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Milas ( grc, Μύλασα, Mylasa) is an ancient city and the seat of the district of the same name in
Muğla Province Muğla Province ( tr, , ) is a Provinces of Turkey, province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz, Marm ...
in southwestern
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. The city commands a region with an active economy and very rich in history and ancient remains, the territory of Milas containing a remarkable twenty-seven
archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote ...

archaeological
sites of note. The city was the first capital of ancient
Caria Caria (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

Caria
and of the
Anatolian beylik Anatolian beyliks ( tr, Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turkish: ''Tavâif-i mülûk'', ''Beylik'' ) were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of t ...
of Menteşe in
mediaeval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Rom ...
times. The nearby Mausoleum of
Hecatomnus Hecatomnus of Mylasa or Hekatomnos ( el, Ἑκατόμνος, Carian: 𐊴𐊭𐊪𐊵𐊫 ''k̂tmno'' “under-son, descendant(?)”) was an early 4th-century BC ruler of Caria Caria (; from Greek language, Greek: Καρία, ''Karia'', tr, ...
is classified as a tentative
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Milas is focused on
agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching tele ...

agricultural
and aquacultural processing, related industrial activities, services, transportation (particularly since the opening of Milas-Bodrum Airport),
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
and culture. The centre lies about 20 km from the coast and is closer to the airport than
Bodrum Bodrum () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, sever ...

Bodrum
itself, with many late arrival passengers of the high season increasingly opting to stay in Milas rather than in Bodrum where accommodation is likely to be difficult to find. Milas district covers a total area of 2167 km2 and this area follows a total coastline length of 150 km, both to the north-west in the Gulf of Güllük and to the south along the
Gulf of Gökova Gulf of Gökova ( tr, Gökova Körfezi) or Gulf of Kerme ( Turkish: Kerme Körfezi, Greek: Κεραμεικός κόλπος, Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European ...

Gulf of Gökova
, and to these should be added the shores of
Lake Bafa Lake Bafa ( tr, Bafa Gölü) also known as Lake Çamiçi ( tr, Çamiçi Gölü) and in earlier times the Vafi Sea ( tr, Vafi Denizi) is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any riv ...

Lake Bafa
in the north divided between the district area of Milas and that of
Aydın Aydın ( ''EYE-din''; ; formerly named ''Güzelhisar''), Ancient and Modern Greek Τράλλεις /''Tralleis/,'' is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province Aydın Province ( tr, ) is a province of southwestern Turkey Turkey ( tr ...
district of
Söke Söke is a town and a large district of Aydın Province in the Aegean region of western Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders w ...
. Along with the province seat of
Muğla Muğla (), formerly Mobolla (), is a city in south-western Turkey. The city is the center of the District of Districts of Turkey, Menteşe and Muğla Province, which stretches along Turkey's Aegean Sea, Aegean coast. Muğla's center is situated ...
and the province's southernmost district of
Fethiye Fethiye (), formerly Makri (), is a city and Districts of Turkey, district of Muğla Province in the Aegean Region, Turkey, Aegean Regions of Turkey, Region of Turkey. It is one of the prominent tourist destinations in the Turkish Riviera. In 201 ...

Fethiye
, Milas is among the prominent settlements of south-west Turkey, these three centers being on a par with each other in terms of all-year population and the area their depending districts cover. Five townships have their own municipalities, and a total of 114 villages depend on Milas, distinguishing the district with a record number of dependent settlements for a very wide surrounding region. Milas center is situated on a fertile plain at the foot of Mount Sodra, on and around which sizable quarries of white
marble Marble is a metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic representation of ...

marble
are found and have been used since very ancient times.


Etymology

The name ''Mylasa'', with the old
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
n ending in -asa is evidence of very early foundation. On the basis of the ''-mil'' syllable found also in the name the
Lycians Lycians is the name of various peoples who lived, at different times, in Lycia Lycia (Lycian language, Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the Pro ...
called themselves ''Trmili'', a theory connects the name of Mylasa with the passage of the Lycians from
Miletus Miletus (; gr, Μῑ́λητος, Mīlētos; Hittite language, Hittite transcription ''Millawanda'' or ''Milawata'' (Exonym and endonym, exonyms); la, Miletus; tr, Milet) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek city on the western coast of Ana ...
, also claimed to be a Lycian foundation under the name Millawanda by
Ephorus Ephorus of Cyme (; grc-gre, Ἔφορος ὁ Κυμαῖος, ''Ephoros ho Kymaios''; c. 400330 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, ...
, to their final home in the south. But there is nothing else to suggest a Lycian origin for the name Mylasa.
Stephanus of Byzantium Stephanus or Stephan of Byzantium ( la, Stephanus Byzantinus; grc-gre, Στέφανος Βυζάντιος, ''Stéphanos Byzántios''; centuryAD), was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byza ...

Stephanus of Byzantium
in his ''Ethnica'' says that the city took its name from a certain Mylasus, son of
Chrysaor In Greek mythology, Chrysaor ( el, Χρυσάωρ, ''Chrysáor'', ''gen''.: Χρυσάορος, ''Chrysáoros''; English translation: "He who has a golden sword" (from χρυσός, "golden" and ἄορ, "sword")), the brother of the winged hor ...
and a descendant of
Sisyphus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature o ...

Sisyphus
and Aeolus, an explanation some sources deem unsubstantial for a Carian city.


History

The city's earliest historical mention is at the beginning of the 7th century BC, when a
Carian The Carian language is an extinct language of the Luwian subgroup of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures ...
leader from Mylasa by name Arselis is recorded to have helped
Gyges of Lydia Gyges (, ; Lydian language, Lydian: ; akk, , ; grc, wikt:Γύγης, Γύγης ; reigned c. 680-644 BCE) was the founder of the List of kings of Lydia#Mermnadae, Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings. He was a bodyguard of his predecessor Candau ...
in his contest for the
Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or acoustic scale, a musica ...
throne. The same episode is at the origin of the accounts surrounding the beginning of the cult for and the erection of the statue of Labrandean Zeus in the neighboring sanctuary of
Labranda
Labranda
, held sacred by peoples across western Anatolia, with the statue holding the
labrys ''Labrys'' ( gr, λάβρυς, lábrus) is, according to Plutarch (''Quaestiones Graecae'' 2.302a), the Lydian language, Lydian word for the Axe#Parts of the axe, double-bitted axe. (in Greek it was called , ''pélekus''). The Ancient Greek plu ...
brought over by Arselis from
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
. Labrandean Zeus (''sometimes also named "Zeus Stratios"'') was one of the three deities proper to Mylasa, all named Zeus but each bearing indigenous characteristics. Of these, the cult of Zeus Carius (''Carian Zeus'') was also notable in being exclusively reserved, aside from the Carians, to their Lydian and
MysianImage:Mysia map ancient community.jpg, 200px, Land of the Mysians, who were at the origin of the historic name of the region (''Mysia'') in northwest Anatolia Mysians ( la, Mysi, grc, Μυσοί) were the inhabitants of Mysia, a region in northwe ...
kinsmen. One of the finest temples was also the one dedicated to Zeus Osogoa (originally, just ''Osogoa''),


Persian period

Under
Achaemenid The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subj ...
rule Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. A ruler appointed by the
Persian Emperor This article lists the monarchs of Persia (Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to t ...
(
satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Medes, Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to ...
) ruled the city in varying degrees of allegiance to the emperor. The first dynasty of ruler under the Achaemenid Empire was the
Lygdamid dynasty The Lygdamid dynasty ( BCE) was a dynasty of tyrants in the region of Caria Caria (; from Greek language, Greek: Καρία, ''Karia'', tr, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia ...
(520-450 BCE). Between 460-450 BC, Mylasa was a regionally prominent member of the
Delian League The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, ...
, like most Carian cities, but the Persian rule was restored towards the end of the same century.


Hecatomnid dynasty

The
Hecatomnids The Hecatomnid dynasty or Hecatomnids were the rulers of Caria and surrounding areas from about 395–334 BCE, after Caria had left the Athenian alliance called the Delian League and returned under the control of the Achaemenid Empire. Before tha ...
, the dynasty founded by
Hecatomnus Hecatomnus of Mylasa or Hekatomnos ( el, Ἑκατόμνος, Carian: 𐊴𐊭𐊪𐊵𐊫 ''k̂tmno'' “under-son, descendant(?)”) was an early 4th-century BC ruler of Caria Caria (; from Greek language, Greek: Καρία, ''Karia'', tr, ...
, were officially
satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Medes, Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to ...
s of the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...
but Greek in language and culture, as their inscriptions and coins witness. Mylasa was their capital and the mausoleum of Hecatomnus can still be seen today which served as an architectural precedent from which the later mausolea of the dynasty developed. During the long and striking reign of
Mausolus Mausolus ( el, Μαύσωλος or Μαύσσωλλος, Carian language, Carian: 𐊠𐊸𐊫𐊦 ''Mauśoλ'' “much blessed”) was a ruler of Caria (377–353 BC), nominally a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire. He enjoyed the status o ...

Mausolus
, they became virtual rulers of
Caria Caria (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

Caria
and of a sizable surrounding region between 377-352 BC. During Mausolus's reign the capital was moved to
Halicarnassus Halicarnassus (; grc, Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός ''Halikarnāssós'' or ''Alikarnāssós''; tr, Halikarnas; : 𐊠𐊣𐊫𐊰 𐊴𐊠𐊥𐊵𐊫𐊰 ''alos k̂arnos'') was an city in , in . It was located in southwest , on an advantageous ...
, but Mylasa retained its importance. Mausolus was the builder of the famous
Ancient Wonder of the World
Ancient Wonder of the World
, the
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus ( grc, Μαυσωλεῖον τῆς Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ; tr, Halikarnas Mozolesi) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC in Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a n ...
.


Roman period

In 40 BCE Mylasa suffered great damage when it was taken by
Labienus Titus Labienus (c. 10017 March 45 BC) was a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic. He served as tribune of the Plebs Tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people or plebeian tribune ( la, tribunus plebis) was the first offi ...
in the
Roman Civil War This is a list of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazi ...
. In the Greco-Roman period, though the city was contested among the successors of Alexander, it enjoyed a season of brilliant prosperity, and the three neighbouring towns of
Euromus Euromus or Euromos ( grc, Εὔρωμος and Εὔροωμος) – also, Europus or Europos (Εὐρωπός), Eunomus or Eunomos (Εὔνωμος), Philippi or Philippoi (Φίλιπποι); earlier Kyromus and Hyromus – was an ancient ...
, Olymos and
Labranda
Labranda
were included within its limits. Mylasa is frequently mentioned by ancient writers. At the time of Strabo (the first century BCE), the city boasted two remarkable orators, Euthydemos (in Greek Εὐθύδημος) and Hybreas (Ὑβρέας), whose relationship gave rise to the adage "necessary evil." Euthydemos and Hybreas were antagonistic politicians, and when Euthydemos died, Hybreas spoke at his funeral, where he noted, ”You are a necessary evil: we can live neither with you nor without you." Various inscriptions tell us that the
Phrygia In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related ...
n cults were represented here by the worship of
Sabazios 200px, Bronze hand used in the worship of Sabazios (British Museum). Roman 1st–2nd century CE. Hands decorated with religious symbols were designed to stand in sanctuaries or, like this one, were attached to poles for processional use. Another si ...
; the Egyptian, by that of
Isis Isis (; ''Ēse''; ; Meroitic language, Meroitic: ''Wos'' 'a''or ''Wusa'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. Isis was first mentioned in the Ol ...

Isis
and
Osiris Osiris (, from Egyptian ''wsjr'', Coptic ) is the god In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne ...

Osiris
. There was also a temple of
Nemesis In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult pract ...
. An inscription from Mylasa provided one of the few certain data about the life of
Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historiography, Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age ...
, identifying him as governor of
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...
in 112-13.


Christian era

Among the ancient
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
s of Mylasa was
Saint Ephrem Ephrem the Syrian ( syc, ܡܪܝ ܐܦܪܝܡ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ, Mār ʾAp̄rêm Sūryāyā, ; grc-koi, Ἐφραίμ ὁ Σῦρος, Efrém o Sýros; la, Ephraem Syrus; c. 306 – 373), also known as Saint Ephrem, Ephrem of Edessa or Aprem of Nisib ...
(fifth century), whose feast was kept on January 23, and whose relics were venerated in neighbouring city of Leuke. Cyril and his successor, Paul, are mentioned by Nicephorus Callistus and in the ''Life of Saint Xene''.
Michel Le Quien Michel Le Quien (8 October 1661, Boulogne-sur-Mer – 12 March 1733, Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,1 ...
mentioned the names of three other bishops, and since his time the inscriptions discovered refer to two others, one anonymous, the other named Basil, who built a church in honour of
Saint Stephen Stephen ( grc-gre, Στέφανος ''Stéphanos'', meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", often given as a title rather than as a name; he, סטפנוס הקדוש, ''Stephanos HaQadosh''; c. 5 – c. 34 AD), ...
. The
Saint Xene
Saint Xene
referred to above was a Roman noblewoman who, to escape the marriage which her parents wished to force upon her, donned male attire, left her country, changed her name from Eusebia to Xene ("stranger"), and lived first on the island of
Cos
Cos
, then at Mylasa. Since the
Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Roman Catholic Church, Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Islam, Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first defeating th ...
, Mylasa has remained a
titular see A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see The seat or ''cathedra'' of the Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdi ...
of the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
, ''Mylasensis''; the seat has been vacant since the death of the last bishop in 1966.


Turkish era


Beys of Menteşe

Milas and the surrounding region (the Byzantine
theme Theme or themes may refer to: * Theme (arts) In contemporary literary studies Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated eleme ...
of
Mylasa and MelanoudionThe Theme of Mylasa and Melanoudion ( el, θέμα Μυλά ης και Μελανουδίου) was a Byzantine province (''Theme (Byzantine district), thema'') in southwestern Asia Minor (modern Turkey) in the 12th and 13th centuries. It is fi ...
) was taken over by the Turks under the command of Menteşe Bey in the late thirteenth century, who gave his name to the beylik ( Menteşe) that established its capital in the city. The administrative center of his descendants was the castle of
BeçinBeçin (also known as Berçin or Peçin) was a historical fort in Turkey. Geography Beçin is situated on a low hill just south west of a modern village bearing the same name, in Milas ilçe (district center) of Muğla Province at . Its distance to ...
located in the contemporary dependant township of the same name at a distance of from Milas and which was easier to defend.


Ottoman rule

Milas, together with the entire
Bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic Turkic may refer to: ...
lik of Menteşe was taken over by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
in 1390. However, just twelve years later,
Tamerlane Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of ...

Tamerlane
and his forces overcame the Ottomans in the
Battle of Ankara The Battle of Ankara or Angora was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, centra ...

Battle of Ankara
, and returned control of this region to its former rulers, the Menteşe
Bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic Turkic may refer to: ...
s, as he did for other
Anatolian beyliks Anatolian beyliks ( tr, Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used in the Otto ...
. Milas was brought back under Ottoman control, this time in 1420 by the Sultan
Mehmed I Mehmed I (1389 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi ( ota, چلبی محمد, "the noble-born") or Kirişçi ( el, Κυριτζής, Kyritzis, "lord's son"), was the Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine give ...

Mehmed I
. One of the first acts of the Ottomans was to transfer the regional administrative seat to
Muğla Muğla (), formerly Mobolla (), is a city in south-western Turkey. The city is the center of the District of Districts of Turkey, Menteşe and Muğla Province, which stretches along Turkey's Aegean Sea, Aegean coast. Muğla's center is situated ...
. At the turn of the twentieth century, according to 1912 figures, Milas' urban center had a population of 9,000, of whom some 2,900 were
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
, a thousand or so
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jew
ish, and the remaining majority were
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
. The Greeks of Milas were exchanged with Turks living in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
under the 1923 agreement for the exchange of Greek and Turkish populations between the two countries, while the sizable Jewish community remained as a presence till the 1950s, at which time they emigrated to
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
; Jews formerly of Milas still visit frequently to this day.


Sights of interest

The Mausoleum of Hecatomnus was discovered in 2010 when men were arrested for illegal digging for antiquities. A marble sarcophagus and numerous frescoes were discovered in the tomb, although it was believed many relics had already been taken from the tomb and sold on the black market. Recently a golden crown from the tomb has been identified and agreed to be returned to Turkey.Golden crown of Hecatomnus to be returned to Turkey: https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2017/12/golden-crown-of-hecatomnus-to-be.html#H4j4Ai1DMFq2gekO.99 The tomb is very important for understanding of Carian art and craftsmanship as it was built by their best architects and sculptors and was a predecessor of the magnificent
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus ( grc, Μαυσωλεῖον τῆς Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ; tr, Halikarnas Mozolesi) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC in Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a n ...
. The walls surrounding the ''
temenos A ''temenos'' (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
'' of one of the temples dedicated to one of the
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
(''probably Zeus Osogoa'' and built in the first century BC) are still visible, as well as a row of columns. The eighteenth-century English traveller
Richard Pococke Richard Pococke (19 November 1704 – 25 September 1765)''Notes and Queries'', p. 129. was an English-born churchman, inveterate traveller and travel writer. He was the Bishop of Ossory (1756–65) and Meath (1765), both dioceses of the Church ...

Richard Pococke
relates, in his ''Travels'', having seen the temple of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
here; its materials have since partially been taken by Turks to build a
mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Salah, Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, w ...

mosque
. One of the two ancient symbols of the town is "Baltalıkapı" (''Gate with an axe''), a well-preserved
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
gate called as due to the eponymous double-headed axe (
labrys ''Labrys'' ( gr, λάβρυς, lábrus) is, according to Plutarch (''Quaestiones Graecae'' 2.302a), the Lydian language, Lydian word for the Axe#Parts of the axe, double-bitted axe. (in Greek it was called , ''pélekus''). The Ancient Greek plu ...
) carved into a keystone. There is also a two-storied monumental Roman tomb dating from the 2nd century AD, called "Gümüşkesen" today and which gives its name to a whole quarter of Milas, and referred to as "Dystega" in some dated sources. This monument is most likely a simplified copy of the famous tomb of
Mausolus Mausolus ( el, Μαύσωλος or Μαύσσωλλος, Carian language, Carian: 𐊠𐊸𐊫𐊦 ''Mauśoλ'' “much blessed”) was a ruler of Caria (377–353 BC), nominally a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire. He enjoyed the status o ...

Mausolus
in
Halicarnassus Halicarnassus (; grc, Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός ''Halikarnāssós'' or ''Alikarnāssós''; tr, Halikarnas; : 𐊠𐊣𐊫𐊰 𐊴𐊠𐊥𐊵𐊫𐊰 ''alos k̂arnos'') was an city in , in . It was located in southwest , on an advantageous ...
. There are a number of historical Turkish buildings in Milas, dating from both the Menteşe and the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
periods. A number of old houses built in the nineteenth or early twentieth century that have been preserved in their original appearance are also worthy of mention. Among the three most important mosques of Milas, The Great Mosque dating from 1378 and Orhan Bey Mosque dating from 1330 were built when Milas was the capital of the Turkish principality of Menteşe. The slightly more imposing Firuz Bey Mosque was built shortly the first incorporation of Milas into the Ottoman Empire and bears the name of the city's first Ottoman administrator. Milas carpets and rugs woven of wool have been internationally famous for centuries and bear typical features. In our day, they are no longer produced in the city of Milas, but rather in a dozen villages around Milas. For the whole territory of Milas district, up to 7000 weavers'
loom A loom is a device used to weaving, weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the Warp (weaving), warp threads under tension (mechanics), tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape o ...

loom
s remain active, either full-time or at intervals following the demand, which remains quite lively both in Turkey and abroad.
BeçinBeçin (also known as Berçin or Peçin) was a historical fort in Turkey. Geography Beçin is situated on a low hill just south west of a modern village bearing the same name, in Milas ilçe (district center) of Muğla Province at . Its distance to ...
Castle, the capital of Menteşe Beys, is situated at the dependent township of Beçin, at a distance of 5 kilometers from Milas city. The fortress has been restored in 1974, and the compound includes two
mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Salah, Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, w ...

mosque
s, two ''
medrese Madrasa (, also , ; Arabic: مدرسة , Plural, pl. , ) is the Arabs, Arabic word for any Educational institution, type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning. Th ...
s,'' a ''
hamam A hammam ( ar, حمّام, translit=ḥammām, tr, hamam) or Turkish bath is a type of steam bath or a place of public bathing associated with the Islamic world. It is a prominent feature in the Islamic culture, culture of the Muslim world and w ...
,'' the remains of a
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
chapel A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and worship that is usually relatively small. The term has several meanings. Firstly, smaller spaces inside a church that have their own altar are often called chapels; the Lady chapel is a common type ...

chapel
as well as traces from earlier periods. At a distance of 14 km. from Milas center, set on a steep hillside and surrounded by pine forests is the ancient Carian cult center of
Labranda
Labranda
, its name echoing once again the eponymous tradition of labrys. The ruins, including a temple, banqueting halls and tombs, were excavated by a
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...

Swedish
team in early 20th century, as well as the views over the valley, attract the interest of rather few adventurous visitors prepared for the climb. Gökçeler Canyon and İncirliin Cave inside the canyon are visitor attractions.


Notable people from Milas

*
Hecatomnus Hecatomnus of Mylasa or Hekatomnos ( el, Ἑκατόμνος, Carian: 𐊴𐊭𐊪𐊵𐊫 ''k̂tmno'' “under-son, descendant(?)”) was an early 4th-century BC ruler of Caria Caria (; from Greek language, Greek: Καρία, ''Karia'', tr, ...
; Founder of the Hecatomnid dynasty, *
Mausolus Mausolus ( el, Μαύσωλος or Μαύσσωλλος, Carian language, Carian: 𐊠𐊸𐊫𐊦 ''Mauśoλ'' “much blessed”) was a ruler of Caria (377–353 BC), nominally a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire. He enjoyed the status o ...

Mausolus
; Satrap of the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...
, virtual ruler of
Caria Caria (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

Caria
between 377-352 BC, builder of the famous Mausoleum of
Halicarnassus Halicarnassus (; grc, Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός ''Halikarnāssós'' or ''Alikarnāssós''; tr, Halikarnas; : 𐊠𐊣𐊫𐊰 𐊴𐊠𐊥𐊵𐊫𐊰 ''alos k̂arnos'') was an city in , in . It was located in southwest , on an advantageous ...
. * Rabbi Albert Jean Amateau: U.S. Sephardi Jews, Sephardic Jew community leader and social activist. * Turhan Selçuk: Turkish cartoonist. Creator of the fictional character Abdülcanbaz and the homonymous serial comics.


Picture gallery

File:48220_Kultak-Milas-Muğla,_Turkey_-_panoramio_(2).jpg, Kutlak Milas File:Milas Baltalı Kapı 4967.jpg, Milas Baltalı Kapı Axe File:Milas Chimney 4938.jpg, Milas Chimney File:Typical chimney Milas Turkey.jpg, Typical chimneys of local style File:Milas Cultural Centre 3512.jpg, Milas Cultural Centre File:Milas Ulu Camii 5013.jpg, Milas Ulu Camii File:Milas Ulu Camii 5012.jpg, Milas Ulu Camii Script above entrance File:Milas Firuz Paşa Camii 5205.jpg, Milas Firuz Paşa Camii From garden File:Milas Firuz Paşa Camii 5209.jpg, Milas Firuz Paşa Camii Front File:Milas Firuz Paşa Camii 5211.jpg, Milas Firuz Paşa Camii Main entrance File:Milas Aga Mosque 4945.jpg, Milas Aga Mosque File:Milas Belen Camii 4922.jpg, Milas Belen Camii File:Milas Belen Camii 4924.jpg, Milas Belen Camii Kitabe File:Milas Zeus Karios Temple 5201.jpg, Milas Zeus Karios Temple File:Milas Gumuskesen 4845.jpg, Gümüşkesen File:Milas Gumuskesen 024.jpg, Gümüşkesen detail of ceiling


See also

*
Labranda
Labranda
* Milas carpet *
Lake Bafa Lake Bafa ( tr, Bafa Gölü) also known as Lake Çamiçi ( tr, Çamiçi Gölü) and in earlier times the Vafi Sea ( tr, Vafi Denizi) is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any riv ...

Lake Bafa
* Milas-Bodrum Airport * List of ancient Greek cities


Footnotes


External links


Milas
* {{Authority control Milas, Populated places in Muğla Province Populated places in ancient Caria Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey Roman sites in Turkey Catholic titular sees in Asia, Mylasa Turkish Riviera Jewish communities in Turkey Districts of Muğla Province