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The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was an
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
dynasty and the last
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
dynasty in the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
, ruling the
Emirate of Granada ) , common_languages = Official language: Classical ArabicOther languages: Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic, Berber, Ladino , capital = Granada , religion = Majority religion:Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () i ...

Emirate of Granada
from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or politic ...

emir
s ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1230 by Muhammad I until 2 January 1492, when
Muhammad XII ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
surrendered all lands to Queen
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrid dynasty is part of the
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the provi ...

Alhambra
palace complex built under their rule.


Background

The dynasty founded by
Muhammad I of Granada Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr () (1195 – 22 January 1273), also known as Ibn al-Aḥmar ( ar, ابن الأحمر) and by his laqab, honorific al-Ghalib billah ("The Victor by the Grace of God"), was the first ruler of the Emirat ...
held a territory that included
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
, Jaén,
Almería Almería (, also , ) is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of Almería, province of the same name. Abd al-Rahman III founded the Alcazaba of Almería, Alcazaba ...

Almería
, and
Málaga Málaga (, ) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of Spain, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia. With a population of 571,026 in 2018, it is the second-most populous ...

Málaga
.
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
, Játiva, and Jaén were conquered by Christians during the campaigns of the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
and the Nasrids were made into tribute paying
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
s in 1243. Granada continued as a center of
Islamic culture Islamic culture and Muslim culture refer to cultural practices which are common to historically Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", ...
. The Nasrids formed alliances with the
Marinids The Marinid Sultanate was a Berber empire from the mid-13th to the 15th century which controlled present-day Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Afri ...
of
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
. Nasrid crafts like textile work such as
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. ...
overglaze used techniques from 9th century Baghdad and were applied to make
lusterware Lustreware or Lusterware (respectively the spellings for British English and American English) is a type of pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are f ...
, first in
Málaga Málaga (, ) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of Spain, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia. With a population of 571,026 in 2018, it is the second-most populous ...

Málaga
,
Murcia Murcia (, , ) is a city in south-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Murcia
, and
Almería Almería (, also , ) is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of Almería, province of the same name. Abd al-Rahman III founded the Alcazaba of Almería, Alcazaba ...

Almería
, and then by the 15th century in
Manises Manises (, ) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is su ...
. This style of pottery produced first under Muslim patronage, then Christian, influenced the later style of colorful and glazed Italian ceramics known as ''
maiolica Maiolica is tin-glazed pottery Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in lead glaze with added tin oxide which is white, shiny and opaque (see tin-glazing for the chemistry); usually this provides a background for brightly painted de ...

maiolica
''. Throughout the 14th century the Nasrids are noted for their palace architecture like the
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the provi ...

Alhambra
, which was a product of the efforts of
Ismail I Ismail I ( fa, اسماعیل, Esmāʿīl, ; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the m ...
and Muhammad V. In 1469
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
married
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
, uniting the Christian Kingdoms of Castile and
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...
in a common cause dedicated to purging Islam from the Iberian Peninsula. The last Nasrid ruler
Muhammad XII ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
of the
Emirate of Granada ) , common_languages = Official language: Classical ArabicOther languages: Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic, Berber, Ladino , capital = Granada , religion = Majority religion:Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () i ...

Emirate of Granada
was exiled to
Fez Fez most often refers to: * Fez (hat) The fez (, ), also called tarboosh ( ar, طربوش, translit=ṭarbūš, derived from fa, سرپوش, translit=sarpuš, lit=cap), is a felt headdress in the shape of a short cylindrical peakless hat, usuall ...

Fez
(
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
)in 1492 and the remaining Muslim population was given the status of ''
mudéjar Mudéjar (, also , , ; ca, mudèjar ; from ar, مدجن, mudajjan, subjugated; tamed; domesticated) refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the Late Middle Ages, late medieval period despite the Reconquista, Christian reconques ...
''. File:Escudo de Muhammed V de Granada.jpg, Coat of Arms of the Emirate of Granada on a wall in the
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the provi ...

Alhambra
, Nasrid dynasty (1013–1492) File:Wernigeroder Wappenbuch 056.jpg, Contemporary coat of arms (upper right) of the Nasrid dynasty of Granada with garbled Arabic inscription ('' Wernigerode Armorial''). File:Nasrid Dynasty Textile Fragment.jpg, A silk textile fragment from the last Muslim dynasty of Al-Andalus, the Nasrid Dynasty (1232–1492), with the epigraphic inscription "glory to our lord the Sultan". File:Hall of Kings (Alhambra), 10 kings cropped.jpg , Painting in the ceiling of the Hall of Kings of the Alhambra, likely depicting ten Sultans of Granada.


Lineage

The Nasrid dynasty was descended from the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
Banu Khazraj The Banu Khazraj ( ar, بنو خزرج) is a large tribe in Medina Medina, ', "the radiant city"; or , ' (), "the city", officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is the second holiest city in Islam ...
tribe, and claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, the chief of the tribe and one of the of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. The ''nasab'' of Yusuf (nicknamed "al-Ahmar", meaning "the Red"). The Nasrids were of
Azd Yazd-Shahid Ayatollah Sadooghi Airport ( fa, فرودگاه شهید آيت‌اللّه صدوقی یزد, ''Fervâdgah-e Shihid Âyetellah Sâduqi Yezd'') is an airport in Yazd Yazd ( fa, یزد ), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital o ...
origin.


Conflicts of succession and civil war

During the time the Christians were launching a campaign against the Emirate of Granada that would effectively end the Nasrid dynasty, the Nasrids were engaged in a civil war over the throne of Granada. When
Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Sa'd ( ar, أبو الحسن علي, Abū al-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn Saʿd; d. 1485), known as Muley Hacén in Spanish (''Muley'' being derived from Arabic Mulay, Mawlay = "My Lord"), was the twenty-first Nasrid dynasty, Nasrid rul ...
, was ousted by his son
Muhammad XII ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
, Abu l-Hasan Ali retreated to
Málaga Málaga (, ) is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality of Spain, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia. With a population of 571,026 in 2018, it is the second-most populous ...

Málaga
and civil war broke out between the competing factions. Christians took full advantage of this and continued capturing Muslim strongholds. Muhammed XII was caught by Christian forces in 1483 at
Lucena, Córdoba Lucena () is a Spain, Spanish city and Municipalities of Spain, municipality, in the Province of Córdoba (Spain), province of Córdoba, Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, 60 km southeast of Córdoba, Spain, ...
. He was freed after he swore an oath of allegiance to
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
and
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
. Abu l-Hasan Ali finally abdicated in favor of his brother Muhammad XIII, Sultan of Granada, known as Al-Zaghal (the valiant), and a power struggle with Muhammad XII continued. Al-Zaghal prevailed in the inner struggle but was forced to surrender to the Christians. Muhammad XII was given a lordship in the Alpujarras mountains but instead took financial compensation from the Spanish crown to leave the Iberian Peninsula.


Legacy

The Nasrid dynasty was one of the longest ruling Muslim dynasties in the Iberian Peninsula, reigning for more than 250 years from the establishment of the Emirate of Granada in 1230 to its annexation in 1492. The Nasrids constructed the
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the provi ...

Alhambra
palace-fortress complex in
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
.


Family tree

The family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty. It starts with their common ancestor, Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted, as are sons whose descendants never reigned. During times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree generally recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace.


List of Nasrid sultans of Granada


First dynasty (''al-dawla al-ghalibiyya''):


Second dynasty (''al-dawla al-isma'iliyya al-nasriyya''):


See also

* *
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the provi ...

Alhambra
* Romance of Abenámar *
Taifa of Granada The Taifa of Granada ( ar, طائفة غرناطة, rtl=yes, ) was a Berber emirate An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, dif ...

Taifa of Granada


Notes


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* {{Authority control Alhambra (Spain) Emirate of Granada Granada Arab dynasties