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A nation is a
community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities may share a sense of place (geography), plac ...

community
of people formed on the basis of a combination of shared features such as
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
, history,
ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...

ethnicity
,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...

culture
and/or territory. A nation is thus the collective identity of a group of people understood as defined by those features. A nation is generally more overtly political than an
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
; it has been described as "a fully mobilized or institutionalized ethnic group". Some nations are equated with ethnic groups (see
ethnic nationalism Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the State (polity), state. As a movement, nationalism tends to promote the ...
and
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
) and some are equated with an affiliation with a social and political
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
(see
civic nationalism Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in an inclusive form of nationalism that adheres to traditional liberal values of freedom Freedom, generally, ...
and
multiculturalism The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social ...

multiculturalism
). A nation has also been defined as a cultural-political community that has become conscious of its
autonomy The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...

autonomy
, unity and particular interests.
Benedict Anderson Benedict Richard O'Gorman Anderson (August 26, 1936 – December 13, 2015) was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List ...
characterised a nation as an "
imagined community An imagined community is a concept developed by Benedict Anderson Benedict Richard O'Gorman Anderson (August 26, 1936 – December 13, 2015) was a China, Chinese-born Anglo-Irish political science, political scientist and historian who lived an ...
", and Paul James sees it as an "abstract community". A nation is an imagined community in the sense that the material conditions exist for imagining extended and shared connections and that it is objectively impersonal, even if each individual in the nation experiences themselves as subjectively part of an embodied unity with others. For the most part, members of a nation remain strangers to each other and will likely never meet. Hence the phrase, "a nation of strangers" used by such writers as American journalist
Vance Packard Vance Oakley Packard (May 22, 1914 – December 12, 1996) was an American journalist and social critic. He was the author of several books, including ''The Hidden Persuaders'' and ''The Naked Society''. He was a critic of consumerism Consumer ...
.


Etymology and terminology

The English word ''nation'' came from the Latin ''natio'', supine of verb ''nascar'' « to birth » (
supine In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...

supine
: ''natum''), through French. In Latin, ''natio'' represents the children of the same birth and also a human group of same origin. By
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people ...

Cicero
, ''natio'' is used for "people".
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
word ''nacion'' – meaning "birth" (''naissance''), "place of origin" –, which in turn originates from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...
word '' natio'' (''nātĭō'') literally meaning "birth".. ''
Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) is a dictionary that is designed and compiled to ...
'' defines a nation as follows:
nation, ''n.'' (14c) 1. A large group of people having a common origin, language, and tradition and usu. constituting a political entity. • When a nation is coincident with a state, the term ''nation-state'' is often used....

...

2. A community of people inhabiting a defined territory and organized under an independent government; a sovereign political state....
The word "nation" is sometimes used as synonym for: *
State (polity) A state is a under a system of with a monopoly on force. There is no undisputed definition of a state. A widely used definition from the sociologist is that a "state" is a polity that maintains a , although other definitions are not uncommo ...
or
sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
: a government which controls a specific territory, which may or may not be associated with any particular ethnic group *
Country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...

Country
: a geographic territory, which may or may not have an affiliation with a government or ethnic group Thus the phrase "nations of the world" could be referring to the top-level governments (as in the name for the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
), various large geographical territories, or various large ethnic groups of the planet. Depending on the meaning of "nation" used, the term "
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
" could be used to distinguish larger states from small
city state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or ...
s, or could be used to distinguish
multinational state A multinational state or a multinational union is a sovereign entity Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty i ...
s from those with a single ethnic group.


Medieval nations

Susan Reynolds Susan Reynolds (born 1929) is a British medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affa ...
has argued that many European medieval kingdoms were nations in the modern sense except that political participation in nationalism was available only to a limited prosperous and literate class.
Adrian Hastings Adrian Hastings (23 June 1929 – 30 May 2001) was a Roman Catholic priest, historian and author. He wrote a book about the " Wiriyamu Massacre" during the Mozambican War of Independence The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed ...
has claimed that England's Anglo-Saxon kings mobilized mass nationalism in their struggle to repel Norse invasions. He argues that
Alfred the Great Alfred the Great (848/49 – 26 October 899) was king of the West Saxons This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 886 AD. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a numbe ...

Alfred the Great
, in particular, drew on biblical nationalism, using biblical language in his law code and that during his reign selected books of the Bible were translated into
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
to inspire Englishmen to fight to turn back the Norse invaders. Hastings argues for a strong renewal of English nationalism (following a hiatus after the
Norman conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
) beginning with the , positing that
English nationalism English nationalism is the nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common ...
and the English nation have been continuous since that time. Another example of Medieval nationalism is the
Declaration of Arbroath The Declaration of Arbroath ( la, Declaratio Arbroathis; sco, Declaration o Aiberbrothock; gd, Tiomnadh Bhruis) is the name usually given to a letter, dated 6 April 1320 at Arbroath Arbroath () or Aberbrothock ( gd, Obar Bhrothaig ) is a ...

Declaration of Arbroath
, a document produced by English nobles and clergy during the
Scottish Wars of Independence The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War of Scottish Independence, First War (1296–1328) b ...
. The purpose of the document was to demonstrate to the Pope that Scotland was indeed a nation of its own, with its own unique culture, history and language and that it was indeed an older nation than England. The document went on to justify the actions of
Robert the Bruce Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce ( Medieval Gaelic: '; Modern Scottish Gaelic: '; Norman French Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais: ''Normand'', Jèrriais: ''Nouormand'' ...

Robert the Bruce
and his forces in resisting the occupation and to chastise the English for having violated Scottish sovereignty without justification. The propaganda campaign supplemented a military campaign on the part of the Bruce, which after the
Battle of Bannockburn The Battle of Bannockburn ( gd, Blàr Allt nam Bànag or ) on 23 and 24 June 1314 was a victory of the army of King of Scots Robert the Bruce over the army of King Edward II of England in the First War of Scottish Independence. Although it di ...

Battle of Bannockburn
was successful and eventually resulted in the end of England's occupation and recognition of Scottish independence on the part of the English crown. The document is widely seen as an early example of both
Scottish nationalism Scottish nationalism promotes the idea that the Scottish people form a cohesive nation and Scottish national identity, national identity. Scottish nationalism began to shape from the 1920s to the 1970s and achieved present ideological maturity i ...
and
popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty is the principle that the authority of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The ...
.
Anthony Kaldellis Anthony Kaldellis ( gr, Αντώνιος Καλδέλλης; born 29 November 1971) is a Greek historian who is Professor and Chair of the Department of Classics at Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU ...
affirms in '' Hellenism in
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
'' (2008) that what is called the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
was the Roman Empire transformed into a
nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. Azar Gat is among the scholars who argue that
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
,
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
were nations by the time of the
European Middle Ages The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , l ...
.


Use of term ''nationes'' by medieval universities and other medieval institutions

A significant early use of the term ''nation'', as ''natio'', occurred at
Medieval universities A medieval university was a Corporation#History, corporation organized during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to th ...
to describe the colleagues in a college or students, above all at the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
, who were all born within a ''pays'', spoke the same language and expected to be ruled by their own familiar law. In 1383 and 1384, while studying theology at Paris,
Jean Gerson Jean Charlier de Gerson (13 December 1363 – 12 July 1429) was a French scholar, educator, reformer, and poet, Chancellor of the University of ParisThe Chancellor of the University of Paris was originally the chancellor Chancellor ( la, links= ...

Jean Gerson
was elected twice as a procurator for the French ''natio''. The University of Prague adopted the division of students into ''nationes'': from its opening in 1349 the ''
studium generale ''Studium generale'' is the old customary name for a medieval university in medieval Europe. Overview There is no official definition for the term ''studium generale''. The term ''studium generale'' first appeared at the beginning of the 13th cen ...
'' which consisted of Bohemian, Bavarian, Saxon and Silesian ''nations''. In a similar way, the ''nationes'' were segregated by the , who maintained at
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the sout ...

Rhodes
the hostels from which they took their name "where foreigners eat and have their places of meeting, each nation apart from the others, and a Knight has charge of each one of these hostels, and provides for the necessities of the inmates according to their religion", as the Spanish traveller
Pedro Tafur Pedro Tafur (or Pero Tafur) (c. 1410 – c. 1484) was a traveller, historian and writer from Castile (modern day Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escu ...
noted in 1436.


Early modern nations

In his article, "The Mosaic Moment: An Early Modernist Critique of the Modernist Theory of Nationalism", Philip S. Gorski argues that the first modern
nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
was the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
, created by a fully modern political nationalism rooted in the model of biblical nationalism. In a 2013 article "Biblical nationalism and the sixteenth-century states",
Diana Muir Appelbaum Diana Muir, also known as Diana Muir Appelbaum, is a Newton, Massachusetts Newton is a suburban city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is approximately west of downtown Boston and is bordered by Boston's Brighton, Boston, B ...
expands Gorski's argument to apply to a series of new, Protestant, sixteenth-century nation states. A similar, albeit broader, argument was made by Anthony D. Smith in his books, ''Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity'' and ''Myths and Memories of the Nation''. In her book ''Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity'', Liah Greenfeld argued that nationalism was invented in England by 1600. According to Greenfeld, England was “the first nation in the world".


Social science

In the late 20th century, many social scientists argued that there were two types of nations, the civic nation of which French republican society was the principal example and the ethnic nation exemplified by the German peoples. The German tradition was conceptualized as originating with early 19th-century philosophers, like
Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (; ; 19 May 1762 – 29 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kan ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
, and referred to people sharing a common language, religion, culture, history, and ethnic origins, that differentiate them from people of other nations. On the other hand, the civic nation was traced to the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
and ideas deriving from 18th-century French philosophers. It was understood as being centred in a willingness to "live together", this producing a nation that results from an act of affirmation. This is the vision, among others, of
Ernest Renan Joseph Ernest Renan (; 27 February 18232 October 1892) was a French Orientalist Orientalist may refer to: *A scholar of Oriental studies *A person or thing relating to the Western intellectual or artistic paradigm known as Orientalism (as in 'a ...

Ernest Renan
. Present day analysis tend to be based in socio-historical studies about the building of
national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the lo ...
sentiments, trying to identify the individual and collective mechanisms, either conscient or non-conscient, intended or un-intended. According to some of these studies, it seems that the
State State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
often plays a significant role, and communications, particularly of economic content, also have a high significance.


Debate about a potential future of nations

There is an ongoing debate about the future of nations − about whether this framework will persist as is and whether there are viable or developing alternatives. The theory of the
clash of civilizations Clash or The Clash may refer to: Culture Events * ''Clash of the Champions The ''Clash of the Champions'' is a series of professional wrestling television specials that were produced by World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and Jim Crockett Pr ...
lies in direct contrast to
cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
theories about an ever more-connected world that no longer requires nation states. According to
political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power r ...
Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a century at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy ...
, people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post–
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
world. The theory was originally formulated in a 1992 lecture at the
American Enterprise Institute The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the W ...
, which was then developed in a 1993 ''
Foreign Affairs ''Foreign Affairs'' is an American magazine of international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader ...

Foreign Affairs
'' article titled "The Clash of Civilizations?",Official copy (free preview): in response to
Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (, ; born October 27, 1952) is an American Political science, political scientist, Political economy, political economist, and writer. Fukuyama is known for his book ''The End of History and the Last Man'' (1992), which ...

Francis Fukuyama
's 1992 book, ''
The End of History and the Last Man ''The End of History and the Last Man'' (1992) is a book of political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and th ...

The End of History and the Last Man
''. Huntington later expanded his
thesis A thesis, or dissertation (abbreviated diss.), is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher ed ...
in a 1996 book ''The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order''. Huntington began his thinking by surveying the diverse theories about the nature of global politics in the post–
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
period. Some theorists and writers argued that
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
,
liberal democracy Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is the combination of a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a L ...
and capitalist
free market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
economics had become the only remaining ideological alternative for nations in the post–Cold War world. Specifically,
Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (, ; born October 27, 1952) is an American Political science, political scientist, Political economy, political economist, and writer. Fukuyama is known for his book ''The End of History and the Last Man'' (1992), which ...

Francis Fukuyama
, in ''
The End of History and the Last Man ''The End of History and the Last Man'' (1992) is a book of political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and th ...

The End of History and the Last Man
'', argued that the world had reached a
Hegelian Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel in which reality has a conceptual structure. Pure Concepts are not subjectively applied to sense-impressions but rather things exist for actualizing their ''a priori'' pure concept. The concept o ...
"end of history". Huntington believed that while the age of
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
had ended, the world had reverted only to a normal state of affairs characterized by cultural conflict. In his thesis, he argued that the primary axis of conflict in the future will be along cultural and religious lines.
Postnationalism Postnationalism or non-nationalism is the process or trend by which nation states and national identities lose their importance relative to cross-nation and self-organized or supranational union, supranational and global entities as well as local e ...
is the process or trend by which nation states and national identities lose their importance relative to supranational and global entities. Several factors contribute to its aspects including
economic globalization Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization Political globalization refers to the growth of the worldwide political system ...
, a rise in importance of
multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whethe ...
s, the internationalization of financial markets, the transfer of socio-political power from national authorities to supranational entities, such as multinational corporations, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and the advent of new information and culture technologies such as the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. However attachment to citizenship and national identities often remains important.I. Bloemraad; "Who claims dual citizenship? The limits of postnationalism, the possibilities of transnationalism, and the persistence of traditional citizenship"; ''International Migration Review'' 38:389–426 (2004) Jan Zielonka of the University of Oxford states that "the future structure and exercise of political power will resemble the medieval model more than the Westphalian one" with the latter being about "concentration of power, sovereignty and clear-cut identity" and
neo-medievalismNeo-medievalism (or neomedievalism, new medievalism) is a term with a long history that has acquired specific technical senses in two branches of scholarship. In political theory about modern international relations, where the term is originally ass ...
meaning "overlapping authorities, divided sovereignty, multiple identities and governing institutions, and fuzzy borders".


See also

*
Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and t ...

Citizenship
*
City network City networks are a geographical concept studying connections between cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The c ...
*
Country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...

Country
*
Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

Government
*
Identity (social science) Identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of belief ...
* ''
Imagined Communities ''Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism'' is a book by Benedict Anderson. It introduces a popular concept in political sciences and sociology, that of imagined communities named after it. It was first published ...
'' *
Invented tradition "Ancient" Scottish clan tartans are an example of an invented tradition created in the 19th century. Invented traditions are cultural practices which are perceived as traditional, arising from the people, and of immemorial antiquity, but which in ...
* Lists of people by nationality *
Meta-ethnicity Meta-ethnicity is a relatively recent term (or neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of ent ...
*
Multinational state A multinational state or a multinational union is a sovereign entity Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty ...
*
National emblem The national emblem means "national crest / shield emblem or logo design", which represents the image and dignity of the country's political power and people. It is one of the symbols of a country's political power.The national emblem is an embl ...
* National god * National memory * Nationalism * Nationality * People * Polity * Qaum * Race (human categorization) * Separatism * Irredentism * Society * Sovereign state * Stateless nation * Tribe * Republic * Republicanism


References


Sources

* * * * * * * *Mylonas, Harris; Tudor, Maya (11 May 2021).
Nationalism: What We Know and What We Still Need to Know
. ''Annual Review of Political Science''. 24 (1): 109–132.


Further reading

* Pierre Manent, Manent, Pierre (2007)
"What is a Nation?"
''The Intercollegiate Review'', Vol. XLII, No. 2, pp. 23–31. * Ernest Renan, Renan, Ernest (1896)
"What is a Nation?"
In: ''The Poetry of the Celtic Races, and Other Essays''. London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., pp. 61–83. * * * * * * {{Authority control Ethnicity Nation, * Political geography Political science terminology Types of communities