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The Mường () are an ethnic group native to
northern Vietnam Northern Vietnam ( vi, Bắc Bộ) is one of three geographical regions within Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spell ...
. The Muong is the country's third largest of 53 minority groups, with an estimated population of 1.45 million (according to the 2019 census). The Muong people inhabit the mountainous region of northern
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, concentrated in
Hòa Bình Province Hòa Bình or Hoà Bình () is a mountainous province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative ...
and the mountainous districts of
Thanh Hóa Province Thanh Hóa () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire' ...
. They are most closely related to the
ethnic Vietnamese Kinh people or Vietnamese people (Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese: , Chữ Nôm: 𠊛京) are an ethnic group native to Northern Vietnam and Southern China in Southeast Asia. The native language is Vietnamese language, Vietnamese the most wide ...

ethnic Vietnamese
(Kinh).


Etymology

The word Mường in
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
is etymologically related to the word from the
Tai languages Tai or TAI may refer to: Arts and entertainment *Tai (comics) Tai is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. A Cambodian, Tai was something of a mentor for the New Warriors in the first 25 issues of ...
, meaning "cultivated land" or "community", and referred to pre-modern semi-independent
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...
s or
principalities A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political l ...
in
mainland Southeast Asia Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula or Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is ...

mainland Southeast Asia
. This comes from their close association with the
Tai peoples Tai people refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language. There are a total of about 93 million people of Tai ancestry worldwide, with the largest eth ...
. The Muong call the Tai as ɲew, Nyo or Âu, while referring to themselves by various names, such as "Monglong", which means "people living in the center", to distinguish themselves from the people of the valleys and of the highlands. In Hoa Binh, They call themselves or . In Thanh Hoa, they call themselves or In Phú Thọ Province, they call themselves or . Sometimes written as ''Mal'', ''Mwal'' or ''Mwai''. These words are all variations on the Muong word for "people".


Economic Features

The Muong residents primarily grow wet rice and some of them also grow corn, cassava. Breeding is attached special importance to development. The main livestock is cattle and poultries. The significant economic resources of the Muong family are exploiting products of forest including mushrooms, jew’s ear, cardamom, lac, cinnamon, honey, wood, bamboo, rattan … The typical crafts of the Muong are weaving, knitting, reeling.


History

The Muong
epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or EPIC may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media ...
'' Đẻ đất đẻ nước'' (Te tấc te đác) traces their ancestry to a legendary bird couple called Chim y (male bird) and Cái Ứa (female bird). During the Dongson and
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
periods (500 BC–200 AD), Chinese accounts noted that the Lạc People inhabited on the hills of
Jiuzhen Jiuzhen (Vietnamese: Cửu Chân, Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, wo ...
( Thanh Hoá & Nghệ An) lived by hunting and gathering, and often had to buy
rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

rice
from
Lạc People
Lạc People
in
Jiaozhi Jiaozhi (standard Chinese Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca among the speakers of various Man ...
(
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
). They also practiced
levirate marriage #REDIRECT Levirate marriage #REDIRECT Levirate marriage Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow. Levirate marriage has been practiced by societies with a strong clan ...
Following Trung sisters' rebellion (39–43 AD), a certain leader named Du Yang (Đỗ Dương) of Jiuzhen revolted against the Han and joined the sisters' rebels. In archaeological and linguistic perspectives,
Vietic The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic languages, Austroasiatic language family, spoken by the Vietic peoples in Laos and Vietnam. The branch was once referred to by the terms ''Việt–Mường'', ''Annamese–Muong'', and ''Vi ...
and Katuic groups began to settle in Northern Vietnam and Laos around 2,000 to 1,000 BC. During 200 AD to around 600s AD (
Six dynasties __NOTOC__ Six Dynasties (; 220–589 or 222–589) is a collective term for six Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
period of China), as the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
became inhabited by
Kra-Dai speakers
Kra-Dai speakers
( Tai speakersChamberlain, James R. (2000). "The origin of the Sek: implications for Tai and Vietnamese history" (PDF). In Burusphat, Somsonge (ed.). ''Proceedings of the International Conference on Tai Studies'', July 29–31, 1998. Bangkok, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University. p. 97, 127 or both Hlai and later Tai speakers) and more sinicized, the traditional Vietic realm declined to areas of
Jiuzhen Jiuzhen (Vietnamese: Cửu Chân, Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, wo ...
. In 248, a rebellion in Vietnam led by Lady Trieu of Jiuzhen against the Wu regime briefly spread into Jiaozhi before being suppressed. By the seventh century, perhaps to evade pressures from the Khmers in the southwest, the migrating Tai in the northwest, and the
Tang Empire The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...

Tang Empire
in the northeast, Vietic groups began migrating northward to the Red River Delta, including the Muong. Vietic settlers in lower delta were known as the
Kinh people The Vietnamese people ( vi, người Việt) or Kinh people ( vi, người Kinh) are a Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical Un ...

Kinh people
who were influenced by Chinese culture, opposed to the intact Vietic Muong in the hills of upper delta. In the 850s, frustrated by Chinese governor Li Zhou's abuses on hill populace in southern areas, the Du rebelled against the Tang. The chief of the Muong tribe, Lý Do Độc, also joined the revolt, and invited
Nanzhao Nanzhao, also spelled Nanchao or Nan Chao (literally 'Southern Zhao'), was a dynastic kingdom that flourished in what is now southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate regions within China China, o ...

Nanzhao
military. Together they sacked Annan's capital Songping (
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
) in 858 and 861, briefly driving the Tang out of the region. In 863, they successfully captured Annan and held it for three years, before being defeated and suppressed in 866 by Tang reinforcement led by
Gao Pian Gao Pian (; 821? – 24 September 887Academia Sinica Academia Sinica (AS, la, 1=Academia Sinica, 3=Chinese Academy; ), headquartered in Nangang, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan (Republic of China). It supports research activities i ...
. The Tang continued to campaign against the Muong and other aboriginals in 874–879, until they voluntarily retreated in 880 that ended one-thousand years of Chinese rule in northern Vietnam. The Muong then came to war with Vietnamese elites of the new
Dai Viet Dai may refer to: Names * Dai (given name) Dai is a Welsh masculine given name, a diminutive form of Dafydd (David), as well as a masculine Japanese given name. Notable people with the name include: * Dai Buell (died 1939), American pianist and t ...
kingdom in 989, 997, 1000, 1012, but finally were defeated and absorbed into
Dai Viet Dai may refer to: Names * Dai (given name) Dai is a Welsh masculine given name, a diminutive form of Dafydd (David), as well as a masculine Japanese given name. Notable people with the name include: * Dai Buell (died 1939), American pianist and t ...
mandala. The Muong are one of the 4 main groups of Vietic speakers in Vietnam, the others being the Kinh, Thổ and Chứt. Many Muong have over time intermixed with the Tho and Chut. The Nguồn, who are classified as Kinh, are sometimes believed to be the southernmost group of the Muong, who intermixed with Chut people.


Language

The Muong speak the
Muong language Muong (') is a group of dialects spoken by the Mường people of Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi ...
, a close relative of
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
.
Writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...

Writing
based on the
Vietnamese alphabet The Vietnamese alphabet ( vi, chữ Quốc ngữ, "script of the national language") is the modern Latin writing script or writing system for Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast ...
appeared in the 20th century, introduced by Western scholars. The Muong aristocracy were already familiar with Chinese writing through their study of the Confucian canon. The Muong language is mainly used in the domestic sphere of communication. Most native speakers also speak Vietnamese.


Geographic distribution

The population of Mường in Vietnam was 1,452,095 according to the 2019 census, 1.51% of Vietnam's population. They mostly live in the north of Vietnam, mainly in the mountainous provinces of Hòa Bình (549,026 people, comprising 64.28% of the province's population), Thanh Hóa (376,340 people, comprising 10.34% of the province's population), Phú Thọ (218,404 people, comprising 14.92% of the province's population), and Sơn La (84,676 people, comprising 6.78% of the province's population). Around the city of Hoa Binh there are four large Muong population centers: Muonguang, Muongbi, Muongthang and Muongdong.


Literature

The Muong have many valuable epics (Muong language: mo), such as Te tấc te đác (meaning: Giving birth to the Earth and the Water).


Holidays

The main holidays of the Muong are
New Year New Year is the time Time is the continued of and that occurs in an apparently succession from the , through the , into the . It is a component quantity of various s used to events, to compare the duration of events or the interva ...

New Year
and agrarian holidays. During the celebration of the New Year Muong people pray to the ancestors. Such prayers are also arranged on the revolutionary holidays after which the whole village treats themselves to pre-cooked dishes.


Clothing

Different Muong groups will wear different clothing styles. Some wear clothing borrowed from the Thái, while others wear clothing similar to the Vietnamese. In general, clothing for women consists of some type of tunic or robe, headscarf, and skirt. Some women in the past wore neck rings like other minorities in Northern Vietnam. Men generally wear simple tunics and pants.


Religion

Mainly, the Mường follow
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
(
Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
), often with local
animistic Animism (from Latin: ', 'breath, Soul, spirit, life') is the belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spirit, spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, ...

animistic
influences. They believe in the existence of harmful spirits (ma tai, ma em, and others). The Muong practice their traditional ethnic religion, worshiping ancestral spirits and other supernatural deities. They are primarily animists, which means that they believe that non-living objects have spirits. They also deify local heroes who have died. However, with the introduction of modern medicine, adherence to many folk beliefs has declined.


The New Life

After the
August Revolution The August Revolution ( vi, Cách mạng tháng Tám, links=no), also known as the August General Uprising ( vi, Tổng Khởi nghĩa tháng Tám, links=no), was a revolution launched by Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh's Việt Minh (League for the Indepe ...
the way of life of Muong people has changed. Large families have given way to small ones. Married brothers no longer live with their parents, but in separate families. The peasants received community allotments of 1 to 3 Mau per family and industry began to develop. Most villages have primary schools.


See also

* Muong Autonomous Territory


References


Works cited

* * * * * * * * *


External links

* http://hedo-vietnam.tripod.com/ethnic_groups/muong.htm
vietnam people


Video


Video showing music, food, and wedding customs of the Muong people in Hoa BinhGovernment scientists work with farmers from the Muong ethnic minority to improve local rice varieties
{{Authority control Vietic peoples Ethnic groups in Vietnam