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Diwan Bahadur Sir Narasimha Gopalaswami Ayyangar (31 March 1882 – 10 February 1953) was an Indian civil servant and statesman, who served as the Prime Minister of the princely state of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
and later a minister in the first cabinet of independent India. He was a member of the drafting committee of the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...

Constitution of India
, the leader of the
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Huma ...

Rajya Sabha
, a '
minister without portfolio A minister without portfolio is either a government minister A minister is a politician who heads a ministry (government department), ministry, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some juris ...
' looking after Kashmir Affairs, and the Minister for Railways. In his Kashmir Affairs role, he represented India at the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...
and later drafted the
Article 370 Article 370 of the Indian constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest ci ...
of the Indian Constitution that granted autonomy to
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
.


Early life and education

Gopalaswami Ayyangar was born on 31 March 1882 in Tanjore District
Madras Presidency The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, also known as Madras Province, was an Presidencies and provinces of British India, administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India. At its greatest extent, the presidency inc ...
. He studied at th
Wesley School
and at the Presidency and Law Colleges in
Madras Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...
, whereafter, for a short period in 1904, he was an Assistant Professor in
Pachaiyappa's College Pachaiyappa's College is one of the oldest educational institutions in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states a ...
.


Career

In 1905, Ayyangar joined the Madras Civil Service. He served as a Deputy Collector till 1919, and was promoted Collector and District Magistrate in 1920. He was the Registrar-General of Panchayats and Inspector of Local Boards for seven years from 1921. During this time many villages
panchayats The Panchayat raj (''panchayat'' "village council", ''wikt:raj, raj'' "rule") is a political system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Panchayat (Nepal), Nepal. It is the old ...
were organized in the districts of
Ramnad Ramanathapuram (), also known as Ramnad, is a town and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...
and
Guntur Guntur () is a city and the administrative headquarters of Guntur district Guntur district is one of the nine districts in the Coastal Andhra Coastal Andhra (') is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It was part of Madra ...

Guntur
. Then for three years, he was Collector and District Magistrate in
Anantapur Anantapur, officially Anantapuramu, is a city in Anantapur district of the Indian state India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, ...
. Following that he was Inspector of Municipal Councils and Local Boards till 1932. Mr. Ayyangar served as Secretary to Government in the Public Works Department from 1932 to 1934. Finally, he served as a member of the Board of Revenue until 1937. The second phase of his career was devoted to politics. He was Prime Minister of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
from 1937-1943 and was appointed Council of State from 1943-1947. During that time he was Chairman of the Committee for the Indianisation of Army. From 1947-1948 he served as Minister without Portfolio in the first cabinet under
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian Anti-colonial nationalism, anti-colonial nationalist, secular humanist, social democrat, and author who was a central figure in India during the middle third o ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
. This was followed by his sojourn as Minister of Railways and Transport from 1948-1952, and finally, he served as Defence Minister from 1952-1953.


Prime Minister of Kashmir (1937-1943)

Ayyangar's political career gained prominence during his tenure as Prime Minister of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
(1937–43).


Government of India


Constituent Assembly of India

In 1946, Ayyangar was elected to the
Constituent Assembly of India The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to frame the Constitution of India. It was elected by the 'Provincial Assembly'. Following India's independence from British Government in 1947, its members served as the nation's first Parliament. ...
, which convened in December 1946 with
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian Anti-colonial nationalism, anti-colonial nationalist, secular humanist, social democrat, and author who was a central figure in India during the middle third o ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
as its president. Ayyangar was appointed to the thirteen-member Drafting Committee that formulated the Indian Constitution.N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar
Constituent Assembly Debates web site, retrieved 4 January 2018.


Kashmir affairs

Soon after the
accession Accession refers to the general idea of joining or adding to. It may also refer to: *Accession (property law) * Accession, the act of joining a treaty by a party that did not take part in its negotiations; see Vienna Convention on the Law of Treati ...
of Jammu and Kashmir in October 1947, Nehru appointed Ayyangar as a cabinet
minister without portfolio A minister without portfolio is either a government minister A minister is a politician who heads a ministry (government department), ministry, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some juris ...
and asked him to look after Kashmir affairs, while Nehru himself held the overall charge for Kashmir. The move caused frictions with the home minister
Vallabhbhai Patel Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (; ; 31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), endeared as Sardar, was an Indian statesman. He served as the first deputy Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1950. He was a barrister and a senior leader of the Indian ...
, who should have normally been responsible for Kashmir along with all other princely states. Ayyangar led the delegation representing India in the United Nations over the
Kashmir dispute The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict over the Kashmir region, primarily between India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by p ...
in 1948. In 1952, Prime Minister Nehru appointed him as India's representative in the ongoing negotiations and discussions about Kashmir at the Geneva talks. Ayyangar was the chief drafter of Article 370 which granted local autonomy to the state of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
.Thalpiyal, Sheru, Maj. Gen.
"Article 370: The Untold Story."
''Indian Defence Review'' 26.1, 2011


Minister of Railways and Transport

During his tenure as Minister for Railways and Transport from 1948–52, the railways experienced considerable growth and expansion in services and equipment. He was the main architect in the regrouping of the Indian Railways into six zonal systems - Central, Eastern, Northern, North-eastern, Southern, and Western. Under his leadership, the operation of the railways was smooth and productive. The railway budget also reported surplus earnings at this time.


Reorganization of Government

In 1949, he presented his report on the "Reorganization of the Government Machinery" in an effort to streamline government services and maintain efficiency in the public sphere. He recommended the establishment of four standing committees, and, as a result of this report, the Defence Committee, the Economic Committee, the Parliamentary and Legal Affairs Committee, and the Administrative Organization Committee were formed by the Union government.


Death

Ayyangar died in Madras at the age of 71 on 10 February 1953, and was survived by his wife, a son, G. Parthasarathy, who was then Assistant Editor of ''
The Hindu ''The Hindu'' is an English-language, India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and ...

The Hindu
'', and a daughter.


Honors

A distinguished administrator and a civil servant, Ayyangar held seven titles until 1947 including the title of Diwan Bahadur, the highest title awarded by a British viceroy. Other titles conferred on him by the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
government were a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in the 1935 Silver Jubilee and Birthday Honours list, a Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) in the 1937 Coronation Honours list and a knighthood in 1941 New Year Honours list.London Gazette, 1 January 1941
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References


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Ayyangar, N. Gopalaswami Tamil civil servants Members of the Constituent Assembly of India Indian knights Knights Bachelor Companions of the Order of the Star of India Companions of the Order of the Indian Empire People of the Kashmir conflict 1882 births 1953 deaths Politicians from Chennai Permanent Representatives of India to the United Nations Rajya Sabha members from Tamil Nadu Dewan Bahadurs Chief Ministers of Jammu and Kashmir Railway Ministers of India Defence Ministers of India Members of the Cabinet of India