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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an
independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. In some cases it is the technical term used for a traditional nonprofit ch ...
of the U.S. federal government responsible for the civilian
space program A space program is an organized effort by a government or a private individual with a goal related to outer space. Lists of space programs include: * List of government space agencies * List of private spaceflight companies * List of human spacef ...
, as well as
aeronautics Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design process, design, and manufacturing of air flight–capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical So ...

aeronautics
and
space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Gre ...
research. NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a United States federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1, 1958, the agency was dissolved and its assets ...
(NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in
space science Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Gree ...
. Since its establishment, most US
space exploration Space exploration is the use of astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and ce ...
efforts have been led by NASA, including the
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=Arcadocypriot Greek, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, ...

Apollo
Moon landing A Moon landing is the arrival of a on the surface of the . This includes both crewed and robotic missions. The first human-made object to touch the Moon was the 's , on 13 September 1959. The United States' was the first crewed mission t ...
missions, the
Skylab Skylab was the first United States space station A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally ...

Skylab
space station, and later the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
. NASA is supporting the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
and is overseeing the development of the
Orion spacecraft Orion (officially Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle or Orion MPCV) is a class of Reusable spacecraft, partially reusable crewed spacecraft to be used in NASA's Artemis program. The spacecraft consists of a Crew Module (CM) space capsule designe ...
, the
Space Launch System The Space Launch System (abbreviated as SLS) is an American super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its comp ...

Space Launch System
,
Commercial Crew Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...
vehicles, and the planned
Lunar Gateway The lunar Gateway, or simply Gateway, is a planned small space station in lunar orbit In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science ...
space station. The agency is also responsible for the
Launch Services Program Launch Services Program (LSP) is responsible for NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, ...
, which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for uncrewed NASA launches. NASA's science is focused on better understanding
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
through the
Earth Observing System The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, U ...
; advancing
heliophysics Heliophysics is the science of the physical connections between the Sun and the solar system (from the prefix " helio", from Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Atti ...
through the efforts of the
Science Mission Directorate The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engages the United States’ science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with NAS ...
's Heliophysics Research Program; exploring bodies throughout the
Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization Capitalization ( North American English) or capitalisation ( British English) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (uppercase letter) and the remaining letters in lower case, in writin ...

Solar System
with advanced
robotic spacecraft 250px, An artist's interpretation of the '' MESSENGER'' spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often call ...
such as ''
New Horizons ''New Horizons'' is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the F ...

New Horizons
''; and researching
astrophysics Astrophysics is a science that employs the methods and principles of physics in the study of astronomical objects and phenomena. Among the subjects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxy, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and ...
topics, such as the
Big Bang The Big Bang is the prevailing of the from the through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the from an initial state of high and , and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomen ...

Big Bang
, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.


History


Creation

Beginning in 1946, the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a United States federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1, 1958, the agency was dissolved and its assets ...
(NACA) began experimenting with
rocket plane A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines. Rocket planes can achieve much higher speeds than similarly sized jet aircraft, but typically ...
s such as the supersonic
Bell X-1 The Bell X-1 (Bell Model 44) is a Rocket-powered aircraft, rocket engine–powered aircraft, designated originally as the XS-1, and was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics–U.S. Army Air Forces–U.S. Air Force supersonic resear ...

Bell X-1
. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the
International Geophysical Year The International Geophysical Year (IGY; french: Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from 1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958. It marked the end of a long period during the Cold War when scientific in ...
(1957–1958). An effort for this was the American
Project Vanguard Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed i ...
. After the
Soviet space program The Soviet space program (russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) was the national space program of the Soviet Union, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), conducted in competition with ...
's launch of the world's first artificial
satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally ...

satellite
(''
Sputnik 1 Sputnik 1 (; see #Etymology, § Etymology) was the first Satellite, artificial Earth satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union, USSR on 4 October 1957 as part of the Soviet space program. It orbited for ...

Sputnik 1
'') on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The
U.S. Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Wa ...

U.S. Congress
, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the "
Sputnik crisis The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and anxiety in Western nations about the perceived technological gap between the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US ...
"), urged immediate and swift action; President
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term " ...
counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology," headed by
Guyford Stever Horton Guyford Stever (October 24, 1916 – April 9, 2010) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Amer ...

Guyford Stever
. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director
Hugh Dryden Hugh Latimer Dryden (July 2, 1898 – December 2, 1965) was an American aeronautical scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In cla ...
published "A National Research Program for Space Technology," stating, While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the
Advanced Research Projects Agency The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is a research and development agency of the United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an United States federal executive depart ...
(ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the
National Aeronautics and Space Act The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 () is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency of th ...
, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory The Langley Research Center (LaRC or NASA Langley), located in Hampton, Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States ...
,
Ames Aeronautical Laboratory The Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley. It was founded in 1939 as the second National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) laborator ...
, and
Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United ...
) and two small test facilities. Elements of the
Army Ballistic Missile Agency The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was formed to develop the United States Army, U.S. Army's first large ballistic missile. The agency was established at Redstone Arsenal on 1 February 1956, and commanded by Major General John Bruce Medari ...
and the
United States Naval Research Laboratory The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors ...
were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the
Space Race The Space Race was a 20th-century competition between two Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, whi ...
with the Soviet Union was the technology from the led by
Wernher von Braun Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (23 March 1912 – 16 June 1977) was a German-born American aerospace engineering, aerospace engineer and space architecture, space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket te ...

Wernher von Braun
, who was now working for the
Army Ballistic Missile Agency The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was formed to develop the United States Army, U.S. Army's first large ballistic missile. The agency was established at Redstone Arsenal on 1 February 1956, and commanded by Major General John Bruce Medari ...
(ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist
Robert Goddard Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, mac ...
's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the
US Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphe ...

US Air Force
and many of ARPA's early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the
Jet Propulsion Laboratory The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) are public-private partnerships which conduct research and development Research is " cr ...
, a contractor facility operated by the
California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such a"Cal Tech" and "CalTech" are incorrect. The Institute is also occasionally referred to as "CIT", most notably ...
.


Insignia

The was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
in 1961. Executive Order 10849 (Wikisource) NASA's first
logo A logo (abbreviation of logotype; ) is a graphic Graphics () are visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex network which connects several biologically rel ...

logo
was designed by the head of Lewis' Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal. In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed "the meatball" to distinguish it from the newly designed "worm" logo which replaced it. The "meatball" returned to official use in 1992. The "worm" was brought out of retirement in 2020 by administrator
Jim Bridenstine James Frederick Bridenstine (born June 15, 1975) is an American politician who served as the 13th Administrator Administrator or admin may refer to: Job roles Computing and internet * Database administrator, a person who is responsible for th ...
.


Foundational human spaceflight


X-15 program (1954–1968)

NASA inherited NACA's X-15 experimental rocket-powered
hypersonic In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that greatly exceeds the speed of sound, often stated as starting at speeds of speed of sound, Mach 5 and above. The precise Mach number at which a craft can be said to be flying at hypersonic speed v ...
research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force and
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
. Three planes were built starting in 1955. The X-15 was drop-launched from the wing of one of two NASA
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered . The B-52 was designed and built by , which has continued to provide support and upgrades. It has been operated by the (USAF) since the 1950s. The bomber is ca ...
es, ''NB52A'' tail number 52-003, and ''NB52B'', tail number 52-008 (known as the ''
Balls 8 ''Balls 8'' is a NASA Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Boeing NB-52B mothership which was retired in 2004 after almost 50 years of flying service with NASA. The aircraft is famous for dropping the X-15 aerospace research vehicle on 106 of the 199 X-1 ...
''). Release took place at an altitude of about and a speed of about . Twelve pilots were selected for the program from the Air Force, Navy, and NACA. A total of 199 flights were made between June 1959 and December 1968, resulting in the official world record for the highest speed ever reached by a crewed powered aircraft (current ), and a maximum speed of Mach 6.72, .Aircraft Museum X-15."
''Aerospaceweb.org'', November 24, 2008.
The altitude record for X-15 was 354,200 feet (107.96 km). Eight of the pilots were awarded Air Force
astronaut wings The United States Astronaut Badge is a badge Image:Badge 1012.jpg, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department badge A badge is a device or accessory, often containing the insignia of an organization, which is presented or disp ...
for flying above , and two flights by exceeded , qualifying as spaceflight according to the International Aeronautical Federation. The X-15 program employed mechanical techniques used in the later crewed spaceflight programs, including
reaction control system A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters and reaction control wheels to provide attitude control Attitude control is the process of controlling the orientation of an aerospace Aerospace is a term used to ...
jets for controlling the orientation of a spacecraft,
space suit A space suit or spacesuit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space Outer space, commonly shortened to space, is the expanse that exists beyond Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun ...

space suit
s, and horizon definition for navigation.NASA, X-15 Hypersonic Research Program
, retrieved October 17, 2011
The
reentry (MER) aeroshell, artistic rendition Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space Outer space is the expanse that exists beyond Earth and between astronomical object, celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empt ...

reentry
and landing data collected were valuable to NASA for designing the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
.Aerospaceweb, North American X-15
. Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved on November 3, 2011.


Project Mercury (1958–1963)

In 1958, NASA formed an engineering group, the
Space Task Group The Space Task Group was a working group of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. ...
, to manage their
human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with o ...

human spaceflight
programs under the direction of
Robert Gilruth Robert Rowe Gilruth (October 8, 1913 – August 17, 2000) was an American aerospace engineer and an aviation/space pioneer who was the first director of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agenci ...
. Their earliest programs were conducted under the pressure of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. NASA inherited the US Air Force's
Man in Space Soonest Man In Space Soonest (MISS) was a United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Atmosphere of Earth, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight uniformed services of th ...
program, which considered many crewed spacecraft designs ranging from rocket planes like the X-15, to small ballistic
space capsule A space capsule is an often-crewed spacecraft that uses a blunt-body reentry capsule to atmospheric reentry, reenter the Earth's atmosphere without wings. Capsules are distinguished from satellites primarily by the ability to survive reentry and re ...
s.Encyclopedia Astronautica, Project 7969
, retrieved October 17, 2011
By 1958, the space plane concepts were eliminated in favor of the ballistic capsule, and NASA renamed it
Project Mercury Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963. An early highlight of the Space Race, its goal was to put a man into Earth orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally ...
. The were selected among candidates from the Navy, Air Force and Marine test pilot programs. On May 5, 1961, astronaut
Alan Shepard Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, United States naval aviator, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman. In 1961, he became the second man and the first American to travel into space, a ...

Alan Shepard
became the first American in space aboard a capsule he named '' Freedom 7'', launched on a Redstone booster on a 15-minute
ballistic Ballistics may refer to: Science * Ballistics, the science that deals with the motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles. ** Forensic ballistics, the science of analyzing firearm usage in crimes ** Internal ballistics Internal may refer t ...
(suborbital) flight.
John Glenn John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, businessman, and politician. He was the third American in space, and the first American to orbit the Earth, circ ...

John Glenn
became the first American to be launched into
orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an physical body, object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, or of an satellite, artificial satellite around an object or po ...

orbit
, on an Atlas launch vehicle on February 20, 1962, aboard ''Friendship 7''. Glenn completed three orbits, after which three more orbital flights were made, culminating in 's 22-orbit flight '' Faith 7'', May 15–16, 1963. Katherine Johnson, Mary Jackson, and were three of the
human computers Image:Human computers - Dryden.jpg, NACA High Speed Flight Station "Computer Room" (1949) The term "computer", in use from the early 17th century (the first known written reference dates from 1613), meant "one who computes": a person performing m ...
doing calculations on trajectories during the Space Race. Johnson was well known for doing trajectory calculations for John Glenn's mission in 1962, where she was running the same equations by hand that were being run on the computer. Mercury's competition from the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
(USSR) was the single-pilot Vostok spacecraft. They sent the first man in space, cosmonaut
Yuri Gagarin Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin; Gagarin's first name is sometimes transliterated as ''Yuriy'', ''Youri'', or ''Yury''. (9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (U ...
, into a single Earth orbit aboard
Vostok 1 Vostok 1 (russian: link=no, Восток, ''East'' or ''Orient'' 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first human spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA space capsule was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 12, 196 ...
in April 1961, one month before Shepard's flight. In August 1962, they achieved an almost four-day record flight with
Andriyan Nikolayev Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev ( Chuvash and russian: Андриян Григорьевич Николаев; 5 September 1929 – 3 July 2004) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was ...
aboard
Vostok 3 Vostok 3 (russian: Восток-3, lit=Orient The Orient is a term for the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world Eastern world, also known as the East or the Orient The Orient is a term for the Eas ...
, and also conducted a concurrent
Vostok 4 Vostok 3 (russian: Восток-3, ''Orient 3'' or ''East 3'') and Vostok 4 (russian: Восток-4, ''Orient 4'' or ''East 4'') were Soviet space program flights in August 1962, intended to determine the ability of the human body to function in ...
mission carrying
Pavel Popovich Pavel Romanovich Popovich (russian: Па́вел Рома́нович Попо́вич, uk, Павло Романович Попович, Pavlo Romanovych Popovych) (October 5, 1930 – September 29, 2009) was a Soviet cosmonaut. He was the fou ...

Pavel Popovich
.


Project Gemini (1961–1966)

Based on studies to grow the Mercury spacecraft capabilities to long-duration flights, developing
space rendezvous A space rendezvous () is a set of orbital maneuver In spaceflight, an orbital maneuver (otherwise known as a burn) is the use of propulsion systems to change the orbit of a spacecraft. For spacecraft far from Earth (for example those in ...
techniques, and precision Earth landing, Project Gemini was started as a two-man program in 1961 to overcome the Soviets' lead and to support the Apollo crewed lunar landing program, adding
extravehicular activity Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, and the ISS. (''C ...
(EVA) and
rendezvous Rendezvous or rendez-vous () refers to a planned meeting between two or more parties at a specific time and place. The term may also refer to: In arts and entertainment In film and television * The Rendezvous (1923 film), ''The Rendezvous'' (1923 ...
and docking to its objectives. The first crewed Gemini flight,
Gemini 3 Gemini 3 was the first crewed mission in NASA's Gemini program and was the first time two American astronauts flew together into space. On March 23, 1965, astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young (astronaut), John Young flew three low Earth orbits ...

Gemini 3
, was flown by
Gus Grissom Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Atmosphere of Earth, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one o ...
and John Young on March 23, 1965. Nine missions followed in 1965 and 1966, demonstrating an endurance mission of nearly fourteen days, rendezvous, docking, and practical EVA, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on humans. Under the direction of
Soviet Premier The Premier of the Soviet Union (russian: Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a fede ...
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
, the USSR competed with Gemini by converting their Vostok spacecraft into a two- or three-man Voskhod. They succeeded in launching two crewed flights before Gemini's first flight, achieving a three-cosmonaut flight in 1964 and the first EVA in 1965. After this, the program was canceled, and Gemini caught up while spacecraft designer
Sergei Korolev Sergei Pavlovich Korolev or Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov ( rus, Сергей Павлович Королёв, , sʲɪrˈɡʲej ˈpavləvʲɪtɕ kərɐˈlʲɵf, Ru-Sergei Pavlovich Korolev.ogg; 14 January 1966) was a lead Soviet Aerospace engineeri ...
developed the
Soyuz spacecraft Soyuz () is a series of spacecraft File:Space Shuttle Columbia launching.jpg, 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, and the ISS. (''Columbia'' STS-1, maiden la ...
, their answer to Apollo.


Project Apollo (1960–1972)

The U.S public's perception of the Soviet lead in the Space Race (by putting the first man into space) motivated President
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
to ask the Congress on May 25, 1961, to commit the federal government to a program to land a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s, which effectively launched the
Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...

Apollo program
. Apollo was one of the most expensive American scientific programs ever. It cost more than $20 billion in 1960s dollars or an estimated $ in present-day US dollars. (In comparison, the
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understa ...
cost roughly $, accounting for inflation.) It used the
Saturn rocket The Saturn family of American rocket A rocket (from it, rocchetto, , bobbin/spool) is a projectile that spacecraft, aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. ...
s as launch vehicles, which were far bigger than the rockets built for previous projects. The spacecraft was also bigger; it had two main parts, the combined Apollo command and service module, command and service module (CSM) and the Apollo Lunar Module (LM). The LM was to be left on the Moon and only the command module (CM) containing the three astronauts would return to Earth. The second crewed mission, Apollo 8, brought astronauts for the first time in a flight around the Moon in December 1968. Shortly before, the Soviets had sent an uncrewed spacecraft around the Moon. On the next two missions docking maneuvers that were needed for the Moon landing were practiced and then finally the Moon landing was made on the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969. The first List of Apollo astronauts, person to walk on the Moon was Neil Armstrong, who was followed 19 minutes later by Buzz Aldrin, while Michael Collins (astronaut), Michael Collins orbited above. Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. Throughout these six Apollo spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon. These missions returned a wealth of scientific data and of lunar samples. Topics covered by experiments performed included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismology, Heat transfer, heat flow, Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind. The Moon landing marked the end of the space race; and as a gesture, Armstrong mentioned mankind when he stepped down on the Moon. Apollo set major List of space exploration milestones, 1957–1969, milestones in human spaceflight. It stands alone in sending crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit, and landing humans on another celestial body. Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while Apollo 17 marked the last moonwalk and the last crewed mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program spurred advances in many areas of technology peripheral to rocketry and crewed spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. Apollo sparked interest in many fields of engineering and left many physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Many objects and artifacts from the program are on display at various locations throughout the world, notably at the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian's Air and Space Museums.


Skylab (1965–1979)

Skylab was the United States' first and only independently built space station. Conceived in 1965 as a workshop to be constructed in space from a spent Saturn IB upper stage, the station was constructed on Earth and launched on May 14, 1973, atop the first two stages of a Saturn V, into a orbit inclined at 50° to the equator. Damaged during launch by the loss of its thermal protection and one electricity-generating solar panel, it was repaired to functionality by its first crew. It was occupied for a total of 171 days by 3 successive crews in 1973 and 1974. It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity environment, microgravity, and a Apollo Telescope Mount, solar observatory. NASA planned to have a Space Shuttle dock with it, and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude, but the Shuttle was not ready for flight before Skylab's re-entry on July 11, 1979.Benson, Charles Dunlap and William David Compton.
Living and Working in Space: A History of Skylab
''. NASA publication SP-4208.
To reduce cost, NASA used one of the Saturn V rockets originally earmarked for a canceled Apollo mission to launch the Skylab. Apollo spacecraft were used for transporting astronauts to and from the station. Three three-man crews stayed aboard the station for periods of 28, 59, and 84 days. Skylab's habitable volume was , which was 30.7 times bigger than that of the Apollo Command Module.


Apollo-Soyuz (1972–1975)

On May 24, 1972, US President Richard M. Nixon and Soviet Union, Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin signed an agreement calling for a joint crewed space mission, and declaring intent for all future international crewed spacecraft to be capable of docking with each other. This authorized the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), involving the rendezvous and docking in Earth orbit of a surplus Apollo command and service module with a Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz spacecraft. The mission took place in July 1975. This was the last US human spaceflight until the first orbital flight of the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
in April 1981. The mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments and provided useful engineering experience for future joint US–Russian space flights, such as the Shuttle–''Mir'' programNASA, Shuttle-MIR history
, retrieved October 15, 2011
and the International Space Station.


Modern human spaceflight programs


Space Shuttle program (1972–2011)

The
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Originally planned as a frequently launchable, fully reusable vehicle, the design was changed to use an Space Shuttle external tank, expendable external propellant tank to reduce development cost, and four Space Shuttle orbiters were built by 1985. The first to launch, Space Shuttle Columbia, ''Columbia'', did so on April 12, 1981, the 20th anniversary of the Vostok 1, first human spaceflight. Its major components were a spaceplane orbiter with an external fuel tank and two solid-fuel launch rockets at its side. The external tank, which was bigger than the spacecraft itself, was the only major component that was not reused. The shuttle could orbit in altitudes of 185–643 km (115–400 statute mile, miles)NASA, Shuttle Basics
, retrieved October 18, 2011
and carry a maximum payload (to low orbit) of 24,400 kg (54,000 lb).
, retrieved October 18, 2011
Missions could last from 5 to 17 days and crews could be from 2 to 8 astronauts. On 20 missions (1983–1998) the Space Shuttle carried Spacelab, designed in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA). Spacelab was not designed for independent orbital flight, but remained in the Shuttle's cargo bay as the astronauts entered and left it through an airlock.Encyclopedia Astronautica, Spacelab
. Retrieved October 20, 2011
On June 18, 1983, Sally Ride became the first American woman in space, on board the Space Shuttle ''Challenger'' STS-7 mission. Another famous series of missions were the STS-31, launch and later STS-61, successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990 and 1993, respectively.Encyclopedia Astronautica, HST
. Retrieved October 20, 2011
In 1995, Russian-American interaction resumed with the Shuttle–Mir program, Shuttle–Mir missions (1995–1998). Once more an American vehicle docked with a Russian craft, this time a full-fledged space station. This cooperation has continued with Russia and the United States as two of the biggest partners in the largest space station built: the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
(ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS during the two-year grounding of the shuttle fleet following the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disaster. The Shuttle fleet lost two orbiters and 14 astronauts in two disasters: ''Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Challenger'' in 1986, and Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, ''Columbia'' in 2003. While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building the from replacement parts, NASA did not build another orbiter to replace the second loss. NASA's Space Shuttle program had 135 missions when the program ended with the successful landing of the Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'' at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. The program spanned 30 years with over 300 astronauts sent into space.


International Space Station (1993–present)

The
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
(ISS) combines NASA's Space Station Freedom, Space Station ''Freedom'' project with the Soviet/Russian ''Mir-2'' station, the European ''Columbus (ISS module), Columbus'' station, and the Japanese Japanese Experiment Module, Kibō laboratory module. NASA originally planned in the 1980s to develop ''Freedom'' alone, but US budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national program in 1993, managed by NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the JAXA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The station consists of pressurized modules, external Integrated Truss Structure, trusses, solar arrays and other components, which were Manufacturing of the International Space Station, manufactured in various factories around the world, and have been launched by Russian Proton (rocket), Proton and Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz rockets, and the US Space Shuttles. The on-orbit assembly began in 1998, the completion of the US Orbital Segment occurred in 2019 and the completion of the Russian Orbital Segment occurred in 2010, though there are some debates of whether new modules should be added in the segment. The ownership and use of the space station is established in intergovernmental treaties and agreements which divide the station into two areas and allow Russian Federation, Russia to retain full ownership of the Russian Orbital Segment (with the exception of ''Zarya''), with the US Orbital Segment allocated between the other international partners. Long-duration missions to the ISS are referred to as List of International Space Station expeditions, ISS Expeditions. Expedition crew members typically spend approximately six months on the ISS. The initial expedition crew size was three, temporarily decreased to two following the ''Columbia'' disaster. Since May 2009, expedition crew size has been six crew members. Crew size is expected to be increased to seven, the number the ISS was designed for, once the Commercial Crew Program becomes operational. The ISS has been continuously occupied for the past , having exceeded the previous record held by ''Mir''; and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from List of International Space Station visitors, 15 different nations. The station can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye and, as of , is the largest artificial satellite in
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
orbit with a mass and volume greater than that of any previous space station.International Space Station
, Retrieved October 20, 2011
The Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz spacecraft delivers crew members, stays docked for their half-year-long missions and then returns them home. Several uncrewed cargo spacecraft provide service to the ISS; they are the Russian Progress (spacecraft), Progress spacecraft which has done so since 2000, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) since 2008, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) since 2009, the SpaceX Dragon from 2012 until 2020, and the American Cygnus (spacecraft), Cygnus spacecraft since 2013. The Space Shuttle, before its retirement, was also used for cargo transfer and would often switch out expedition crew members, although it did not have the capability to remain docked for the duration of their stay. Until another US crewed spacecraft is ready, crew members will travel to and from the International Space Station exclusively aboard the Soyuz. The highest number of people occupying the ISS has been thirteen; this occurred three times during the late Shuttle ISS assembly missions. On March 29, 2019, the ISS was scheduled to have its first all-female spacewalk, but it was delayed; Jessica Meir and Christina Koch performed the first all-female spacewalk on October 18, as part of a lengthy series of upgrades to the ISS' power systems and physics observatories. The ISS program is expected to continue to 2030.


Constellation program (2005–2010)

While the Space Shuttle program was still suspended after the loss of ''Columbia'', President George W. Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration including the retirement of the Space Shuttle after completing the International Space Station. The plan was enacted into law by the NASA Authorization Act of 2005 and directs NASA to develop and launch the Crew Exploration Vehicle (later called Orion (spacecraft), Orion) by 2010, return Americans to the Moon by 2020, land on Mars as feasible, repair the Hubble Space Telescope, and continue scientific investigation through robotic solar system exploration, human presence on the ISS, Earth observation, and astrophysics research. The crewed exploration goals prompted NASA's Constellation program. On December 4, 2006, NASA announced it was planning a Lunar outpost (NASA), permanent Moon base. The goal was to start building the Moon base by 2020, and by 2024, have a fully functional base that would allow for crew rotations and in-situ resource utilization. However, in 2009, the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee, Augustine Committee found the program to be on an "unsustainable trajectory." In February 2010, President Barack Obama's administration proposed eliminating public funds for it.


Commercial Crew Program (2011–present)


Journey to Mars (2010–2017)

President Obama's plan was to develop American private spaceflight capabilities to get astronauts to the International Space Station, replace Russian Soyuz capsules, and use Orion capsules for ISS emergency escape purposes. During a speech at the Kennedy Space Center on April 15, 2010, Obama proposed a new heavy-lift vehicle (HLV) to replace the formerly planned Ares V. In his speech, Obama called for a crewed mission to an asteroid as soon as 2025, and a crewed mission to Mars orbit by the mid-2030s. The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 was passed by Congress and signed into law on October 11, 2010. The act officially canceled the Constellation program. The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 required a newly designed HLV be chosen within 90 days of its passing; the launch vehicle was given the name
Space Launch System The Space Launch System (abbreviated as SLS) is an American super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its comp ...

Space Launch System
. The new law also required the construction of a beyond low earth orbit spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft, which was being developed as part of the Constellation program, was chosen to fulfill this role. The Space Launch System is planned to launch both Orion and other necessary hardware for missions beyond low Earth orbit. The SLS is to be upgraded over time with more powerful versions. The initial capability of SLS is required to be able to lift (later ) into Low Earth orbit, LEO. It is then planned to be upgraded to and then eventually to . The Orion capsule first flew on Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1), an uncrewed test flight that was launched on December 5, 2014, atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket. NASA undertook a feasibility study in 2012 and developed the Asteroid Redirect Mission as an uncrewed mission to move a boulder-sized near-Earth asteroid (or boulder-sized chunk of a larger asteroid) into lunar orbit. The mission would demonstrate ion thruster technology, and develop techniques that could be used for planetary defense against an asteroid collision, as well as a cargo transport to Mars in support of a future human mission. The Moon-orbiting boulder might then later be visited by astronauts. The Asteroid Redirect Mission was cancelled in 2017 as part of the FY2018 NASA budget, the first one under President Donald Trump. The Orion spacecraft conducted an uncrewed test launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December 2014.


Artemis program (2017–present)

Since 2017, NASA's List of human spaceflight programs, crewed spaceflight program has been the Artemis program, which involves the help of U.S. Private spaceflight, commercial spaceflight companies and international partners such as European Space Agency, ESA, JAXA, and Canadian Space Agency, CSA. The goal of this program is to land "the first woman and the next man" on the lunar south pole region by 2024. Artemis would be the first step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually sending humans to Mars. The Orion (spacecraft), Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was held over from the canceled Constellation program for Artemis. Artemis 1 is the uncrewed initial launch of
Space Launch System The Space Launch System (abbreviated as SLS) is an American super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its comp ...

Space Launch System
(SLS) that would also send an Orion spacecraft on a Distant Retrograde Orbit, which, as of May 2020, is planned to launch no earlier than November 2021. NASA's next major space initiative is to be the construction of the
Lunar Gateway The lunar Gateway, or simply Gateway, is a planned small space station in lunar orbit In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science ...
. This initiative is to involve the construction of a new space station, which will have many features in common with the current
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
, except that it will be in orbit about the Moon, instead of the Earth. This space station will be designed primarily for non-continuous human habitation. The first tentative steps of returning to crewed lunar missions will be Artemis 2, which is to include the Orion crew module, propelled by the SLS, and is to launch in 2023. This mission is to be a 10-day mission planned to briefly place a crew of four into a free-return trajectory, Lunar flyby. The construction of the Gateway would begin with the proposed Artemis 3, which is planned to deliver a crew of four to Lunar orbit along with the first modules of the Gateway. This mission would last for up to 30 days. NASA plans to build full scale deep space habitats such as the Lunar Gateway and the Nautilus-X as part of its Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program. In 2017, NASA was directed by the congressional NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017 to get humans to Mars-orbit (or to the Martian surface) by the 2030s. In September 2020, as a part of the Artemis program, NASA outlined a plan to send astronauts to the Moon by 2024. The astronauts are to travel in the Orion capsule, launched on the SLS rocket. In February 2021, it was announced that Firefly_Aerospace#Blue_Ghost_lunar_lander, "Blue Ghost Lander", a robotic device being constructed in Cedar Park, Texas, will be sent to the moon's Mare Crisium in 2023 to help prepare for NASA's goal of returning to the Lunar surface. On April 16, 2021, NASA announced they had selected the SpaceX Starship, SpaceX Lunar Starship as its Human Landing System. The agency’s Space Launch System rocket will launch four astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft for their multi-day journey to lunar orbit where they will transfer to the SpaceX's Starship for the final leg of their journey to the surface of the Moon. In November 2021, it was announced that the goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by 2024 had slipped to No Earlier Than 2025 due to numerous factors. NASA currently plans to launch Artemis 1 in February of 2022 and Artemis 2 in May of 2024.


Commercial Low-Earth Orbit Development Program (2021-Present)

The Commercial Low Earth Orbit Destinations Program is an initiative by NASA to support work on commercial space stations that the agency hopes to have in place by the end of the current decade to replace the "International Space Station". The three selected companies are: Blue Origin (et. al.) with their Orbital Reef station concept, Nanoracks (et. al.) with their Starlab Space Station concept, and Northrop Grumman with an unnamed station concept based on the HALO-module for the Gateway station.


Leadership

The agency's leader, List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the United States Senate, US Senate, and reports to him or her and serves as a senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee usually is associated with the President's political party (Democratic Party (United States), Democratic or Republican Party (United States), Republican), and a new administrator is usually chosen when the Presidency changes parties. The only exceptions to this have been: * Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. * Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. * Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton. * Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr., associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice,
Jim Bridenstine James Frederick Bridenstine (born June 15, 1975) is an American politician who served as the 13th Administrator Administrator or admin may refer to: Job roles Computing and internet * Database administrator, a person who is responsible for th ...
, was confirmed in April 2018. * Steve Jurczyk, associate administrator under Donald Trump, filled the administrator's chair until Democrat Joe Biden's nominee Bill Nelson was confirmed. The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by Republican President
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term " ...
. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research. The second administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the
Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...

Apollo program
to achieve Kennedy's Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy's legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal. James Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon. He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space Shuttle ''Challenger'' disaster. Former astronaut Charles Bolden served as NASA's twelfth administrator from July 2009 to January 20, 2017. Bolden is one of three former astronauts who became NASA administrators, along with Richard H. Truly (served 1989–1992) and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005). The agency's administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction. Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be Citizenship in the United States, citizens of the United States.


Facilities

NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC provides overall guidance and political leadership to the agency's ten field centers, through which all other facilities are administered. Four of these were inherited from NACA; two others were transferred from the Army; and NASA commissioned and built the other four itself shortly after its formation.


Inherited from NACA

Langley Research Center (LaRC), located in Hampton, Virginia, Hampton, Virginia. LaRC focuses on aeronautical research, though the Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo lunar lander was flight-tested at the facility and a number of high-profile space missions have been planned and designed on-site. LaRC was the original home of the
Space Task Group The Space Task Group was a working group of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. ...
. Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Federal Airfield, Moffett Field was founded on December 20, 1939. The center was named after Joseph Sweetman Ames, a founding member of the NACA. ARC is one of NASA's 10 major field centers and is located in California's Silicon Valley. Historically, Ames was founded to do wind-tunnel research on the aerodynamics of propeller-driven aircraft; however, it has expanded its role to doing research and technology in aeronautics, spaceflight, and information technology. It provides leadership in astrobiology, small satellites, robotic lunar exploration, intelligent/adaptive systems and thermal protection. John H. Glenn Research Center, George W. Lewis Research Center The center's core competencies include air-breathing and in-space propulsion and cryogenics, communications, power energy storage and conversion, microgravity sciences, and advanced materials. Armstrong Flight Research Center, Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Facility (AFRC), established by NACA before 1946 and located inside Edwards Air Force Base, is the home of the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), a modified Boeing 747 designed to carry a Space Shuttle orbiter back to Kennedy Space Center after a landing at Edwards AFB. On January 16, 2014, the center was renamed in honor of Neil Armstrong, the first astronaut to walk on the Moon. File:Langley research center.jpg, Langley Research Center File:Aerial View Ames Research Center Wind Tunnels - GPN-2000-001761.jpg, Ames Research Center wind tunnels


Transferred from the Army

The
Jet Propulsion Laboratory The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) are public-private partnerships which conduct research and development Research is " cr ...
(JPL), located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, CA, is headquartered in the city of La Cañada Flintridge, California, La Cañada Flintridge with a Pasadena, California, Pasadena mailing address. JPL is managed by the nearby
California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such a"Cal Tech" and "CalTech" are incorrect. The Institute is also occasionally referred to as "CIT", most notably ...
(Caltech). The Laboratory's primary function is the construction and operation of robotic planetary spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASA's Deep Space Network. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, is one of NASA's largest centers. MSFC is where the Saturn V rocket and Spacelab were developed. Marshall is NASA's lead center for
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
(ISS) design and assembly; payloads and related crew training; and was the lead for
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
propulsion and its external tank. From December 1959, it contained the Launch Operations Directorate, which moved to Florida to become the Launch Operations Center on July 1, 1962. File:Site du JPL en Californie.jpg, Jet Propulsion Laboratory in La Cañada Flintridge, California File:Msfc aerial view.jpg, George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama


Built by NASA

Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), located in Greenbelt, Maryland, was commissioned by NASA on March 1, 1959. It is the largest combined organization of scientists and engineers in the United States dedicated to increasing knowledge of the Earth, the Solar System, and the Universe via observations from space. GSFC is a major U.S. laboratory for developing and operating unmanned scientific spacecraft. GSFC also operates two spaceflight tracking and data acquisition networks (the Space Network and the Near Earth Network), develops and maintains advanced space and Earth science data information systems, and develops satellite systems for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). External facilities of the GSFC include the Wallops Flight Facility, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies at Columbia University, and the Katherine Johnson Independent Verification and Validation Facility. John C. Stennis Space Center, originally the "Mississippi Test Facility", is located in Hancock County, Mississippi, on the banks of the Pearl River (Mississippi–Louisiana), Pearl River at the Mississippi–Louisiana border. Commissioned on October 25, 1961, it was NASA's largest rocket engine test facility until the end of the Space Shuttle program. It is currently used for rocket testing by over 30 local, state, national, international, private, and public companies and agencies. It contains the NASA Shared Services Center. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) is the NASA center for human spaceflight training, research and flight control. Created on November 1, 1961, the facility consists of a complex of 100 buildings constructed in 1962–1963 on 1,620 acres (656 ha) of land donated by Rice University in Houston, Texas. The center grew out of the
Space Task Group The Space Task Group was a working group of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. ...
formed soon after the creation of NASA to co-ordinate the US human spaceflight program. It is home to the NASA Astronaut Corps, United States Astronaut Corps and is responsible for training astronauts from the U.S. and its international partners, and includes the Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center. The center was renamed in honor of the late U.S. president and Texas native Lyndon B. Johnson on February 19, 1973. John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located west of Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida, is one of the best known NASA facilities. Named the "Launch Operations Center" at its creation on July 1, 1962, it was renamed in honor of the late U.S. president on November 29, 1963, and has been the launch site for every United States human space flight since 1968. KSC continues to manage and operate unmanned rocket launch facilities for America's civilian space program from three pads at Cape Canaveral. Its Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) is the fourth-largest structure in the world by volume and was the largest when completed in 1965. A total of 13,100 people worked at the center as of 2011. Approximately 2,100 are employees of the federal government; the rest are contractors. Subordinate facilities include the Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Virginia; the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana; the White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and Deep Space Network stations in Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, Barstow, California; Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex, Madrid, Spain; and Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, Canberra, Australia. File:NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Aerial view 2010 facing south.jpg, Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland File:Aerial View of the Johnson Space Center - GPN-2000-001112.jpg, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston File:VAB Aerial - GPN-2000-000869.jpg, John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida


Satellites, probes, rovers, launch vehicles

NASA has conducted many uncrewed and robotic spaceflight programs throughout its history. Uncrewed robotic programs launched the first American artificial
satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally ...

satellite
s into Earth orbit for scientific and communications satellite, communications purposes, and sent scientific probes to explore the planets of the solar system, starting with Venus and Mars, and including "Voyager program, grand tours" of the outer planets. More than 1,000 uncrewed missions have been designed to explore the Earth and the solar system.


Earth, Moon, and L2 point

Besides exploration, communication satellites have also been launched by NASA. The spacecraft have been launched directly from Earth or from orbiting space shuttles, which could either deploy the satellite itself, or with a rocket stage to take it farther. The first US uncrewed satellite was Explorer 1, which started as an ABMA/JPL project during the early part of the
Space Race The Space Race was a 20th-century competition between two Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, whi ...
. It was launched in January 1958, two months after Sputnik. At the creation of NASA, the Explorer project was transferred to the agency and still continues to this day. Its missions have been focusing on the Earth and the Sun, measuring magnetic fields and the solar wind, among other aspects. A more recent Earth satellite, not related to the Explorer program, was the Hubble Space Telescope, which was brought into orbit in 1990. Cygnus (spacecraft), Cygnus and SpaceX Dragon 2, Cargo Dragon are used to resupply the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
(ISS) as part of NASA's Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) program as of 2020. Cygnus is manufactured by Northrop Grumman and launched on the Antares (rocket), Antares rocket. Cargo Dragon is manufactured by SpaceX and launched on the Falcon 9 Block 5, Block 5 variant of Falcon 9. SpaceX Dragon, also launched on Falcon 9, was used to resupply the ISS from 2010 to 2020. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is currently scheduled to launch in November 2021 on an Ariane 5 rocket. It will be placed in a halo orbit circling the Sun-Earth point.


Inner solar system (including Mars)

The inner Solar System has been made the goal of at least four uncrewed programs. The first was Mariner program, Mariner in the 1960s and 1970s, which made multiple visits to Venus and Mars and one to Mercury (planet), Mercury. Probes launched under the Mariner program were also the first to make a planetary flyby (Mariner 2), to take the first pictures from another planet (Mariner 4), the first planetary orbiter (Mariner 9), and the first to make a gravity assist maneuver (''Mariner 10''). This is a technique where the satellite takes advantage of the gravity and velocity of planets to reach its destination. The first successful landing on Mars was made by ''Viking 1'' in 1976. Twenty years later a Sojourner (rover), rover was landed on Mars by ''Mars Pathfinder''. On November 26, 2011, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission was successfully launched for Mars. ''Curiosity (rover), Curiosity'' successfully landed on Mars on August 6, 2012, and subsequently began its search for evidence of past or present life on Mars. On the horizon of NASA's plans is the ''MAVEN'' spacecraft as part of the Mars Scout Program to study the atmosphere of Mars. NASA's ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars (''Perseverance (rover), Perseverance'' and ''InSight'').


Outer solar system

Outside Mars, Jupiter was first visited by ''Pioneer 10'' in 1973. More than 20 years later ''Galileo (spacecraft), Galileo'' sent a probe into the planet's atmosphere, and became the first spacecraft to orbit the planet. ''Pioneer 11'' became the first spacecraft to visit Saturn in 1979, with ''Voyager 2'' making the first (and so far only) visits to Uranus and Neptune in 1986 and 1989, respectively. The first spacecraft to leave the solar system was ''Pioneer 10'' in 1983. For a time it was the most distant spacecraft, but it has since been surpassed by both ''Voyager 1'' and ''Voyager 2''. ''Pioneers 10'' and ''11'' and both Voyager probes carry messages from the Earth to extraterrestrial life. Communication can be difficult with deep space travel. For instance, it took about three hours for a radio signal to reach the ''New Horizons'' spacecraft when it was more than halfway to Pluto. Contact with ''Pioneer 10'' was lost in 2003. Both Voyager probes continue to operate as they explore the outer boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space. The ''
New Horizons ''New Horizons'' is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the F ...

New Horizons
'' mission to Pluto was launched in 2006 and successfully performed a flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015. The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter's inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the flyby. Other active spacecraft are ''Juno (spacecraft), Juno'' for Jupiter and ''Dawn (spacecraft), Dawn'' for the asteroid belt. NASA continued to support ''in situ#Space-related, in situ'' exploration beyond the asteroid belt, including Pioneer and Voyager traverses into the unexplored trans-Pluto region, and gas giant orbiters ''Galileo'' (1989–2003), ''Cassini–Huygens, Cassini'' (1997–2017), and ''Juno'' (2011–present).


Near-Earth object detection

In 1994, there was a Congressional directive to find near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 1 kilometer, and 90% of 1 kilometer sized asteroids are estimated to have been found by 2010. In 1999, NASA visited 433 Eros with the NEAR spacecraft which entered its orbit in 2000, closely imaging the asteroid with various instruments at that time. From the 1990s NASA has run many NEO detection programs from Earth bases observatories, greatly increasing the number of objects that have been detected. However, many asteroids are very dark and the ones that are near the Sun are much harder to detect from Earth-based telescopes which observe at night, and thus face away from the Sun. NEOs inside Earth orbit only reflect a part of light also rather than potentially a "full Moon" when they are behind the Earth and fully lit by the Sun. In 2005, the US Congress mandated NASA to achieve by the year 2020 specific levels of search completeness for discovering, cataloging, and characterizing dangerous asteroids larger than (Act of 2005, H.R. 1022; 109th), but no new funds were appropriated for this effort."Asteroid News: Time Is Running Out"
. Kevin Anderton, ''Forbes''. October 31, 2018.
As of January 2019, it is estimated about 40% of the NEOs of this size have been found, although since by its nature the exact amount of NEOs are unknown the calculations are based on predictions of how many there could be. One issue with NEO prediction is trying to estimate how many more are likely to be found. In 2000, NASA reduced its estimate of the number of existing near-Earth asteroids over one kilometer in diameter from 1,000–2,000 to 500–1,000. Shortly thereafter, the LINEAR survey provided an alternative estimate of . In 2011, on the basis of NEOWISE observations, the estimated number of one-kilometer NEAs was narrowed to (of which 93% had been discovered at the time), while the number of NEAs larger than 140 meters across was estimated at . The NEOWISE estimate differed from other estimates in assuming a slightly lower average asteroid albedo, which produces larger estimated diameters for the same asteroid brightness. This resulted in 911 then known asteroids at least 1 km across, as opposed to the 830 then listed by CNEOS. In 2017, using an improved statistical method, two studies reduced the estimated number of NEAs brighter than absolute magnitude 17.75 (approximately over one kilometer in diameter) to . The estimated number of asteroids brighter than absolute magnitude of 22.0 (approximately over 140 m across) rose to , double the WISE estimate, of which about a third are known as of 2018. A problem with estimating the number of NEOs is that detections are influenced by a number of factors. NASA turned the infrared space survey telescope WISE back on in 2013 to look for NEOs, and it found some during the course of its operation. NEOcam competed in the highly competitive Discovery program, which became more so due to a low mission rate in the 2010s.


Research

NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate conducts aeronautics research. NASA has made use of technologies such as the multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG), which is a type of radioisotope thermoelectric generator used to power spacecraft. Shortages of the required plutonium-238 have curtailed deep space missions since the turn of the millennium. An example of a spacecraft that was not developed because of a shortage of this material was ''New Horizons 2''. The Earth science research program was created and first funded in the 1980s under the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush. NASA started an annual competition in 2014 named ''Cubes in Space''. It is jointly organized by NASA and the global education company ''I Doodle Learning'', with the objective of teaching school students aged 11–18 to design and build scientific experiments to be launched into space on a NASA rocket or balloon. On June 21, 2017 the world's smallest satellite, KalamSAT, was launched. NASA also researches and publishes on climate change. Its statements concur with the global scientific consensus that the global climate is warming. Robert Smith Walker, Bob Walker, who has advised US President Donald Trump on space issues, has advocated that NASA should focus on space exploration and that its climate study operations should be transferred to other agencies such as NOAA. Former NASA atmospheric scientist J. Marshall Shepherd countered that Earth science study was built into NASA's mission at creation of NASA, its creation in the 1958
National Aeronautics and Space Act The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 () is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency of th ...
. NASA won the 2020 Webby Award, 2020 Webby People's Voice Award for Green in the category Web. NASA contracted a third party to study the probability of using Free Space Optics (FSO) to communicate with Optical (laser) Stations on the Ground (OGS) called laser-com Radio frequency, RF networks for satellite communications. On July 29, 2020, NASA requested American universities to propose new technologies for extracting water from the lunar soil and developing power systems. The idea will help the space agency conduct sustainable exploration of the Moon.


Environmental impact

The exhaust gases produced by rocket propulsion systems, both in Earth's atmosphere and in space, can adversely effect the Earth's environment. Some hypergolic rocket propellants, such as hydrazine, are highly toxic prior to combustion, but decompose into less toxic compounds after burning. Rockets using hydrocarbon fuels, such as kerosene, release carbon dioxide and soot in their exhaust. However, carbon dioxide emissions are insignificant compared to those from other sources; on average, the United States consumed of liquid fuels per day in 2014, while a single Falcon 9 rocket first stage burns around of kerosene fuel per launch. Even if a Falcon 9 were launched every single day, it would only represent 0.006% of liquid fuel consumption (and carbon dioxide emissions) for that day. Additionally, the exhaust from LOx- and LH2- fueled engines, like the SSME, is almost entirely water vapor. NASA addressed environmental concerns with its canceled Constellation program in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act in 2011. In contrast, ion engines use harmless noble gases like xenon for propulsion. An example of NASA's environmental efforts is the NASA Sustainability Base. Additionally, the Exploration Sciences Building was awarded the LEED Gold rating in 2010. On May 8, 2003, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Protection Agency recognized NASA as the first federal agency to directly use landfill gas to produce energy at one of its facilities—the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. In 2018, NASA along with other companies including Sensor Coating Systems, Pratt & Whitney, Monitor Coating and United Technologies Corp, UTRC launched the project CAUTION (CoAtings for Ultra High Temperature detectION). This project aims to enhance the temperature range of the Thermal history coating, Thermal History Coating up to and beyond. The final goal of this project is improving the safety of jet engines as well as increasing efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions.


Goals and directives

Some of NASA's main directives have been the landing of a crewed spacecraft on the Moon, the designing and construction of the Space Shuttle, and efforts to construct a large, crewed space station. Typically, the major directives originated from the intersection of scientific interest and advice, political interests, federal funding concerns, and the public interest, which all together brought varying waves of effort, often heavily swayed by technical developments, funding changes, and world events. For example, in the 1980s, the Reagan administration announced a directive with a major push to build a crewed space station, given the name Space Station Freedom, Space Station ''Freedom''. But, when the Cold War ended, Russia, the United States, and other international partners came together to design and build the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
. In the 2010s, major shifts in directives include the retirement of the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
, and the later development of a new crewed heavy-lift rocket, the
Space Launch System The Space Launch System (abbreviated as SLS) is an American super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its comp ...

Space Launch System
. Missions for the new
Space Launch System The Space Launch System (abbreviated as SLS) is an American super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its comp ...

Space Launch System
have varied, but overall, NASA's directives are similar to the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
program as the primary goal and desire is human spaceflight. Additionally, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative of the 1980s opened new avenues of exploration focused on other galaxies. For the coming decades, NASA's focus has gradually shifting towards eventual exploration of Mars. One of the technological options focused on was the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). ARM had largely been defunded in 2017, but the key technologies developed for ARM would be utilized for future exploration, notably on a solar electric propulsion system. Longer project execution timelines leave future executive administration officials to execute on a directive, which can lead to directional mismanagement. Previously, in the early 2000s, NASA worked towards a strategic plan called the Constellation Program, but the program was defunded in the early 2010s. In the 1990s, NASA's administration adopted an approach to planning coined "Faster, Better, Cheaper".


NASA Authorization Act of 2017

The NASA Authorization Act of 2017, which included $19.5 billion in funding for that fiscal year, directed NASA to get humans near or on the surface of Mars by the early 2030s. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President.


Space Policy Directive 1

In December 2017, on the 45th anniversary of the Apollo 17, last crewed mission to the Moon's surface, President Donald Trump approved a directive that includes a lunar mission on the pathway to Mars and beyond. New NASA administrator
Jim Bridenstine James Frederick Bridenstine (born June 15, 1975) is an American politician who served as the 13th Administrator Administrator or admin may refer to: Job roles Computing and internet * Database administrator, a person who is responsible for th ...
addressed this directive in an August 2018 speech where he focused on the sustainability aspects—going to the Moon to stay—that are explicit in the directive, including taking advantage of US commercial space reusable launch vehicle, capability that did not exist even five years ago, which have Space launch market competition, driven down costs and increased access to space.Bridenstine Speaks at NASA Advisory Council Meeting
at 4:40, NASA TV, August 29, 2018, accessed September 1, 2018.


Goals

Since 2011, NASA's strategic goals have been * Extend and sustain human spaceflight, human activities across the
Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization Capitalization ( North American English) or capitalisation ( British English) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (uppercase letter) and the remaining letters in lower case, in writin ...

Solar System
* Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe * Create innovative new space technologies * Advance
aeronautics Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design process, design, and manufacturing of air flight–capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical So ...

aeronautics
research * Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA's aeronautics and space activities * Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate


Budget

NASA's share of the total federal budget peaked at approximately 4.41% in 1966 during the
Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...

Apollo program
, then rapidly declined to approximately 1% in 1975, and stayed around that level through 1998. The percentage then gradually dropped, until leveling off again at around half a percent in 2006 (estimated in 2012 at 0.48% of the federal budget). In a March 2012 hearing of the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, United States Senate Science Committee, science communicator Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that "Right now, NASA's annual budget is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, dispirited nation, weary of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to dream of tomorrow." Despite this, public perception of NASA's budget differs significantly: a 1997 poll indicated that most Americans believed that 20% of the federal budget went to NASA. For Fiscal Year 2015, NASA received an appropriation of from Congress—$549 million more than requested and approximately $350 million more than the 2014 NASA budget passed by Congress. In Fiscal Year 2016, NASA received $19.3 billion. President Donald Trump signed the NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017 in March, which set the 2017 budget at around $19.5 billion. The budget is also reported as $19.3 billion for 2017, with $20.7 billion proposed for FY2018. Examples of some proposed FY2018 budgets: * Exploration: $4.79 billion * Planetary science: $2.23 billion * Earth science: $1.92 billion * Aeronautics: $0.685 billion


Media


NASAcast

NASAcast is the official audio and video podcast of the NASA website. Created in late 2005, the podcast service contains the latest audio and video features from the NASA web site, including NASA TV, NASA TV's ''This Week at NASA'' and educational materials produced by NASA. Additional NASA podcasts, such as Science@NASA, are also featured and give subscribers an in-depth look at content by subject matter.


NASA EDGE

NASA EDGE is a video podcast which explores different missions, technologies and projects developed by NASA. The program was released by NASA on March 18, 2007, and, , there have been 200 vodcasts produced. It is a public outreach vodcast sponsored by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate and based out of the Exploration and Space Operations Directorate at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, Hampton, Virginia. NASA EDGE takes an insiders look at current projects and technologies from NASA facilities around the United States, and it is depicted through personal interviews, on-scene broadcasts, computer animations, and personal interviews with top scientists and engineers at NASA. The show explores the contributions NASA has made to society as well as the progress of current projects in materials and
space exploration Space exploration is the use of astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and ce ...
. NASA EDGE vodcasts can be downloaded from the NASA website and from iTunes.


Cast and crew

* Chris Giersch - host * Blair Allen - co-host and senior producer * Franklin Fitzgerald - news anchor and "everyman" * Jaqueline Mirielle Cortez - special co-host * Ron Beard - director and "set therapist" * Don Morrison - audio/video engineer * Ryan Darden - Editor


Reception

In its first year of production, the show was downloaded over 450,000 times. , the average download rate is more than 420,000 per month, with over one million downloads in December 2009 and January 2010.


Interactive projects

NASA and the NASA EDGE have developed interactive programs designed to complement the vodcast. The Lunar Electric Rover App allows users to drive a simulated Lunar Electric Rover between objectives, and it provides information about and images of the vehicle. The NASA EDGE Widget provides a graphical user interface for accessing NASA EDGE vodcasts, image galleries, and the program's Twitter feed, as well as a live NASA news feed.


Miscellaneous


NASA Advisory Council

In response to the Apollo 1 accident, which killed three astronauts in 1967, Congress directed NASA to form an Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to advise the NASA Administrator on safety issues and hazards in NASA's aerospace programs. In the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Shuttle ''Columbia'' disaster, Congress required that the ASAP submit an annual report to the NASA Administrator and to Congress. By 1971, NASA had also established the Space Program Advisory Council and the Research and Technology Advisory Council to provide the administrator with advisory committee support. In 1977, the latter two were combined to form the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). The NASA Authorization Act of 2014 reaffirmed the importance of ASAP.


Use of the metric system

US law requires the International System of Units to be used in all U.S. Government programs, "except where impractical". In 1969, the Apollo 11 landed on the Moon using a mix of United States customary units and Metric system, metric units. In the 1980s, NASA started the transition towards the metric system, but was still using both systems in the 1990s. On September 23, 1999, a unit mixup between US and SI units resulted in the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter. In August 2007, NASA stated that all future missions and explorations of the Moon would be done entirely using the SI system. This was done to improve cooperation with space agencies of other countries that already use the metric system. As of 2007, NASA is predominantly working with SI units, but some projects still use English units, and some, including the International Space Station, use a mix of both.


Partnership with the United States Space Force

The United States Space Force (USSF) is the space service branch of the United States Armed Forces, while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the United States government responsible for civil spaceflight. NASA and the Space Force's predecessors in the Air Force have a long-standing cooperative relationship, with the Space Force supporting NASA launches out of Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, and Vandenberg Space Force Base, to include range support and rescue operations from Task Force 45. NASA and the Space Force also partner on matters such as defending Earth from asteroids. Space Force members can be NASA astronauts, with Colonel Michael S. Hopkins, the commander of SpaceX Crew-1, commissioned into the Space Force from the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
on 18 December 2020. In September 2020, the Space Force and NASA signed a memorandum of understanding formally acknowledging the joint role of both agencies. This new memorandum replaced a similar document signed in 2006 between NASA and Air Force Space Command.


Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic


Gallery


Observations

NGC 6543 7662 7009 6826.jpg, Various nebulae observed from a NASA space telescope PIA18920-Ceres-DwarfPlanet-20150219.jpg, 1 Ceres Nh-pluto crop.png, Pluto


Past and current spacecraft

NASA spacecraft comparison.jpg, Hardware comparison of Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo, Gemini (spacecraft), Gemini, and Project Mercury, Mercury STS-125 departing the Hubble Space Telescope.jpg, Hubble Space Telescope, astronomy observatory in Earth orbit since 1990. Also visited by the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
. James Webb Space Telescope 2009 top.jpg, James Webb Space Telescope PIA16239 High-Resolution Self-Portrait by Curiosity Rover Arm Camera.jpg, ''Curiosity'' rover, roving Mars since 2012 Perseverance Landing Skycrane (cropped).jpg, ''Perseverance (rover), Perseverance'' rover


Planned spacecraft

Artemis I Orion October 12, 2020.jpg,
Orion spacecraft Orion (officially Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle or Orion MPCV) is a class of Reusable spacecraft, partially reusable crewed spacecraft to be used in NASA's Artemis program. The spacecraft consists of a Crew Module (CM) space capsule designe ...
Sls block1 on-pad sunrisesmall.jpg,
Space Launch System The Space Launch System (abbreviated as SLS) is an American super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its comp ...

Space Launch System
rocket Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway.jpg,
Lunar Gateway The lunar Gateway, or simply Gateway, is a planned small space station in lunar orbit In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science ...
space station


Concepts

NASA has developed oftentimes elaborate plans and technology concepts, some of which become worked into real plans. Cargo transport from Space Shuttle with the space tug to Nuclear shuttle.jpg, Concept of cargo transport from
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
to Nuclear Shuttle, 1960s Space tug module for astronauts.jpg, Space Tug concept, 1970s Innovative Interstellar Explorer interstellar space probe .jpg, Vision mission for an interstellar precursor spacecraft by NASA, 2000s Mars Ice Home concept.jpg, Langley's Mars Ice Dome design for a Mars habitat, 2010s


See also

* List of crewed spacecraft *


Articles about NASA

* * * * * * * *


Related agencies

* * (ESA) * * * * (JPL) * * (CNSA)


Explanatory notes


References


Sources

*


Further reading

* Alexander, Joseph K. ''Science Advice to NASA: Conflict, Consensus, Partnership, Leadership'' (2019
excerpt
* Bizony, Piers et al. ''The NASA Archives. 60 Years in Space'' (2019) * Brady, Kevin M. "NASA Launches Houston into Orbit How America's Space Program Contributed to Southeast Texas's Economic Growth, Scientific Development, and Modernization during the Late Twentieth Century." ''Journal of the West'' (2018) 57#4 pp 13–54. * Bromberg, Joan Lisa. ''NASA and the Space Industry'' (Johns Hopkins UP, 1999). * Clemons, Jack. ''Safely to Earth: The Men and Women Who Brought the Astronauts Home'' (2018
excerpt
* Dick, Steven J., and Roger D. Launius, eds. ''Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight'' (NASA, 2006) * Launius, Roger D. "Eisenhower, Sputnik, and the Creation of NASA." ''Prologue-Quarterly of the National Archives'' 28.2 (1996): 127-143. * Pyle, Rod. ''Space 2.0: How Private Spaceflight, a Resurgent NASA, and International Partners are Creating a New Space Age'' (2019), overview of space exploratio
excerpt
* Spencer, Brett. "The Book and the Rocket: The Symbiotic Relationship between American Public Libraries and the Space Program, 1950–2015," ''Information & Culture'' 51, no. 4 (2016): 550–82. * Weinzierl, Matthew. "Space, the final economic frontier." ''Journal of Economic Perspectives'' 32.2 (2018): 173-92
online
review of economics literature


External links

* *

*
NASA History Division
*

*
NODIS: NASA Online Directives Information System
*
NTRS: NASA Technical Reports Server
*
NASA History and the Challenge of Keeping the Contemporary Past
*
NASA podcasts

NASA Watch, an agency watchdog site
*

on howstuffworks.com
''Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly''
{{Authority control NASA, 1958 establishments in Washington, D.C. Articles containing video clips Government agencies established in 1958 Independent agencies of the United States government Organizations based in Washington, D.C. Webby Award winners