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The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to ...
organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as an interracial endeavor to advance justice for
African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that ...
by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois,
Mary White OvingtonImage:MaryWhiteOvington.jpg, 250px, Portrait, c. 1910 Mary White Ovington (April 11, 1865 – July 15, 1951) was an American suffragist, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Bio ...
,
Moorfield Storey Moorfield Storey (March 19, 1845 – October 24, 1929) was an American lawyer, anti-imperial activist, and civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by go ...
and
Ida B. Wells
Ida B. Wells
. Its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination". National NAACP initiatives include political lobbying, publicity efforts and litigation strategies developed by its legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as
police misconduct Police misconduct refers to inappropriate conduct and illegal actions taken by police officer officer in Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , ti ...
, the status of black foreign refugees and questions of economic development. Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term ''
colored people Colored or coloured, is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located ...
,'' referring to those with some African ancestry. The NAACP bestows annual awards on African Americans in two categories:
Image Awards The NAACP Image Award is an annual awards ceremony presented by the U.S.-based National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights Civ ...
are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and
Spingarn Medal The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by an African Americans, African American. The award was created in 1914 by Joel Elias Spingarn, cha ...
s are for outstanding achievement of any kind. Its headquarters is in
Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...
. On June 29, 2020 Washington, D.C., radio station WTOP reported that the NAACP intends to relocate its national headquarters from its longtime home in Baltimore, Maryland, to the Franklin D. Reeves Center of Municipal Affairs, a building owned by the District of Columbia located on U and 14th Streets in Northwest Washington, D.C. Derrick Johnson, the NAACP's president and CEO, emphasized that the organization will be better able to engage in and influence change in D.C. than in Baltimore.


Organization

The NAACP is headquartered in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
,
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
, Maryland,
Texas Texas (, ; : ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the region of the . At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, it is the second-largest by both (after ) and (after ). Texas shares borders ...

Texas
,
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the , as well as the northeastern portion of the and the western edge of the . Colorado is the and U.S. state. The enumerated the ...

Colorado
and
California California is a in the . With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the and the U.S. state by area. It is also the in North America and the in the world. The area and the are the nation's second and ...

California
. Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region. Local, youth, and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U.S., the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as the chief executive officer for the organization.
Julian Bond Horace Julian Bond (January 14, 1940 – August 15, 2015) was an American social activist, leader of the civil rights movement#REDIRECT Civil rights movement {{Rcat shell, {{R from other capitalisation {{R from related ..., politician, p ...

Julian Bond
,
civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It ...
activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by healthcare administrator
Roslyn Brock Roslyn McCallister Brock (born May 30, 1965) is an African-American civil rights leader, Health care in the United States, healthcare executive, and health activist. She was selected to succeed Julian Bond as chairman of the National Association fo ...
. For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was effectively led by its executive secretary, who acted as chief operating officer.
James Weldon Johnson James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871June 26, 1938) was an American writer and civil rights activist. He was married to civil rights activist Grace Nail Johnson. Johnson was a leader of the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored ...

James Weldon Johnson
and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were much more widely known as NAACP leaders than were presidents during those years. The organization has never had a woman president, except on a temporary basis, and there have been calls to name one. Lorraine C. Miller served as interim president after
Benjamin Jealous Benjamin Todd Jealous (born January 18, 1973) is an American civil rights leader and social impact investor. He served as the president and chief executive officer of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP The ...

Benjamin Jealous
stepped down.
Maya Wiley Maya Wiley (born January 2, 1964) is an American lawyer, professor, and civil rights activist who chaired the NYC Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) from 2016 to 2017. Before that, Wiley served as counsel to New York City Mayor The mayor ...

Maya Wiley
was rumored to be in line for the position in 2013, but
Cornell William Brooks Cornell William Brooks (born 1961) is an American lawyer and activist. He was chosen to be the president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in May 2014. He previously served as president of thNew Jersey Instit ...
was selected. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action. Local chapters are supported by the "Branch and Field Services" department and the "Youth and College" department. The "Legal" department focuses on
court case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betw ...

court case
s of broad application to minorities, such as systematic
discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of , , , , or , as well as ...
in employment, government, or education. The
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
bureau is responsible for
lobbying In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of socia ...

lobbying
the U.S. government, and the Education Department works to improve
public education State schools ( British English) or public schools ( North American English) are generally primary or secondary educational institution, schools that educate all children without charge. They are funded in whole or in part by taxation. State fu ...
at the local, state, and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. , the NAACP had approximately 425,000 paying and non-paying members. The NAACP's non-current records are housed at the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or electronic ...

Library of Congress
, which has served as the organization's official repository since 1964. The records held there comprise approximately five million items spanning the NAACP's history from the time of its founding until 2003. In 2011, the NAACP teamed with the digital repository
ProQuest ProQuest LLC was an Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyc ...
to digitize and host online the earlier portion of its archives, through 1972 – nearly two million pages of documents, from the national, legal, and branch offices throughout the country, which offer first-hand insight into the organization's work related to such crucial issues as lynching, school desegregation, and discrimination in all its aspects (in the military, the criminal justice system, employment, housing).


Predecessor: The Niagara Movement

The
Pan-American Exposition The Pan-American Exposition was a World's Fair held in Buffalo, New York Buffalo is the List of cities in New York (state), second-largest city in the United States, U.S. state of New York (state), New York and the largest city in Western New Y ...
of 1901 in
Buffalo, New York Buffalo is the in the of and the largest city in . 's census estimates, the city proper population was 255,284. The city is the of and serves as a major gateway for commerce and travel across the , forming part of the bi-national , the an ...

Buffalo, New York
, featured many American innovations and achievements, but also included a disparaging caricature of slave life in the South as well as a depiction of life in Africa, called "Old Plantation" and "Darkest Africa", respectively. A local African-American woman,
Mary Talbert
Mary Talbert
of
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Ohio
, was appalled by the exhibit, as a similar one in Paris highlighted black achievements. She informed W. E. B. Du Bois of the situation, and a coalition began to form. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing African Americans and possible strategies and solutions. They were particularly concerned by the
Southern states Southern States may refer to: *The independent states of the Southern hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ...
'
disenfranchisement Disfranchisement, also called disenfranchisement, or voter disqualification is the restriction of suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes ...
of blacks starting with
Mississippi Mississippi () is a in the region of the , bordered to the north by ; to the east by ; to the south by the ; to the southwest by ; and to the northwest by . Mississippi's western boundary is largely defined by the . Mississippi is the and ...
's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through 1908, Southern legislatures, dominated by white
Southern DemocratsSouthern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the Southern United States The southern United States, also known as the American South, the southern states, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural List of re ...
, ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this and the
Lily-white movement The Lily-white Movement was an anti-Black political movement within the Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's ele ...
caused the exclusion of most blacks and many poor whites from the political system in southern states. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. White-dominated legislatures also passed segregation and
Jim Crow Jim or JIM may refer to: * Jim, a diminutive form of the given name James (name), James * Jim, a short form of the given name Jimmy (given name), Jimmy * OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism * Jim (comics), ''Jim'' (comics), a series by Jim Woodri ...

Jim Crow
laws. Because hotels in the US were segregated, the men convened in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
at the Erie Beach Hotel on the Canadian side of the
Niagara River The Niagara River ( ; french: rivière Niagara) is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the province of Ontario in Canada (on the west) and the state of New York (state), New York in the U ...

Niagara River
in
Fort Erie, Ontario Fort Erie is a town on the Niagara River in the Regional Municipality of Niagara, Ontario, Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. It is directly across the river from Buffalo, New York and is the site of Old Fort Erie which played a prominent role in t ...
. As a result, the group came to be known as the
Niagara Movement The Niagara Movement (NM) was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group of activists – many of whom were among the vanguard of African-American lawyers in the United States – led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter ...
. A year later, three non-African-Americans joined the group: journalist
William English WallingWilliam English Walling (1877–1936) (known as "English" to friends and family) was an American labor reformer and Socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a ...
, a wealthy socialist; and social workers
Mary White OvingtonImage:MaryWhiteOvington.jpg, 250px, Portrait, c. 1910 Mary White Ovington (April 11, 1865 – July 15, 1951) was an American suffragist, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Bio ...
and Henry Moskowitz. Moskowitz, who was Jewish, was then also Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. They met in 1906 at
Storer College Storer College, in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, operated from 1867 to 1955. A national icon for Blacks, in the town where the end of American slavery began, as Frederick Douglass famously put it, it was a unique institution whose focus changed se ...
,
Harpers Ferry, West Virginia Harpers Ferry is a historic town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States, in the lower Shenandoah Valley. The population was 285 at the 2020 United States census, 2020 census. It is situated at the conflue ...
, and in 1907 in . The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict and disbanded in 1910. Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909. Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organization. Historically, it is considered to have had a more radical platform than the NAACP. The Niagara Movement was formed exclusively by African Americans. Four European Americans were among the founders of the NAACP, they included Mary White Ovington, Henry Moskowitz, William English Walling and Oswald Garrison Villard.


History


Formation

The Race Riot of 1908 in
Springfield, Illinois Springfield is the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois Illinois ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. It has the List of U.S. states and territories by GDP, fifth largest g ...
, the state capital and President
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th from 1861 until in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the , the country's greatest moral, cultural, constitutional, and ...

Abraham Lincoln
's hometown, was a catalyst showing the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. In the decades around the turn of the century, the rate of
lynchings Lynching is an extrajudicial killing An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution or extralegal killing) is the homicide, killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any Judiciary, judicial proce ...
of blacks, particularly men, was at an all-time high.
Mary White OvingtonImage:MaryWhiteOvington.jpg, 250px, Portrait, c. 1910 Mary White Ovington (April 11, 1865 – July 15, 1951) was an American suffragist, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Bio ...
, journalist
William English WallingWilliam English Walling (1877–1936) (known as "English" to friends and family) was an American labor reformer and Socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a ...
and Henry Moskowitz met in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
in January 1909 to work on organizing for black civil rights. They sent out solicitations for support to more than 60 prominent Americans, and set a meeting date for February 12, 1909. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. While the first large meeting did not occur until three months later, the February date is often cited as the organization's founding date. The NAACP was founded on February 12, 1909, by a larger group including African Americans W. E. B. Du Bois, ,
Archibald Grimké Archibald Henry Grimké (August 17, 1849 – February 25, 1930) was an American lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday s ...

Archibald Grimké
,
Mary Church Terrell Mary Church Terrell (born Mary Eliza Church; September 23, 1863 – July 24, 1954) was one of the first African-American women to earn a college degree, and became known as a national activist for Civil and political rights, civil rights and suff ...

Mary Church Terrell
, and the previously named whites Henry Moskowitz,
Mary White OvingtonImage:MaryWhiteOvington.jpg, 250px, Portrait, c. 1910 Mary White Ovington (April 11, 1865 – July 15, 1951) was an American suffragist, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Bio ...
,
William English WallingWilliam English Walling (1877–1936) (known as "English" to friends and family) was an American labor reformer and Socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a ...
(the wealthy Socialist son of a former slave-holding family),
Florence Kelley Florence Moltrop Kelley (September 12, 1859 – February 17, 1932) was a social and political reformer and the pioneer of the term wage abolitionism. Her work against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour day, eight-hour workdays, and ...

Florence Kelley
, a social reformer and friend of Du Bois;
Oswald Garrison Villard Villard in 1930 Oswald Garrison Villard (March 13, 1872 – October 1, 1949) was an American journalist and editor of the '' New York Evening Post.'' He was a civil rights activist, and along with his mother, Fanny Villard, a founding membe ...

Oswald Garrison Villard
, and
Charles Edward Russell Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English and French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two ...
, a renowned
muckraker The muckrakers were reform-minded journalists, writers, and photographers in the Progressive Era The Progressive Era (1896–1916) was a period of widespread social activism Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or ...
and close friend of Walling. Russell helped plan the NAACP and had served as acting chairman of the
National Negro Committee The National Negro Committee (formed: New York City, May 31 and June 1, 1909 - ceased: New York City, May 12, 1910) was created in response to the Springfield race riot of 1908 against the black community in Springfield, Illinois. Prominent black a ...
(1909), a forerunner to the NAACP. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's
Henry Street Settlement The Henry Street Settlement is a not-for-profit social service agency in the Lower East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City that provides social services, arts programs and health care services to New Yorkers of all ages. It was founde ...
House; they created an organization of more than 40, identifying as the
National Negro Committee The National Negro Committee (formed: New York City, May 31 and June 1, 1909 - ceased: New York City, May 12, 1910) was created in response to the Springfield race riot of 1908 against the black community in Springfield, Illinois. Prominent black a ...
. Among other founding members were
Lillian Wald Lillian D. Wald (March 10, 1867 – September 1, 1940) was an American nurse, humanitarian and author. She was known for contributions to human rights and was the founder of American community nursing. She founded the Henry Street Settlement in N ...
, a nurse who had founded the Henry Street Settlement where the conference took place. Du Bois played a key role in organizing the event and presided over the proceedings. Also in attendance was Ida B. Wells-Barnett, an African-American journalist and anti-
lynching Lynching is an extrajudicial killing An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution or extralegal killing) is the homicide, killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any Judiciary, judicial proce ...

lynching
crusader. Wells-Barnett addressed the conference on the history of lynching in the United States and called for action to publicize and prosecute such crimes. The members chose the new organization's name to be the ''National Association for the Advancement of Colored People'' and elected its first officers: * National President,
Moorfield Storey Moorfield Storey (March 19, 1845 – October 24, 1929) was an American lawyer, anti-imperial activist, and civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by go ...
, Boston * Chairman of the Executive Committee,
William English WallingWilliam English Walling (1877–1936) (known as "English" to friends and family) was an American labor reformer and Socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a ...
* Treasurer, John E. Milholland a prominent New York Republican * Disbursing Treasurer,
Oswald Garrison Villard Villard in 1930 Oswald Garrison Villard (March 13, 1872 – October 1, 1949) was an American journalist and editor of the '' New York Evening Post.'' He was a civil rights activist, and along with his mother, Fanny Villard, a founding membe ...

Oswald Garrison Villard
* Executive Secretary, Frances Blascoer * Director of Publicity and Research,
W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( ; February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, socialist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Boi ...
. The NAACP was incorporated a year later in 1911. The association's charter expressed its mission: The larger conference resulted in a more diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white.
Moorfield Storey Moorfield Storey (March 19, 1845 – October 24, 1929) was an American lawyer, anti-imperial activist, and civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by go ...
, a white attorney from a Boston abolitionist family, served as the president of the NAACP from its founding to 1915. At its founding, the NAACP had one African American on its executive board, Du Bois. Storey was a long-time classical liberal and
Grover Cleveland Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897. Cleveland is the only president in American ...

Grover Cleveland
Democrat Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy, or democratic government; a form of government involving rule by the people. *A member of a Democratic Party: **Democratic Party (United States) (D) **Democratic Party (Cy ...
who advocated ''
laissez-faire ''Laissez-faire'' ( ; from french: laissez faire , ) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), d ...
'' free markets, the
gold standard Gold certificates were used as paper currency in the United States">paper_currency.html" ;"title="Gold certificates were used as paper currency">Gold certificates were used as paper currency in the United States from 1882 to 1933. These certifi ...
, and
anti-imperialism Anti-imperialism in political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between in ...
. Storey consistently and aggressively championed
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to ...
, not only for blacks but also for
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Du Bois continued to play a pivotal leadership role in the organization, serving as editor of the association's magazine, ''
The Crisis ''The Crisis'' is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, forme ...

The Crisis
,'' which had a circulation of more than 30,000. ''The Crisis'' was used both for news reporting and for publishing African-American poetry and literature. During the organization's campaigns against lynching, Du Bois encouraged the writing and performance of plays and other expressive literature about this issue. The Jewish community contributed greatly to the NAACP's founding and continued financing. Jewish historian
Howard SacharHoward Morley Sachar (February 10, 1928 – April 18, 2018) was an American historian. He was Professor Emeritus of History and International Affairs at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. and the author of 16 books, as well as num ...
writes in his book ''A History of Jews in America'' that "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as
Jacob Schiff Jacob Henry Schiff (born Jakob Heinrich Schiff; January 10, 1847 – September 25, 1920) was a German-born Jewish American banker, businessman, and philanthropist. Among many other things, he helped finance the expansion of American railroads, and ...
,
Jacob Billikopf Jacob Billikopf, Ph.B., L.L.D., (June 1, 1882, Vilnius, Lithuania – December 31, 1950) was a nationally known figure in social work Social work is an academic discipline and practice-based profession that concerns itself with individuals, Fa ...
, and Rabbi ."


Jim Crow and disenfranchisement

In its early years, the NAACP was based in New York City. It concentrated on litigation in efforts to overturn disenfranchisement of blacks, which had been established in every southern state by 1908, excluding most from the political system, and the Jim Crow statutes that legalized
racial segregation Racial segregation is the systematic separation of people into race (human classification), racial or other Ethnicity, ethnic groups in daily life. Racial segregation can amount to the international crime of apartheid and a crimes against hum ...
. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, workplaces, and hiring. African-American women's clubs were among the organizations that protested Wilson's changes, but the administration did not alter its assuagement of Southern cabinet members and the Southern block in Congress. By 1914, the group had 6,000 members and 50 branches. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as military officers in
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War, the World War, and "The war t ...
. Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. W. Griffith's silent movie ''
The Birth of a Nation ''The Birth of a Nation'', originally called ''The Clansman'', is a 1915 American silent Silent may mean any of the following: People with the name * Silent George, George Stone (outfielder) (1876–1945), American Major League Baseball out ...
,'' a film that glamorized the
Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, gene ...
. As a result, several cities refused to allow the film to open. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. It played a significant part in the challenge of '' Guinn v. United States'' (1915) to
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
's discriminatory
grandfather clause A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy, grandfathering, or grandfathered in) is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases. Those exempt from the new rule ...
, which effectively disenfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. It persuaded the
Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Americ ...

Supreme Court of the United States
to rule in '' Buchanan v. Warley'' in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in '' Lochner v. New York''. It also played a role in desegregating recreational activities via the historic Bob-Lo Excursion Co. v. Michigan after plaintiff Sarah Elizabeth Ray was wrongfully discriminated against when attempting to board a ferry. In 1916, chairman Joel Spingarn invited
James Weldon Johnson James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871June 26, 1938) was an American writer and civil rights activist. He was married to civil rights activist Grace Nail Johnson. Johnson was a leader of the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored ...

James Weldon Johnson
to serve as field secretary. Johnson was a former U.S. consul to
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
and a noted African-American scholar and columnist. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. In 1920, Johnson was elected head of the organization. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the
interwar years In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War on 11 November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War on 1 September 1939. Despite the relatively short period ...
to fight the
lynching Lynching is an extrajudicial killing An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution or extralegal killing) is the homicide, killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any Judiciary, judicial proce ...

lynching
of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying, and educating the public. The organization sent its field secretary to Phillips County, Arkansas, in October 1919, to investigate the
Elaine Race Riot The Elaine massacre occurred on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas. Some records of the time state that eleven black men and five white men were killed. Estimates of deaths ...
. Roving white vigilantes killed more than 200 black tenant farmers and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of
sharecroppers Sharecropping is a legal arrangement with regard to agricultural land in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on that land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a wide range o ...
left one white man dead. White published his report on the riot in the ''Chicago Daily News''. The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. It gained a groundbreaking Supreme Court decision in '' Moore v. Dempsey'' that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. White investigated eight race riots and 41 lynchings for the NAACP and directed its study ''Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States''. The NAACP also worked for more than a decade seeking federal anti-lynching legislation, but the
Solid South The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States The southern United States, also known as the American South, the southern states, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural Li ...
of white Democrats voted as a bloc against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. Because of disenfranchisement, African Americans in the South were unable to elect representatives of their choice to office. The NAACP regularly displayed from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. It organized the first of the two 1935 New York anti-lynching exhibitions in support of the Costigan-Wagner Bill, having previously widely published an account of the Lynching of Henry Lowry, as ''An American Lynching'', in support of the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Parker (judge), John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. It organized legal support for the Scottsboro Boys. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party USA, Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the legal strategy to be pursued in that case. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. Southern state Democratic parties had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. Since the Democrats dominated southern states, the primaries were the only competitive contests. In 1944 in ''Smith v. Allwright'', the Supreme Court ruled against the white primary. Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to severely limit the franchise for blacks.


Legal Defense Fund

The board of directors of the NAACP created the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. It functioned as the NAACP legal department. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. After 1961 serious disputes emerged between the two organizations, creating considerable confusion in the eyes and minds of the public.


Desegregation

By the 1940s, the federal courts were amenable to lawsuits regarding constitutional rights, against which Congressional action was virtually impossible. With the rise of private corporate litigators such as the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation, and the public face of the Civil Rights Movement. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in ''Plessy v. Ferguson''. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 ''Murray v. Pearson'' case argued by Marshall. Houston's victory in ''Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada'' (1938) led to the formation of the Legal Defense Fund in 1939. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in ''Brown v. Board of Education'' that held state-sponsored segregation of public elementary schools was Constitutionality, unconstitutional. Bolstered by that victory, the NAACP pushed for full desegregation throughout the South. NAACP activists were excited about the judicial strategy. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a Montgomery bus boycott, bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery, Alabama. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. The boycott lasted 381 days. In 1956 the South Carolina legislature created an anti-NAACP oath, and teachers who refused to take the oath lost their positions. After twenty-one Black teachers at the Elloree Training School refused to comply, White school officials dismissed them. Their dismissal led to Bryan v. Austin in 1957, which became an important civil rights case. In Alabama, the state responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. The NAACP feared members could be fired or face violent retaliation for their activities. Although the Supreme Court eventually overturned the state's action in ''NAACP v. Alabama'', , the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC, in 1957) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, in 1960) rose up with different approaches to activism. Rather than relying on litigation and legislation, these newer groups employed direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans. Roy Wilkins, NAACP's executive director, clashed repeatedly with Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders over questions of strategy and leadership within the movement. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in ''Brown'' to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. Daisy Bates (civil rights activist), Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to racial integration, integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, Little Rock, Arkansas. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its prominence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place on August 28, 1963. That fall, President John F. Kennedy sent a civil rights bill to Congress before he was assassinated. President Lyndon B. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Under its anti-desegregation director J. Edgar Hoover, the FBI's COINTELPRO program targeted civil rights groups, including the NAACP, for infiltration, disruption and discreditation. Kivie Kaplan became NAACP President in 1966. After his death in 1975, scientist W. Montague Cobb took over until 1982. Roy Wilkins retired as executive director in 1977, and Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected his successor.


The 1990s

In the 1990s, the NAACP ran into debt. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. After such, Rupert Richardson began her term as president of the NAACP in 1992. In 1993, the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit. Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson (NAACP), William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. In 1996, Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a United States Democratic Party, Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to 50. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 United States presidential election, 2000 U.S. presidential elections. 10.5 million African Americans cast their ballots in the election; this was one million more than four years before. The NAACP's effort was credited by observers as playing a significant role in Democrat Al Gore's winning several states where the election was close, such as Pennsylvania and Michigan.


Lee Alcorn controversy

During the 2000 presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his vice-presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Does it have anything to do with the Israeli–Palestinian peace process#1996–99 agreements, failed peace talks? ... So I think we need to be very suspicious of any kind of partnerships between the Jews at that kind of level because we know that their interest primarily has to do with money and these kind of things." NAACP President Kweisi Mfume immediately suspended Alcorn and condemned his remarks. Mfume stated,
I strongly condemn those remarks. I find them to be repulsive, anti-Semitic, anti-NAACP and anti-American. Mr. Alcorn does not speak for the NAACP, its board, its staff or its membership. We are proud of our long-standing relationship with the American Jews, Jewish community and I personally will not tolerate statements that run counter to the history and beliefs of the NAACP in that regard.
Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP. He founded what he called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn criticized the NAACP, saying, "I can't support the leadership of the NAACP. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations with which I have a problem." Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. For this reason I gladly offer my resignation and my membership to the NAACP because I cannot work under these constraints." Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. Bush's rival Republican presidential campaign. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior." Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Lieberman was to be welcomed as a positive step." The leaders of the American Jewish Congress praised the NAACP for its quick response, stating that: "It will take more than one bigot like Alcorn to shake the sense of fellowship of American Jews with the NAACP and black America ... Our common concerns are too urgent, our history too long, our connection too sturdy, to let anything like this disturb our relationship."


George W. Bush

In 2004, President George W. Bush declined an invitation to speak to the NAACP's national convention. Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders. In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. You've heard the rhetoric and the names they've called me." Bush said he admired some members of the NAACP and would seek to work with them "in other ways". On July 20, 2006, Bush addressed the NAACP national convention. He made a bid for increasing support by African Americans for Republicans, in the midst of a midterm election. He referred to Republican Party support for civil rights.


Tax exempt status

In October 2004, the Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on chairman
Julian Bond Horace Julian Bond (January 14, 1940 – August 15, 2015) was an American social activist, leader of the civil rights movement#REDIRECT Civil rights movement {{Rcat shell, {{R from other capitalisation {{R from related ..., politician, p ...

Julian Bond
's speech at its 2004 Convention, in which he criticized President George W. Bush as well as other political figures. In general, the US Internal Revenue Code prohibits organizations granted tax-exempt status from "directly or indirectly participating in, or intervening in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for elective public office." The NAACP denounced the investigation as retaliation for its success in increasing the number of African Americans who were voting. In August 2006, the IRS investigation concluded with the agency's finding "that the remarks did not violate the group's tax-exempt status."


LGBT rights

As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to gain rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. While chairman of the NAACP, Bond became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians and stated his support for same-sex marriage. He boycotted the 2006 funeral services for Coretta Scott King, as he said the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. This was in contradiction to their mother's longstanding support for the rights of gay and lesbian people. In a 2005 speech in Richmond, Virginia, Bond said: :African Americans ... were the only Americans who were enslaved for two centuries, but we were far from the only Americans suffering discrimination then and now. ... Sexual disposition parallels race. I was born this way. I have no choice. I wouldn't change it if I could. Sexuality is unchangeable. In a 2007 speech on the Martin Luther King Day Celebration at Clayton State University in Morrow, Georgia, Bond said, "If you don't like gay marriage, don't get gay married." His positions have pitted elements of the NAACP against religious groups in the civil rights movement who oppose gay marriage, mostly within the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The NAACP became increasingly vocal in opposition against state-level constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage and related rights. State NAACP leaders such as William Barber II, William J. Barber II of North Carolina participated actively against North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012, but conservative voters passed it. On May 19, 2012, the NAACP's board of directors formally endorsed same-sex marriage as a civil right, voting 62–2 for the policy in a Miami, Florida quarterly meeting. Benjamin Jealous, the organization's president, said of the decision, "Civil marriage is a civil right and a matter of civil law. ... The NAACP's support for marriage equality is deeply rooted in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution and equal protection of all people." Possibly significant in the NAACP's vote was its concern with the HIV/AIDS in the United States, HIV/AIDS crisis in the black community; while AIDS support organizations recommend that people live a monogamous lifestyle, the government did not recognize same-sex relationships as part of this. As a result of this endorsement, Keith Ratliff Sr. of Des Moines, Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa, resigned from the NAACP board.


Travel warning regarding Missouri

On June 7, 2017, the NAACP issued a warning for African-American travelers to Missouri:
Individuals traveling in the state are advised to travel with extreme CAUTION. Race, gender and color based crimes have a long history in Missouri. Missouri, home of Lloyd Gaines, Dred Scott and the dubious distinction of the Missouri Compromise and one of the last states to lose its slaveholding past, may not be safe. ... [Missouri Senate Bill] SB 43 legalizes individual discrimination and harassment in Missouri and would prevent individuals from protecting themselves from discrimination, harassment, and retaliation in Missouri. Moreover, over-zealous enforcement of routine traffic violations in Missouri against African Americans has resulted in an increasing trend that shows African Americans are 75% more likely to be stopped than Caucasians.
Missouri NAACP Conference president Rod Chapel Jr., suggested that visitors to Missouri "should have Bail in the United States, bail money."


Local branch impact

The organization's national initiatives, political lobbying, and publicity efforts were handled by the headquarters staff in New York and Washington, D.C. Court strategies were developed by the legal team based for many years at Howard University. NAACP local branches have also been important. When, in its early years, the national office launched campaigns against ''The Birth of a Nation'', it was the local branches that carried out the boycotts. When the organization fought to expose and outlaw lynching, the branches carried the campaign into hundreds of communities. And while the Legal Defense Fund developed a federal court strategy of legal challenges to segregation, many branches fought discrimination using state laws and local political opportunities, sometimes winning important victories. Those victories were mostly achieved in Northern and Western states before World War II. When the Southern civil rights movement gained momentum in the 1940s and 1950s, credit went both to the Legal Defense Fund attorneys and to the massive network of local branches that Ella Baker and other organizers had spread across the region. Local organizations built a culture of black political activism.


Current activities


Youth

Youth sections of the NAACP were established in 1936; there are now more than 600 groups with a total of more than 30,000 individuals in this category. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their opinions with their peers and address local and national issues. Sometimes volunteer work expands to a more international scale.


Youth and College Division

"The mission of the NAACP Youth & College Division shall be to inform youth of the problems affecting African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities; to advance the economic, education, social and political status of African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities and their harmonious cooperation with other peoples; to stimulate an appreciation of the African Diaspora and other African Americans' contribution to civilization; and to develop an intelligent, militant effective youth leadership."


ACT-SO program

Since 1978, the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. The program is designed to recognize and award African-American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories for young people in grades 9–12. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. Winners at the national competition receive national recognition, along with cash awards and various prizes.


Environmental justice

The environmental justice group at NAACP has 11 full-time staff members. In April 2019, the NAACP published a report outlining the tactics used by the fossil fuel industry. The report claims that "Fossil fuel companies target the NAACP for manipulation and co-optation." The NAACP has been concerned about the influence of utilities which have contributed massive amounts of money to NAACP chapters in return for chapter support of non-environmentally friendly goals of utilities. In response, the NAACP has been working with its chapters to encourage them to support environmentally sound policies.


Awards

* NAACP Image Awards – honoring African-American achievements in film, television, music, and literature * NAACP Theatre Awards – honoring African-American achievements in theatre productions *
Spingarn Medal The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by an African Americans, African American. The award was created in 1914 by Joel Elias Spingarn, cha ...
– honoring general African-American achievements * Thalheimer Award – for achievements by NAACP branches and chapters * Montague Cobb Award – honoring African-American achievements in the field of health * Nathaniel Jones Award for Public Service – first awarded to public servants in 2018 * Foot Soldier In the Sands Award – awarded to attorneys who have contributed legal expertise to the NAACP on a pro bono basis * Juanita Jackson Mitchell Award for Legal Activism – awarded to a NAACP unit for "exemplary legal redress committee activities" * William Robert Ming Advocacy Award – awarded to lawyers who exemplify personal and financial sacrifice for human equality


See also

* Althea T. L. Simmons * Civil rights movement (1896–1954) * Chicago Better Housing Association * ''
The Crisis ''The Crisis'' is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, forme ...

The Crisis
'', official magazine * NAACP New Orleans Branch * NAACP Theatre Award – President's Award *
Niagara Movement The Niagara Movement (NM) was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group of activists – many of whom were among the vanguard of African-American lawyers in the United States – led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter ...
* Rachel Dolezal * Racial integration


References


Further reading

* Alexander, Shawn Leigh. ''An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle Before the NAACP.'' (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012). * Berg, Manfred. ''The Ticket to Freedom: The NAACP and the Struggle for Black Political Integration'' (Univ. Press of Florida. 2007). * Browne-Marshall, Gloria J. ''The Voting Rights War: The NAACP and the Ongoing Struggle for Justice.'' Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2016. * Bynum, Thomas L. ''NAACP: Youth and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1936–1965.'' Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2013. * Carle, Susan D. ''Defining the Struggle: National Racial Justice Organizing, 1880–1915'' (Oxford UP, 2013). 404pp. focus on NAACP. * Dalfiume, Richard. "The Forgotten Years of the Negro Revolution," ''Journal of American History'' 55 (June 1969): 99–100. fulltext in JSTOR * Fleming, Cynthia Griggs. ''In the Shadow of Selma: The Continuing Struggle for Civil Rights in the Rural South.'' Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004. * Francis, Megan Ming. 2014. "doi:10.1017/CBO9781139583749.002, The Birth of the NAACP, Mob Violence, and the Challenge of Public Opinion." in ''The Birth of the NAACP, Mob Violence, and the Challenge of Public Opinion''. Cambridge University Press. *Goings, Kenneth W. ''The NAACP Comes of Age: The Defeat of Judge John J. Parker.'' (1990). * Hughes, Langston. ''Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP.'' (1962) * Janken, Kenneth Robert. ''White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP.'' New York: The New Press, 2003. * Jonas, Gilbert S. ''Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909–1969.'' London: Routledge, 2005. * Kellogg, Charles Flint. ''NAACP: A History of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.'' Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967. * David Levering Lewis, Lewis, David Levering. ''W.E.B. DuBois.'' In Two Volumes. (W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919, 1994, W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919–1963, 2001). * * Murphy, Walter F. "The South Counterattacks: The Anti-NAACP Laws." ''Western Political Quarterly'' 12.2 (1959): 371–390
online
* Reed, Christopher Robert. ''The Chicago NAACP and the Rise of Black Professional Leadership, 1910–1966.'' Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. * Ring, Natalie J. "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" in ''Encyclopedia of American Studies'', ed. Simon J. Bronner (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015)
online
* Ross, Barbara Joyce. ''J. E. Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911–1939.'' (1972) * Ryan, Yvonne. ''Roy Wilkins: The Quiet Revolutionary and the NAACP.'' Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2014. * Sartain, Lee. ''Borders of Equality: The NAACP and the Baltimore Civil Rights Struggle, 1914–1970.'' Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2013. * Sartain, Lee. ''Invisible Activists: Women of the Louisiana NAACP and the Struggle for Civil Rights, 1915–1945.'' Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. Press 2007. * St. James, Warren D. ''The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups.'' (1958) * Schneider, Mark Robert. ''We Return Fighting: The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age.'' Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 2001. * Sullivan, Patricia. ''Lift Every Voice: The NAACP and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement.'' New York: The New Press, 2010. * * Topping, Simon; "'Supporting Our Friends and Defeating Our Enemies': Militancy and Nonpartisanship in the NAACP, 1936–1948," ''Journal of African American History'', Vol. 89, 200
in JSTOR
* Tushnet, Mark V. ''The NAACP's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925–1950.'' Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1987. * Wedin, Carolyn. ''Inheritors of the Spirit: Mary White Ovington and the Founding of the NAACP.'' Wiley 1998. * Woodley, Jenny. ''Art for Equality: The NAACP's Cultural Campaign for Civil Rights.'' Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2014. * Verney, Kevern and Lee Sartain (eds.), ''Long Is the Way and Hard: One Hundred Years of the NAACP.'' (2009). * Zangrando, Robert. ''The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909–1950.'' Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.


External links

*
NAACP History and Geography

Map of NAACP branches

Civil Rights Movement Archive
crmvet.org


Official site of the Brooklyn, New York Branch
brooklynnaacp.org
NAACP in Georgia
georgiaencyclopedia.org
President Obama NAACP Speech: "Your Destiny Is In Your Hands … No Excuses"
– video by ''The Huffington Post''
NAACP Turns 100: The History and Future of the Nation's Oldest and Largest Civil Rights Organization
democracywow.org video
FBI file on the NAACPInterview with W. C. Patton, retired director of the NAACP Voter Education Department and Mr. Joseph Madison, current director of the Voter Education Department (NAACP)
1984-11-01, In Black America; KUT, KUT Radio, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH Educational Foundation, WGBH and the Library of Congress)


Archives


Overview of NAACP records
at the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or electronic ...

Library of Congress
, the official repository of the national organization
NAACP branches database
including membership numbers and officer names. From the Mapping American Social Movements project at the University of Washington.

Du Bois Papers, Special Collections and University Archives, Umass Amherst
''Who Speaks for the Negro'' Vanderbilt documentary website

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. 1940–1982
at The Bancroft Library
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region I, Records, 1942–1986 (bulk 1945–1977)
at The Bancroft Library
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Vancouver Branch records
1914–1967. 2.10 cubic feet (5 boxes). At th
Labor Archives of Washington, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections

NAACP Convention in Atlanta
Civil Rights Digital Library.
“NAACP Highlights. 1979 NAACP Convention Coverage,”
1979-06, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Award, Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting {{authority control NAACP, 1909 establishments in the United States African-American organizations Civil liberties advocacy groups in the United States Civil rights movement Nonpartisan organizations in the United States Organizations based in Baltimore Organizations established in 1909 Black elite