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Naram-Sin also transcribed Narām-Sîn or Naram-Suen ( akk, 𒀭𒈾𒊏𒄠𒀭𒂗𒍪: '' DNa-ra-am D Sîn'', meaning "Beloved of the Moon God Sîn", the "
𒀭 ''Dingir'' (, usually transliteration of cuneiform, transliterated DIĜIR, ) is a Sumerian language, Sumerian word for "deity, god" or "deity, goddess." Its Cuneiform script, cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for relig ...
" being a silent honorific for "Divine"), was a ruler of the
Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of ...
, who reigned c. 2254–2218 BC, and was the third successor and grandson of King
Sargon of Akkad Sargon of Akkad (; akk, 𒊬𒊒𒄀 ''Šar-ru-gi''), also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer ...

Sargon of Akkad
. Under Naram-Sin the empire reached its maximum strength. He was the first Mesopotamian king known to have claimed divinity for himself, taking the title "God of Akkad", and the first to claim the title "
King of the Four Quarters Seal of the Neo-Sumerian king Ibbi-Sin in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The inscription reads "Ibbi-Sin the strong king, king of Ur, King of the four corners of the world". King of the Four Corners of the World (Sumerian language, Sumerian: ''l ...
,
King of the Universe Rimush Rimush (or Rimuš, 𒌷𒈬𒍑 ''Ri-mu-uš'') was the second king of the Akkadian Empire. He was the son of Sargon of Akkad and Queen Tashlultum. He was succeeded by his brother Manishtushu, and was an uncle of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Sumeri ...

King of the Universe
".


Biography

Naram-Sin was born as a son of
Manishtushu Manishtushu (𒈠𒀭𒅖𒌅𒋢, ''Ma-an-ish-tu-su'') was the third king of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer. It was centered in the city of Akk ...
. He was thus a nephew of King
Rimush Rimush (or Rimuš, 𒌷𒈬𒍑 ''Ri-mu-uš'') was the second king of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَا ...
and grandson of Sargon and
Tashlultum Tashlultum () was a wife of King Sargon of Akkad. Her name is known to archaeology only from a single shard of an alabaster vase or bowl with an inscription indicating it was dedicated to the temple by her steward.En-hedu-ana Enheduanna (Sumerian language, Sumerian: , also transliteration, transliterated as ''Enheduana'', ''En-hedu-ana'', or variants;) was the EN (cuneiform), EN priestess of the moon god Sin (mythology), Nanna (Sīn) in the Sumerian city-state of Ur i ...

En-hedu-ana
.


Reign

Naram-Sin defeated Manium of Magan, and various northern hill tribes in the
Zagros The Zagros Mountains ( fa, کوه‌های زاگرس; ku, چیاکانی زاگرۆس, translit=Çiyayên Zagros;) are a long mountain range in Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of I ...
,
Taurus Taurus is Latin for 'bull' and may refer to: * Taurus (constellation), one of the constellations of the zodiac * Taurus (mythology), one of two Greek mythological characters named Taurus * Taurus (astrology), the astrological sign * ''Bos taurus' ...
, and
Amanus Mountains and Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπ ...
, expanding his empire up to the Mediterranean Sea and Armenia. His "Victory Stele" depicts his triumph over Satuni, chief of
Lullubi Lullubi, Lulubi ( akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈: ''Lu-lu-bi'', akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈𒆠: ''Lu-lu-biki'' "Country of the Lullubi"), more commonly known as Lullu, were a group of tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as ''Lulubum'', now the Shar ...

Lullubi
in the
Zagros Mountains The Zagros Mountains ( fa, کوه‌های زاگرس, ''Kuh hā-ye Zāgros;'' Luri language, Luri: کویل زاگروس‎, ''Koyal Zagros;'' Turkish language, Turkish: ''Zagros Dağları;'' ku, چیاکانی زاگرۆس, translit=Çiyakani ...
. The king list gives the length of his reign as 56 years, and at least 20 of his year-names are known, referring to military actions against various places such as
Uruk Uruk, also known as Warka, was an ancient city of (and later of ) situated east of the present bed of the River on the dried-up ancient channel of the Euphrates east of modern , , .Harmansah, 2007 Uruk is the for the . Uruk played a leading ...
and
Subartu The land of Subartu (Akkadian ''Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri'', Assyrian ''Kur, mât Šubarri'') or Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) is mentioned in Bronze Age literature. The name also appears as ''Subari'' in the Amarna letters, and, i ...
. One unknown year was recorded as "the Year when Naram-Sin was victorious against
Simurrum The Simurrum Kingdom ( akk, 𒋛𒈬𒌨𒊑𒅎: ''Si-mu-ur-ri-im'') was an important city state of the Mesopotamian Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ...
in Kirasheniwe and took prisoner Baba the governor of Simurrum, and Dubul the ''ensi'' of Arame". Other year names refer to his construction work on temples in Akkad, Nippur, and Zabala. He also built administrative centers at Nagar and
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
. At one point in his reign much of the empire, led by Iphur-Kis from the city of Kish rose in rebellion and was put down strongly.


Submission of Sumerian kings

The submission of some Sumerian rulers to Naram-Sin, and in general to the
Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of ...
, is recorded in the seal inscriptions of Sumerian rulers such as
Lugal-ushumgal File:Sibni, servant of Lugal-ushumgal.jpg, 260px, A seal of "Sibni (𒉺𒇻𒀭𒉌), policeman (𒋼𒇲𒃲, ''gallagal''), servant of Lugal-ushumgal, ensi of Lagash". Lugal-ushumgal (, ''lugal-ušumgal'') was a Sumer, Sumerian ruler (Ensi (S ...
, governor ( ensi) of
Lagash Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian language, Sumerian: ''Lagaš''), or Shirpurla, was an ancient city state located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, ...

Lagash
("Shirpula"), circa 2230-2210 BC. Several inscriptions of Lugal-ushumgal are known, particularly seal impressions, which refer to him as governor of
Lagash Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian language, Sumerian: ''Lagaš''), or Shirpurla, was an ancient city state located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, ...

Lagash
and at the time a vassal (, ''arad'', "servant" or "slave") of Naram-Sin, as well as his successor
Shar-kali-sharri Shar-Kali-Sharri (𒀭𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷, '' DShar-ka-li-Sharri''; reigned c. 2217–2193 BC middle chronology The chronology of the ancient Near East is a chronology, framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties. Historical i ...
. One of these seals proclaims: It can be considered that Lugalushumgal was a collaborator of the
Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of ...
, as was
Meskigal Meskigal ( sux, , ''mes-ki-gal-la'') was a Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian language, Akkadian '; Sumerian language, Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, ...
, ruler of Adab. Later however, Lugal-ushumgal was succeeded by Puzer-Mama who, as Akkadian power waned, achieved independence from
Shar-Kali-Sharri Shar-Kali-Sharri (𒀭𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷, '' DShar-ka-li-Sharri''; reigned c. 2217–2193 BC middle chronology The chronology of the ancient Near East is a chronology, framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties. Historical i ...
, assuming the title of "King of Lagash" and starting the illustrious Second Dynasty of Lagash.


Control of Elam

Elam had been under the domination of Akkad, at least temporarily, since the time of . The Elamite king
Khita Khita, sometimes Hita in Elamite Elamite, also known as Hatamtite, is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran from 2600 BC to 330 BC. Elamite works disappear from the archeological ...
is probably recorded as having signed a peace treaty with Naram-Sin, stating: "The enemy of Naram-Sin is my enemy, the friend of Naram-Sin is my friend". It has been suggested that the formal treaty allowed Naram-Sin to have peace on his eastern borders, so that he could deal more effectively with the threat from
Gutium The Guti () or Quti, also known by the derived exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sout ...
. Further study of the treaty suggests that Khita provided Elamite troops to Naram-Sin, that he married his daughter to the Akkadian king, and that he agreed to set up statues of Naram-Sin in the sanctuaries of Susa. As a matter of fact, it is well known that Naram-Sin had extreme influence over Susa during his reign, building temples and establishing inscriptions in his name, and having the Akkadian language replace Elamite in official documents. During the rule of Naram-Sin, "military governors of the country of Elam" (
shakkanakku In the Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages''. Ed. Roger D. Woodard (2004, ...
s) with typically Akkadian names are known, such as Ili-ishmani or Epirmupi. This suggests that these governors of Elam were officials of the Akkadian Empire.


Conquest of Armanum and Ebla

The conquest of
Armanum Armanum, was a city in the ancient Near East whose location is still unknown. It lies in the same general area as Mari, Syria, Mari and Ebla. It is known from texts of the Akkadian Empire, Akkadian period, during the reign of Naram-Sin of Akkad. The ...
and
Ebla Ebla (Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", ifrom ''The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary''). Literally, "land of the native ...

Ebla
on the Mediterranean coast by Naram-Sin is mentioned in several of his inscriptions:


=Nasiriyah stele of Naram-Sin

= An alabaster stele representing captives being led by Akkadian soldiers is generally attributed to Narim-Sin on stylistic grounds. In particular, it is considered as more sophisticated graphically than the steles of
Sargon of Akkad Sargon of Akkad (; akk, 𒊬𒊒𒄀 ''Šar-ru-gi''), also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer ...

Sargon of Akkad
or those of
Rimush Rimush (or Rimuš, 𒌷𒈬𒍑 ''Ri-mu-uš'') was the second king of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَا ...
. Two fragments are in the
National Museum of Iraq The Iraq Museum ( ar, المتحف العراقي) is the national museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * C ...

National Museum of Iraq
, and one in the Boston Museum. The stele is quite fragmentary, but attempts at reconstitution have been made. Depending on sources, the fragments were excavated in
Wasit Wasit ( ar, وَاسِط, Wāsiṭ) is a place in Wasit Governorate Wasit Governorate ( ar, واسط, translit=Wāsit) is a Governorates of Iraq, governorate in eastern Iraq, south-east of Baghdad and bordering Iran. Prior to 1976 it was known a ...

Wasit
, al-Hay district,
Wasit Governorate Wasit Governorate ( ar, واسط, translit=Wāsit) is a governorate A governorate is an administrative division of a country. It is headed by a governor. As English-speaking nations tend to call regions administered by governors either State (ad ...
, or in
Nasiriyah Nasiriyah ( ar, ٱلنَّاصِرِيَّة; United States Board on Geographic Names, BGN: ''An Nāşirīyah''; also spelled ''Nassiriya'' or ''Nasiriya'') is a city in Iraq. It is situated along the banks of the Euphrates River, about southea ...

Nasiriyah
, both locations in Iraq. It is thought that the stele represents the result of the campaigns of Naram-Sin to
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the litera ...

Cilicia
or
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
. This is suggested by the characteristics of the booty carried by the soldiers in the stele, especially the metal vessel carried by the main soldier, the design of which is unknown in Mesopotamia, but on the contrary well known in contemporary Anatolia. Nasiriyah Victory Stele of Naram-Sin. From Mesopotamia, Iraq, c. 2300 BCE. Iraq Museum.jpg, Soldier with sword, on the Nasiriyah stele of Naram-Sin Nasiriyah Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, from Mesopotamia, Iraq, c. 2300 BCE. Iraq Museum.jpg, Naked captives, on the Nasiriyah stele of Naram-Sin


The Curse of Akkad

One Mesopotamian myth, a historiographic poem entitled "The curse of Akkad: the Ekur avenged", explains how the empire created by
Sargon of Akkad Sargon of Akkad (; akk, 𒊬𒊒𒄀 ''Šar-ru-gi''), also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire The Akkadian Empire () was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer ...

Sargon of Akkad
fell and the city of Akkad was destroyed. The myth was written hundreds of years after Naram-Sin's life and is the poet's attempt to explain how the Gutians succeeded in conquering Sumer. After an opening passage describing the glory of Akkad before its destruction, the poem tells of how Naram-Sin angered the chief god
Enlil Enlil, , "Lord Wind" later known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air, earth, and storms. He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon Sumerian religion was the religion Religion is a ...
by plundering the
Ekur Ekur ( ), also known as Duranki, is a Sumerian term meaning "mountain house". It is the assembly of the gods in the Garden of the gods Garden of the Gods ( Arapaho: ''Ho3o’uu Niitko’usi’i'') is a public park A park is an area of ...
(Enlil's temple in
Nippur Nippur (Sumerian: ''Nibru'', often logographically recorded as , EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;"The Cambridge Ancient History: Prolegomena & Prehistory': Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian ...
.) In his rage, Enlil summoned the
Gutians The Guti () or Quti, also known by the derived exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sout ...
down from the hills east of the Tigris, bringing plague, famine and death throughout Mesopotamia.
Food prices Food prices refer to the average price level The general price level is a hypothetical measure of overall prices for some set of Good (economics), goods and Service (economics), services (the consumer basket), in an economy or monetary union du ...
became vastly inflated, with the poem stating that 1 lamb would buy only half a ''sila'' (about 425 ml) of grain, half a ''sila'' of oil, or half a ''mina'' (about 250g) of wool. To prevent this destruction, eight of the gods (namely
Inanna Inanna is an ancient Mesopotamian goddess associated with love, beauty, sex, war, justice and political power. She was originally worshiped in Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the ...
,
Enki , image = Enki(Ea).jpg , caption = Detail of Enki from the Adda Seal, an ancient Akkadian cylinder seal dating to circa 2300 BC , deity_of = God of creation, intelligence, crafts, water, seawater, lakewater, fertility Fertility is the ca ...
,
Sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...
,
Ninurta Ninurta ( sux, 𒀭𒊩𒌆𒅁: , "Lord Urta" meaning of this name not known), also known as Ninĝirsu ( sux, 𒀭𒊩𒌆𒄈𒋢: , meaning “Lord Girsu”), is an List of Mesopotamian deities, ancient Mesopotamian god associated wit ...
,
Utu Utu, later worshipped by the East Semitic Akkadian-speaking Babylonians as Shamash, ''šmš'', syc, ܫܡܫܐ ''šemša'', he, שֶׁמֶשׁ ''šemeš'', ar, شمس ''šams'', Ashurian Aramaic: 𐣴𐣬𐣴 ''š'meš(ā)'' was the ancient ...
,
Ishkur Hadad ( uga, 𐎅𐎄 ), Adad, Haddad (AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Ca ...
,
Nusku Nuska (Assyrian: dnusku, also dEn-Šadibdib or dUmun-Šazedib) was the vizier of the chief Sumerian god Enlil. He is also described as a scribe who records events, and a boatman who takes Enlil to his future wife, Ninlil. His shrine was record ...
, and
Nidaba Nisaba ( sux, ; later ), is the Sumerian religion, Sumerian goddess of writing, learning, and the harvest. She was worshiped in shrines and sanctuaries at Umma and Ereš, and was often praised by Sumerian scribes. She is considered the patrone ...
) decreed that the city of Akkad should be destroyed in order to spare the rest of Sumer and cursed it. This is exactly what happens, and the story ends with the poet writing of Akkad's fate, mirroring the words of the gods' curse earlier on: ''Its chariot roads grew nothing but the 'wailing plant,''
''Moreover, on its canalboat towpaths and landings,''
''No human being walks because of the wild goats, vermin, snakes, and mountain scorpions'',
''The plains where grew the heart-soothing plants, grew nothing but the 'reed of tears,''
''Akkad, instead of its sweet-flowing water, there flowed bitter water,''
''Who said "I would dwell in that" found not a good dwelling place,''
''Who said "I would lie down in Akkad" found not a good sleeping place.''


Gutian Incursions

These Gutian raids were indeed devastating, but it is unknown how badly they affected Sumer. Naram-Sin may have passed on his empire to his son
Shar-Kali-Sharri Shar-Kali-Sharri (𒀭𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷, '' DShar-ka-li-Sharri''; reigned c. 2217–2193 BC middle chronology The chronology of the ancient Near East is a chronology, framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties. Historical i ...
more or less intact upon his death in c. 2219 BC, or he may have passed on little more than Akkad itself. The Gutians remained there for over 100 years before being replaced by the Ur III state as the dominant political power.


Victory stele

Naram-Sin's Victory Stele depicts him as a god-king (symbolized by his horned helmet) climbing a mountain above his soldiers, and his enemies, the defeated
Lullubi Lullubi, Lulubi ( akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈: ''Lu-lu-bi'', akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈𒆠: ''Lu-lu-biki'' "Country of the Lullubi"), more commonly known as Lullu, were a group of tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as ''Lulubum'', now the Shar ...

Lullubi
led by their king
Satuni Satuni, or Sutuni ( akk, 𒊓𒌅𒉌: ''Sa-tu-ni''), was a king or prince of the kingdom of Lullubi Lullubi, Lulubi ( akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈: ''Lu-lu-bi'', akk, 𒇻𒇻𒉈𒆠: ''Lu-lu-biki'' "Country of the Lullubi"), more commonly known as Lullu ...
. Although the stele was broken off at the top when it was stolen and carried off by the
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Br ...

Elam
ite forces of
Shutruk-Nakhunte Šutruk-Nakhunte was king of Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early fe ...
in the 12th century BC, it still strikingly reveals the pride, glory, and divinity of Naram-Sin. The stele seems to break from tradition by using successive diagonal tiers to communicate the story to viewers, however the more traditional horizontal frames are visible on smaller broken pieces. It is six feet and seven inches tall, and made from pink
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
. The stele was found at
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the ...

Susa
, and is now in the
Louvre Museum The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's list of largest art museums, largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France, and is best known for being the home of the ''Mona Lisa''. A central landmark of the city, it is ...
. A similar ''bas-relief'' depicting Naram-Sin was found a few miles north-east of Diarbekr, at Pir Hüseyin. The inscription over the head of the king is in Akkadian and fragmentary, but reads: The second inscription, to the right over the mountainous cone, is in
Elamite Elamite, also known as Hatamtite, is an extinct language An extinct language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation wit ...
and was written about 1000 years later by king
Shutruk-Nahhunte Šutruk-Nakhunte was king of Elam from about 1184 to 1155 BC ( middle chronology), and the second king of the Shutrukid Dynasty. Elam amassed an empire that included most of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَ ...
, who stole the stele and brought it to
Elam Elam (; Linear Elamite Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Br ...

Elam
.


Children

Among the known sons of Naram-Sin were his successor
Shar-Kali-Sharri Shar-Kali-Sharri (𒀭𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷, '' DShar-ka-li-Sharri''; reigned c. 2217–2193 BC middle chronology The chronology of the ancient Near East is a chronology, framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties. Historical i ...
, Nabi-Ulmash, who was governor of
Tutub Khafajah or Khafaje (Arabic: خفاجة; ancient Tutub, Arabic: توتوب) is an archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehi ...
, and a Ukin-Ulmash. Excavations at
Tell Mozan Urkesh or Urkish (modern Tell Mozan; ar, تل موزان) is a tell, or settlement mound, located in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains The Taurus Mountains (Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ...
(ancient Urkesh) brought to light a sealing of Tar'am-Agade, a previously unknown daughter of Naram-Sin, who was possibly married to an unidentified ''endan'' (ruler) of Urkesh.


In popular culture

King Naram-Sin is a character in the 2021
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
''House of Ashes'', with the main plot occurring in his personal temple. In the game, he is the self-proclaimed "God King" of Akkad, and is engaged in a war with the
Gutians The Guti () or Quti, also known by the derived exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sout ...
after being cursed by the god
Enlil Enlil, , "Lord Wind" later known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air, earth, and storms. He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon Sumerian religion was the religion Religion is a ...
; whom he angered after the sacking his temple. Naram-Sin was voiced and motion captured by Sami Karim.


Excavations by Nabonidus circa 550 BC

A foundation deposit of Naram-Sin was discovered and analysed by king
Nabonidus Nabonidus (Babylonian cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the begi ...

Nabonidus
, circa 550 BC, who Robert Silverberg thus characterises as the first archaeologist. Not only did he lead the first excavations which were to find the foundation deposits of the temples of Šamaš the sun god, the warrior goddess Anunitu (both located in
Sippar Sippar (: , Zimbir) was an ian and later n city on the east bank of the river. Its ' is located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah near in 's , some north of and southwest of . The city's ancient name, Sippar, could also refer to its sis ...
), and the sanctuary that Naram-Sin built to the moon god, located in
Harran Ḥarrān, also known as Carrhae, was a major ancient city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclop ...

Harran
, but he also had them restored to their former glory. He was also the first to date an archaeological artefact in his attempt to date Naram-Sin's temple during his search for it. His estimate was inaccurate by about 1,500 years.


Inscriptions

File:Seals in the name of Naram-Sin.jpg, Seals in the name of Naram-Sin File:Alliance Naram-Sin Awan Louvre Sb8833.jpg, Treaty of alliance between Naram-Sin and
Khita Khita, sometimes Hita in Elamite Elamite, also known as Hatamtite, is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran from 2600 BC to 330 BC. Elamite works disappear from the archeological ...
of Susa, king of Awan, c. 2250 BC,
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the ...

Susa
,
Louvre Museum The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's list of largest art museums, largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France, and is best known for being the home of the ''Mona Lisa''. A central landmark of the city, it is ...
. File:Stele of the Akkadian king Naram-Sin at Istanbul's archaeological museum.jpg, Stele of the Akkadian king Naram-Sin. The "-ra-am" and "-sin" parts of the name "Naram-Sin" appear in the broken top right corner of the inscription, traditionally reserved for the name of the ruler.
Istanbul Archaeological Museum The Istanbul Archaeology Museums ( tr, ) are a group of three archaeological museums located in the Eminönü Eminönü is a former district of Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locall ...
. File:Naram-Sin portrait.jpg, Portrait of Naram-Sin (detail) File:Naram-Sin cuneiform.jpg, The name "Naram-Sin" in cuneiform on an inscription. The star symbol "
𒀭 ''Dingir'' (, usually transliteration of cuneiform, transliterated DIĜIR, ) is a Sumerian language, Sumerian word for "deity, god" or "deity, goddess." Its Cuneiform script, cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for relig ...
" is a silent honorific for "Divine", Sîn (Moon God) is specially written with the characters "EN-ZU" (𒂗𒍪). File:Vase in the name of Naran-Sin King of the four region, limestone, circa 2250 BCE.jpg, Alabaster vase in the name of "Naran-Sin, King of the four regions" '(
'' DNa-ra-am D Sîn lugal ki-ibratim arbaim''), limestone, c. 2250 BC. Louvre Museum AO 74. File:Naram-Sin, King of the Four quarters of the World.jpg, "Naran-Sin, King of the four regions" '(
'' DNa-ra-am D Sîn lugal ki-ibratim arbaim''), limestone, c. 2250 BC. Louvre Museum AO 74. File:Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler, discovered in Nineveh in 1931, presumably depicting either Sargon or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden).jpg, This bronze head traditionally attributed to is now thought to actually belong to his grandson Naram-Sin. File:Fragment of a stone bowl with 2 inscriptions, from Ur, Iraq. British Museum.jpg, Fragment of a stone bowl with an inscription of Naram-Sin, and a second inscription by
Shulgi Shulgi ( Dingir, dŠulgi, formerly read as Dungi) of Ur was the second king of the Third Dynasty of Ur. He reigned for 48 years, from c. 2094 – c. 2046 BC (Middle Chronology) or possibly c. 2030 – 1982 BC (Short Chronology). His accompli ...
(upside down). Ur, Iraq. British Museum. File:Periodo accadico, foglia d'oro, da bismaya, 2254-2218 ac ca.jpg, Gold foil in the name of Naram-Sin. File:2015-12 Copie sur argile de l'inscription d'une statue de Naram-Sin, roi d'Akkad AO 5475.jpg, Copy of an inscription of Naram-Sin. Louvre Museum AO 5475 File:Diorite base of statue of Naram-sin, King of Akkad, c. 2250 BC.jpg, Diorite base of statue of Naram-sin File:Shuastakkal-Sb 53-IMG 7523.JPG, Fragment of a statue in the name of Naram-Sin, Louvre Museum Sb 53


See also

*
Bassetki Statue The Bassetki Statue is a monument from the AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cam ...

Bassetki Statue
*
History of Mesopotamia The history of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Syriac language, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a ...
*
Sumerian king list#Redirect Sumerian King List {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from move ...
* House of Ashes


References


Sources

*Piotr Michalowski, New Sources concerning the Reign of Naram-Sin, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 233–246, (Oct., 1980) * H.W.F. Saggs, ''The Babylonians'', Fourth Printing, 1988, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. *J. P. Naab, E. Unger, ''Die Entdeckung der Stele des Naram-Sin in Pir Hüseyin'', Istanbul Asariatika Nesriyati XII (193


External links


Victory Stele of Naram-Sin
{{DEFAULTSORT:Naram-Sin 23rd-century BC kings of Akkad Deified people 3rd-millennium BC births 3rd-millennium BC deaths Kings of the Universe Akkadian Empire