Producer Anita Lee and Producer Lea Marin *North West Centre based in Edmonton, headed by Executive Producer David Christensen and Producer Bonnie Thompson *Pacific and Yukon Centre based in Vancouver, headed by Executive Producer Shirley Vercruysse. *With small satellite offices in Winnipeg and St. John's. And four regional studios in French Program: *Interactive Studio in Montreal, headed by Executive Producer Hugues Sweeney *Ontario and West Studio based in Toronto, headed by Executive Producer: Jacques Turgeon *Quebec Studio based in Montreal, also headed by Executive Producer: Jacques Turgeon *French Animation and Youth Studio based in Montreal, headed by Executive Producer: Julie Roy and Producer: Marc Bertrand *Studio Acadie/Acadia Studio based in Moncton, headed by Executive Producer: Jacques Turgeon and Producer: Maryse Chapdelaine *René Chénier, formerly head of French Animation, is Executive Producer of Special Projects

Former studios and departments



Still Photography Division

Upon its merger with the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau in 1941, the NFB's mandate expanded to include motion as well as still pictures, resulting in the creation of the Still Photography Division of the NFB. From 1941 to 1984, the Division commissioned freelance photographers to document every aspect of life in Canada. These images were widely distributed through publication in various media. In 1985, this Division officially became the Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography. The division's work is the subject of a 2013 book by Carleton University art professor Carol Payne entitled ''The Official Picture: The National Film Board of Canada’s Still Photography Division and the Image of Canada, 1941-1971'', published by the McGill-Queen's University Press.

Facilities in Montreal and Toronto

As part of the 2012 budget cuts, the NFB announced that it was forced to close its Toronto Mediatheque and Montreal CineRobotheque public facilities. They ceased to operate as of September 1, 2012. In September 2013, the Université du Québec à Montréal announced that it had acquired the CineRobotheque for its communications faculty.

People



Government Film Commissioners

As stipulated in the National Film Act of 1950, the person who holds the position of Government Film Commissioner is the head of the NFB. As of December 2014, the 16th commissioner of the NFB is Claude Joli-Coeur, who first joined the NFB in 2003 and had previously served as interim commissioner. ;Past NFB Commissioners * John Grierson, 1939–1945 * Ross McLean, 1945–1947 (interim), 1947–1950 * W. Arthur Irwin, 1950–1953 * Albert W. Trueman, 1953–1957 * Guy Roberge, 1957–1966 * Grant McLean, 1966–1967 (interim) * Hugo McPherson, 1967–1970 * Sydney Newman, 1970–1975 * André Lamy, 1975–1979 * James de Beaujeu Domville, 1979–1984 * François N. Macerola, 1984–1988 * Joan Pennefather, 1988–1994 * Sandra M. Macdonald, 1995–2001 * Jacques Bensimon, 2001–2006 * Tom Perlmutter, 2007 to 2013. ;Notable NFB filmmakers, artisans and staff. * Michel Brault * Donald Brittain * Richard Condie * John Grierson, NFB founder * Guy Glover, producer * Co Hoedeman * René Jodoin, French animation founder * Arthur Lipsett * Colin Low * Bill Mason * Norman McLaren, animation founder * Grant Munro * Alanis Obomsawin * Gudrun Parker * Ishu Patel * Eldon Rathburn, composer * Terence Macartney-Filgate * Marcel Carrière * Tom Daly * Roman Kroitor * Wolf Koenig * Ryan Larkin * Tanya Ballantyne * Anne Claire Poirier * William Greaves * Stanley Jackson * Boyce Richardson

Awards



Film and television awards

Over the years, the NFB has been internationally recognized with more than 5000 film awards. In 2009, Norman McLaren's ''Neighbours'' was added to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme, listing the most significant documentary heritage collections in the world.

Canadian Screen Awards

The NFB has received more than 90 awards from the Canadian Film Awards, the Genie Awards and the Canadian Screen Awards, including a Special Achievement Genie in 1989 for its 50th anniversary. The following is an incomplete list: ''Winners'': ''Nominated'':

Academy Awards

The National Film Board of Canada has received 12 Academy Awards to date. It has received 74 Oscar nominations, more than any film organization in the world outside Hollywood. The first-ever Oscar for documentary went to the NFB production, ''Churchill's Island''. In 1989, it received an Honorary Award from the Academy "in recognition of its 50th anniversary and its dedicated commitment to originate artistic, creative and technological activity and excellence in every area of filmmaking." On January 23, 2007, the NFB received its 12th and most recent Academy Award, for the animated short ''The Danish Poet'', directed by Torill Kove and co-produced with MikroFilm AS (Norway). 55 of the NFB's 75 Oscar nominations have been for its short films. ''Winners:'' ''Nominated:'' (incomplete list)

Golden Sheaf Awards

The NFB has received more than 110 Golden Sheaf Awards from the Yorkton Film Festival. The following is an incomplete list of the winners. ''Winners:'' *1960: Best of Festival, ''Universe'', (Roman Kroitor, Colin Low) *1964: Best of Festival, ''The Edge of the Barrens'', () *1967: Best of Festival, ''Paddle to the Sea'', (Bill Mason) *1969: Best of Festival, ''Pas de deux'', (Norman McLaren) *1971: Best of Festival, ''Blake'', (Bill Mason); Best Social Film; Best Direction, (Bill Mason) *1975: Best of Festival, ''Man Who Chooses the Bush'', (Tom Radford); Best Documentary; Best Direction (Tom Radford); Best Cinematography (Tony Westman) *1975: Best Animation, ''Hunger / La Faim'', (Peter Foldes) *1975: Best Direction, ''Man Who Chooses the Bush'', (Tim Radford) *1977: Best of Festival, ''High Grass Circus'', (Tony Ianzelo) *1977: Best Animation, ''Mindscape / Le paysagiste'', (Jacques Drouin) *1979: Best Animation, ''Blowhard'', (Brad Caslor, Christopher Hinton) *1979: Best Experimental, ''Travel Log'', (Donald Winkler) *1981: Best Direction (film), ''After the Axe,'' (Sturla Gunnarsson) *1982: Best Direction (Film), ''End Game in Paris,'' (Veronika Soul); Best Direction (Veronika Soul) *1984: Best Animation, ''The Boy and the Snow Goose / Le Petit Garçon et l'Oie des neiges'', (Gayle Thomas) *1984: Best Experimental, ''Narcissus / Narcisse'', (Norman McLaren) *1986: Best of Festival, ''Ikwe'', (Norma Bailey); Best Drama Over 30 Minutes; Best Script (Wendy Lill); Best Editing (Lara Mazur) *1986: Best Direction, ''Sonia'', (Paul Baillargeon) *1986: Best Drama Under 30 Minutes, ''The Concert Stages of Europe'', (Giles Walker) *1988: Best of Festival, ''Foster Child'', (Gil Cardinal); Best Documentary Over 30 Minutes; NFB Kathleen Shannon Award *1988: Best of Festival, ''L'emprise'', (Michel Brault); Best Direction, (Michel Brault) *1988: Best Animation, ''The Man Who Planted Trees / L'homme qui plantait des arbres'', (Frédéric Back) *1988: Kathleen Shannon Award ''Foster Child'', (Gil Cardinal) *1989: Best of Festival, ''The Defender'', (Stephen Low); Best Cinematography/Videography (Charles Konowal); Best Direction, (Stephen Low); Best Script, (Stephen Low) *1989: Best Animation, ''La lettre d'amour'', () *1990: Best Drama Over 30 Minutes, ''Oui Allo! Estelle?'', (Francois Dauteuil) *1990: Kathleen Shannon Award, ''Black Mother Black Daughter'', (Sylvia Hamilton, Claire Prieto) *1991: Best of Festival, ''Island of Whales'', (Mike Poole) *1991: Best Drama for Broadcasters, ''Le Vendredi de Jeanne Robinson'', (Yves Dion) *1992: Best Animation, ''Sabina'', (Katherine Li) *1994: Best of Festival, ''Folk Art Found Me,'' (Alex Busby ) *1996: Best of Festival, ''Place of the Boss: Utshimassits'', (John Walker); Best Documentary over 30 minutes; Best Original Music *1996: Best Animation, ''The Sandbox'', (JoDee Samuelson) *1997: Best Animation, ''Ernie's Idea'', (Peter Vogler, Claire Maxwell) *1998: Best of Festival, ''Chile, The Obstinate Memory'' / ''Chile, la memoria obstinada'', (Patricio Guzman); Best Direction, (Patricio Guzman) *1998: Best Animation, ''Children Speak'', (Bozenna Heczka, Georgine Strathy) *1999: Best Animation, ''Snow Cat'', (Sheldon Cohen) *1999: Best Multicultural / Race Relations, ''Show Girls'' (Melilan Lam) *1999: Best Documentary Short Subject, ''Sunrise Over Tiananmen Square'', (Shui-Bo Wang) *2000: Best Animation, ''My Grandmother Ironed the King's Shirts'', (Torill Kove) *2001: Best Animation, ''The Boy Who Saw the Iceberg / Le garçon qui a vu l'iceberg'', (Paul Driessen) *2001: Best Multicultural / Race Relations, ''Who Is Albert Woo?'', (Hunt Hoe) *2002: Best Animation, ''Glasses'', (Brian Duchscherer) *2003: Best Animation, ''Loon Dreaming / Le rêve du huard'', (Iriz Pääbo) *2003: Best Multicultural / Race Relations, ''The Murdered Bride'', Claude Vickery *2004: Best of Festival, ''Hardwood'', (Hubert Davis); Best Documentary Short Subject; Best Direction (Non-Dramatic), (Hubert Davis); Best Editing, (Hubert Davis) *2004: Best Animation, ''Stormy Night'', (Michele Lemieux) *2004: Best Multicultural, ''TOTEM: The Return of the G'psgolox Pole,'' (Gil Cardinal) *2005: Best Animation, ''The Man With No Shadow / '', (Georges Schwizgebel) *2005: Best Aboriginal, ''Two Worlds Colliding'', (Tasha Hubbard) *2005: Best Multicultural / Race Relations, ''In the Shadow of Gold Mountain,'' (Karen Cho) *2005: Best Documentary Short Subject, ''Cheating Death,'' (Eric Geringas) *2006: Best Aboriginal, ''First Stories - Patrick Ross'', (Ervin Chartrand) *2006: Best Aboriginal, ''First Stories - Apples & Indians'', (Lorne Olson) *2006: Best Aboriginal, ''First Stories - Nganawendaanan Nde'ing / I Keep Them in My Heart'', (Shannon Letrandre) *2006: Best Aboriginal, ''First Stories - My Indian Name'', (Darryl Nepinak) *2006: Best Animation, ''John and Michael'', (Shira Avni) *2006: Best Multicultural, ''Between: Living in the Hyphen'', (Anne Marie Nakagawa) *2007: Best Aboriginal, ''Qallunaat: Why White People Are Funny'', (Mark Sandiford, Zebedee Nungak) *2007: Best Animation,'' The Danish Poet / Le poète danois '', (Torill Kove) *2007: Best Experimental, ''The Sparky Book'', (Mary Lewis) *2007: Best Multicultural, ''Reema: There and Back'', (Paul-Émile d'Entremont) *2009: Best Animation, ''The Necktie / Le noeud cravate)'', (Jean Françcois Lévesque) *2010: Best Animation, ''Runaway'', (Cordell Barker) *2010: Best Emerging Filmmaker, ''The Man Who Slept'' (Inés Sedan) *2011: Best Aboriginal, ''Lumaajuuq'', (Alethea Arnaquq-Baril) *2011: Best of Festival, ''Lipsett Diaries / Les journaux de Lipsett,'' (Theodore Ushev); Best Animation; The Founders' Award *2011: Best Direction, ''Higglety Pigglety Pop! or There Must Be More to Life'', (Chris Lavis, Maciek Szczerbowski) *2011: Best Experimental, ''Mamori'', (Karl Lemieux) *2012: Best Animation,''Wild Life'', (Amanda Forbis, Wendy Tilby) *2013: Best of Festival, ''Let the Daylight Into the Swamp'', (Jeffrey St. Jules); Best Experimental *2013: Best Direction Non-Fiction, ''The Portrait,'' (Lea Marin) *2014: Best Aboriginal, ''Timuti'', (Jobie Weetaluktuk) *2014: Best Animation, ''Gloria Victoria,'' (Theodore Ushev) *2014: Best Director Fiction, ''Thomas,'' (Pedro Pires, Robert Lepage); Best Drama *2015: Best Animation, ''Me and My Moulton'', (Torill Kove) *2016: Best Animation, ''Carface'', (Claude Cloutier) *2016: Best Experimental, ''Mobilize / Mobiliser'', (Caroline Monnet) *2016: Best Multicultural, ''The Red Path,'' (Thérèse Ottawa) *2017: Best Animation, ''Oscar'', (Marie-Josée Saint-Pierre) *2017: Kathleen Shannon Award, ''19 Days,'' (Asha Siad, Roda Siad) *2018: Best of Festival, ''Skin for Skin'', (Kevin D.A. Kurytnik & Carol Beecher); Best Animation *2018: Best Experimental, ''The Tesla World Light'', (Matthew Rankin) *2018: Best Indigenous, ''Holy Angels'', (Jay Cardinal Villeneuve) *2018: Kathleen Shannon Award, ''Birth of a Family'', (Tasha Hubbard) *2018: Ruth Shaw (Best of Saskatchewan), ''Talking at Night'', (Eric Thiessen) *2019: Best Animation, ''Bone Mother'', (Sylvie Trouvé, Dale Hayward) *2019: Kathleen Shannon Award, ''Beauty,'' (Christina Willings) *2020: Best Animation, ''The Physics of Sorrow,'' (Theodore Ushev); Best Director Fiction *2020: Best Direction Non-Fiction, ''Shannon Amen,'' (Chris Dainty) *2020: Best Experimental, ''No Objects / Sans objets,'' (Marc Betrand) *2020: Best Indigenous, ''Now is the Time,'' (Christopher Auchter) *2020: Best Multicultural, ''nîpawistamâsowin: We Will Stand Up,'' (Tasha Hubbard) *2020: Best Short Subject, ''Gun Killers'', (Jason Young)

Peabody Awards

As of April 2014, the NFB has received five Peabody Awards, for the web documentary ''A Short History of the Highrise'', co-produced with ''The New York Times''; the Rezolution Pictures/NFB co-production ''Reel Injun'' (2011); Karen Shopsowitz's NFB documentary ''My Father's Camera'' (2002), the NFB/Télé-Action co-produced mini-series ''The Boys of St. Vincent'' (1995) and the NFB documentary ''Fat Chance'' (1994).

Annie Awards

NFB Annie Awards nominations include: ''Nominated:'' (incomplete list) *2011: Annie Award for Best Animated Short Subject, ''Sunday (Dimanche)'', (Patrick Doyon) *2011: Annie Award for Best Animated Short Subject, ''Wild Life'', (Wendy Tilby and Amanda Forbis).

Interactive awards

In June 2011, NFB received the Award of Excellence in Interactive Programming from the Banff World Media Festival. In August 2011, the NFB received an outstanding technical achievement in digital media award from the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television.

Webby Awards

As of 2016, NFB web documentaries have won 17 Webby Awards, presented International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences for excellence on the internet. ''Filmmaker-in-Residence'', a project by Katerina Cizek about St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, was named best online documentary series at the 2008 Webbys. In 2010, the NFB website ''Waterlife'', on the state of the Great Lakes, won in the Documentary: Individual Episode category. In 2011, ''Welcome to Pine Point'' received two Webbys, for Documentary: Individual Episode in the Online Film & Video category and Net art in the Websites category. In 2012, the NFB received two more Webbys, for ''Bla Bla'' (best web art) and ''God's Lake Narrows'' (best use of photography). In 2013, ''Bear 71'' received the Webby for best net art. In 2014, the interactive photo essay ''The Last Hunt'' received a People’s Voice Award Webby for best navigation/structure. In 2015, the NFB-co-produced webdoc ''Seven Digital Deadly Sins'' received three People's Voice Awards, chosen by the public online, at the 2015 Webby Awards. At the 2016 awards, the NFB received six more Webbys: ''Way to Go'' received the Webby and People's Voice awards in the Web/NetArt category as well as the Webby for Online Film & Video/VR: Gaming, Interactive or Real-Time. ''The Unknown Photographer'' won the People's Voice award in the Online Film & Video/VR: Gaming, Interactive or Real-Time category, while ''Universe Within'' received the Webby for Online Film & Video/Best Use of Interactive Video, and ''Cardboard Crash VR for Google Cardboard'' won in the category of Online Film & Video/VR: Gaming, Interactive or Real-time (Branded).

Others



Controversy

In addition to ''Neighbours'', other NFB productions have been the source of controversy, including two NFB productions broadcast on CBC Television that criticized the role of Canadians in wartime led to questions in the Senate of Canada. In the early 1970s, two Quebec political documentaries, Denys Arcand's ''On est au coton'' and Gilles Groulx's ''24 heures ou plus'', were initially withheld from release by the NFB due to controversial content. ''The Kid Who Couldn't Miss'' (1982) cast doubt on the accomplishments of Canadian World War I flying ace Billy Bishop, sparking widespread outrage, including complaints in the Senate subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs. A decade later, ''The Valour and the Horror'' outraged some when it suggested that there was incompetence on the part of Canadian military command, and that Canadian soldiers had committed unprosecuted war crimes against German soldiers. The series became the subject of an inquiry by the Senate. Other controversial productions included the 1981 film ''Not a Love Story: A Film About Pornography'', a 1981 Studio D documentary critiquing pornography that was itself banned in the province of Ontario on the basis of pornographic content. Released the following year, ''If You Love This Planet'', winner of the Academy Award for best documentary short subject, was labelled foreign propaganda under the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 in the United States.

NFB on TV

The NFB is a minority owner of the digital television channel, Documentary in Canada. NFB-branded series ''Retrovision'' appeared on VisionTV, along with the French-language ''Carnets ONF'' series on APTN. Moreover, in 1997 the American cable channel Cartoon Network created a weekly 30-minute show called ''O Canada'' specifically showcasing a compilation of NFB-produced works; the segment was discontinued in favour of ''Adult Swim''.

Logo

The Board's logo consists of a standing stylized figure (originally green) with its arms wide upward. The arms are met by an arch that mirrors them. The round head in between then resembles a pupil, making the entire symbol appear to be an eye with legs. Launched in 1968, the logo symbolized a vision of humanity and was called "Man Seeing / L'homme qui voit". It was designed by Georges Beaupré. It was updated in 2002 by the firm of Paprika Communications.

NFB in popular media

*The Scottish music act Boards of Canada takes its name from the NFB. *There have been three NFB references in ''The Simpsons'' as of June 2015: the episode "E-I-E-I-(Annoyed Grunt)", has the Simpson family watching a Zorro movie whose production is credited to the NFB, "The Fat and the Furriest" was inspired by the NFB documentary ''Project Grizzly'', while "The Italian Bob" has the students of Bart's class watching a diversity film created by PBS in association with the National Film Board of Canada. *George Lucas, who had attributed the origins of "the Force " to a 1963 abstract NFB film by Arthur Lipsett entitled ''21-87'', went on to use the number 2187 as the cell number where Princess Leia was being detained in ''Star Wars''.

See also

*Cinema of Canada *Cinema of Quebec *''From NFB to Box-Office'' *Documentary Organization of Canada

References



Further reading

* * * * * * *''Challenge for Change: Activist Documentary at the National Film Board of Canada'' (2010). Thomas Waugh, Michael Brendan Baker, Ezra Winton (eds). Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press.

External links

*
National Film Board of Canada
at the Big Cartoon DataBase * {{DEFAULTSORT:National Film Board Of Canada Category:Organizations awarded an Academy Honorary Award Category:Archives in Canada Category:Canadian animation studios Category:Federal departments and agencies of Canada Category:Department of Canadian Heritage Category:Film archives Category:Film distributors of Canada Category:Film production companies of Canada Category:Producers of Best Documentary Short Subject Academy Award winners Category:Organizations based in Montreal Category:Government agencies established in 1939 Category:Organizations established in 1939 Category:Film organizations in Canada Category:Documentary film organizations Category:Peabody Award winners Category:State-owned film companies Category:Digital media organizations Category:Virtual reality organizations Category:1939 establishments in Quebec Category:Inkpot Award winners Category:Academy Award for Technical Achievement winners