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The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is an American
non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that o ...
that exists to support and collectively lead the
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
Mozilla Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any a ...

Mozilla
project. Founded in July 2003, the organization sets the policies that govern development, operates key infrastructure and controls Mozilla
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ...

trademark
s and
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
s. It owns a
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
able subsidiary: the
Mozilla Corporation The Mozilla Corporation (stylized as moz://a) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Mozilla Foundation that coordinates and integrates the development of Internet-related application software, applications such as the Firefox web browser, by a glo ...
, which employs many Mozilla developers and coordinates releases of the
Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, ...

Mozilla Firefox
web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software for accessing the World Wide Web. When a User (computing), user requests a web page from a particular website, the web browser retrieves the necessary content from a web ...

web browser
and
Mozilla Thunderbird Mozilla Thunderbird is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the sof ...
email client Image:Thunderbird 91.4.1 screenshot.png, 250px, Mozilla Thunderbird email client user interface on a Linux operating system An email client, email reader or, more formally, message user agent (MUA) or mail user agent is a computer program used to ...
. The Mozilla Foundation was founded by the
Netscape Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an American independent computer services company with headquarters in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, Californi ...

Netscape
-affiliated Mozilla Organization. The organization is currently based in the
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
city of Mountain View,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
, United States. The Mozilla Foundation describes itself as "a non-profit organization that promotes openness, innovation and participation on the Internet." The Mozilla Foundation is guided by the
Mozilla Manifesto The Mozilla Manifesto lays out the guiding principles of the Mozilla Foundation The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-p ...
, which lists 10 principles which Mozilla believes "are critical for the Internet to continue to benefit the public good as well as commercial aspects of life."


History

On February 23, 1998,
Netscape Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an American independent computer services company with headquarters in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, Californi ...

Netscape
created the Mozilla Organization to co-ordinate the development of the
Mozilla Application Suite The Mozilla Application Suite (originally known as Mozilla, marketed as the Mozilla Suite) is a discontinued cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It in ...
. When
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or a ...

AOL
(Netscape's parent) drastically scaled back its involvement with Mozilla Organization, the Mozilla Foundation was launched on July 15, 2003, to ensure Mozilla could survive without Netscape. AOL assisted in the initial creation of the Mozilla Foundation, transferring hardware and intellectual property to the organization, employed a three-person team for the first three months of its existence to help with the transition, and donated $2 million to the foundation over two years. Initially, the remit of the Mozilla Foundation grew to become much wider than that of mozilla.org, with the organization taking on many tasks that were traditionally left to Netscape and other vendors of Mozilla technology. As part of a wider move to target
end-user In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product. The end user stands in contrast to users who support or maintain the product, such as sysops, system administrator ...
s, the foundation made deals with commercial companies to sell CDs containing Mozilla software and provide telephone support. In both cases, the group chose the same suppliers as Netscape for these services. The Mozilla Foundation also became more assertive over its intellectual property, with policies put in place for the use of Mozilla trademarks and
logo A logo (abbreviation of logotype; ) is a graphic Graphics () are visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex network which connects several biologically rel ...

logo
s. New projects such as marketing were also started. With the formation of the Mozilla Corporation, the Mozilla Foundation delegated all their development and business-related activities to the new subsidiary. The Mozilla Foundation now focuses on its Webmaker initiative (which aims to raise the level of users' Web Literacy) as well as on governance and policy issues. The Mozilla Foundation owns the Mozilla trademarks and other intellectual property, which it licenses to the Mozilla Corporation. It also controls the Mozilla
source code repository In revision control systems, a repository is a data structure that stores metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, including descri ...
and decides who is allowed to check code in.


Subsidiaries


Mozilla Corporation

On August 3, 2005, the Mozilla Foundation announced the creation of
Mozilla Corporation The Mozilla Corporation (stylized as moz://a) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Mozilla Foundation that coordinates and integrates the development of Internet-related application software, applications such as the Firefox web browser, by a glo ...
, described as "a
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
able
subsidiary A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a company (law), company owned or controlled by another company, which is called the parent company or holding company. Two subsidiaries that belong to the same parent company are called sis ...
that serves the non-profit, public benefit goals of its parent, the Mozilla Foundation, and that will be responsible for product development,
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
and distribution of Mozilla products." It also handles relationships with businesses, many of which generate income. Unlike the Mozilla Foundation, the Mozilla Corporation is a tax-paying entity, which gives it much greater freedom in the
revenue In accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to comp ...
and business activities it can pursue. From 2004 to 2014, the majority of revenue came from a deal with
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
, which was the default search engine in the Firefox web browser. In November 2014, Mozilla signed a five-year partnership with Yahoo, making
Yahoo! Search Yahoo! Search is a rebadged version of the Microsoft Bing search engine owned by Yahoo! Yahoo! (, styled as yahoo''!'') is an American web services provider. It is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and owned by Verizon Media, which a ...
the default search engine for Firefox in the US.
Yandex Search Yandex Search (Яндекс) is a search engine. It is owned by Yandex, based in Russia. In January 2015, Yandex Search generated 51.2% of all of the search traffic in Russia according to . About The search technology provides local search (Int ...
is the default for Firefox in Russia and
Baidu Baidu, Inc. (, meaning "a hundred times" or "a hundred degrees", anglicized ) is a Chinese multinational specializing in Internet-related services and products and (AI), headquartered in 's . It is one of the largest AI and Internet compan ...
continues its role as the default in China. In November 2017, Mozilla terminated its agreement with Yahoo two years earlier than planned. While numerous factors were attributed to the decision to terminate the agreement, including some mention that Mozilla saw declining revenues related to the switch, likely the impetus was related to the recent acquisition of Yahoo by Verizon and Oath. Per Mozilla Chief Business and Legal Officer Denelle Dixon, "We exercised our contractual right to terminate our agreement with Yahoo! based on a number of factors including doing what's best for our brand, our effort to provide quality web search, and the broader content experience for our users. We believe there are opportunities to work with Oath and Verizon outside of search." After the termination, Mozilla once again made Google the default search engine for Firefox in the US.


Mozilla China

Beijing Mozilla Online Ltd (), a.k.a. Mozilla China, is a wholly owned subsidiary of the
Mozilla Corporation The Mozilla Corporation (stylized as moz://a) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Mozilla Foundation that coordinates and integrates the development of Internet-related application software, applications such as the Firefox web browser, by a glo ...
. Mozilla China is headquartered in
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
.


MZLA Technologies Corporation

On January 28, 2020, the Mozilla Foundation announced that the Thunderbird project would henceforth be operating from a new wholly owned subsidiary, MZLA Technologies Corporation, in order to explore offering products and services that were not previously possible and to collect revenue through partnerships and non-charitable donations.


Financing

The Mozilla Foundation is funded by donations and 2% of annual net revenues from the Mozilla Corporation, amounting to over US$8.3 million in 2016. Initial funding in 2003 came from
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or a ...
, which donated US$2 million, and from
Mitch Kapor Mitchell David Kapor ( ; born November 1, 1950) is an American entrepreneur best known for his work as an application developer in the early days of the personal computer software industry, later founding Lotus Lotus may refer to: Plants *Lotus ...

Mitch Kapor
who donated US$300,000. The group has
tax-exempt Tax exemption is the reduction or removal of a liability to make a compulsory payment that would otherwise be imposed by a ruling power upon persons, property, income, or transactions. Tax-exempt status may provide complete relief from taxes, reduc ...
status under section
501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the United States Code. It is one of the 29 types of 501(c) organizat ...
of the
U.S. tax code
U.S. tax code
, though the Mozilla Corporation subsidiary is taxable. In 2006, the Mozilla Foundation received US$66.8 million in revenues, of which US$61.5 million is attributed to "search royalties" from Google. From 2004 to 2014, the foundation had a deal with
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
to make
Google Search Google Search (also known simply as Google), is a search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combin ...
the default in the Firefox browser search bar and hence send it search referrals; a Firefox themed Google search site was also made the default home page of Firefox. The original contract expired in November 2006. However, Google renewed the contract until November 2008 and again through 2011. On December 20, 2011, Mozilla announced that the contract was once again renewed for at least three years to November 2014, at three times the amount previously paid, or nearly US$300 million annually. Approximately 90% of Mozilla's royalties revenue for 2014 was derived from this contract. In November 2014, Mozilla signed a five-year partnership (effective December 2014) with
Yahoo! Yahoo (, styled as yahoo''!'') is an American web services The term Web service (WS) is either: * a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web, or * a server run ...
, making
Yahoo! Search Yahoo! Search is a rebadged version of the Microsoft Bing search engine owned by Yahoo! Yahoo! (, styled as yahoo''!'') is an American web services provider. It is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and owned by Verizon Media, which a ...
the default search engine for Firefox in North America. This partnership came with an annual price tag of US$375 million to be paid by Yahoo! or its acquirer in the event of an acquisition. There was also a clause stating that Mozilla reserved the right to terminate the deal early if it did not want to work with the acquirer, but the acquirer would still have to pay Mozilla the full sum per year until 2019. The default search engine in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
will be
Yandex Yandex N.V. (; russian: link=no, Яндекс, p=ˈjandəks) is a multinational corporation primarily for Russian and Russian-language users, providing 70 Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected s th ...
, and in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
,
Baidu Baidu, Inc. (, meaning "a hundred times" or "a hundred degrees", anglicized ) is a Chinese multinational specializing in Internet-related services and products and (AI), headquartered in 's . It is one of the largest AI and Internet compan ...
. In November 2017, however, Mozilla announced that it was switching back to Google as the default search engine. This represented an early termination of its Yahoo partnership.


People

As of September 2020, the Mozilla Foundation
board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, W ...
has seven members: *
Mitchell Baker Winifred Mitchell Baker (born 1957) is the Executive Chairwoman and CEO of the Mozilla Foundation and of Mozilla Corporation, a subsidiary of the Mozilla Foundation that coordinates development of the Open-source model, open source Mozilla Interne ...

Mitchell Baker
(Chair) *
Brian Behlendorf Brian Behlendorf (born March 30, 1973) is an American technologist, executive, computer programmer and leading figure in the open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released u ...
* Mohamed Nanabhay * Navrina Singh * Helen Turvey * Nicole Wong *Wambui Kinya is the foundation's
executive director An executive director is a member of a board of directors for an organisation, but the meaning of the term varies between countries. United States In the US, an executive director is a chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an ...
.


Donations

In 2006, after a request from
Theo de Raadt Theo de Raadt (; ; born May 19, 1968) is a South African-born software engineer A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of computer sof ...
of
OpenBSD OpenBSD is a security-focused operating system, security-focused, free and open-source, Unix-like operating system based on the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD). Theo de Raadt created OpenBSD in 1995 by fork (software development), forking N ...
for funding from corporate entities which make a profit through the use of
OpenSSH OpenSSH (also known as OpenBSD Secure Shell) is a suite of secure networking utilities based on the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol, which provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client–server architecture. Network Working ...
in their packaged distributions, the Mozilla Foundation donated $10,000 to de Raadt and OpenBSD for OpenSSH development. The funds donated came from money earned through the income provided by Google. The Mozilla Foundation found that without OpenSSH, much of the work done by developers would be through insecure and unsafe methods, and gave the funds as a thank you. At the end of 2010, the Mozilla Foundation partnered with
Knoxville Zoo Zoo Knoxville, formerly known as the ''Knoxville Zoo'', is a zoo located just east of downtown Knoxville, Tennessee, United States, near exit 392 off Interstate 40. The zoo is home to about 800 animals and welcomes over 400,000 visitors each year. ...
in an effort to raise awareness about endangered red pandas. Two
red panda #REDIRECT Red panda The red panda (''Ailurus fulgens'') is a carnivoran native to the eastern Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (); Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛta ...

red panda
(a.k.a.
Firefox Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, ...

Firefox
) cubs born at the Knoxville Zoo have officially become a part of the Mozilla community. The cubs are named Spark and Ember by online voters and Mozilla broadcast a 24-hour live video stream of the cubs for several months.


See also

*
CZillaThe CZilla project (also known as the Czech Mozilla Project, CzechZilla) is an official localization team of Mozilla Organization The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NP ...
,
localization Localization or localisation may refer to: Biology * Localization of function, locating psychological functions in the brain or nervous system; see Linguistic intelligence * Localization of sensation, ability to tell what part of the body is a ...
and popularization of Mozilla.org products in
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
*
List of Mozilla products The following is a list of Mozilla Foundation The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit i ...


Notes


References

*


External links

* * About the Mozilla Foundation
2005 presentation about the Mozilla Foundation


* Meeting Minutes from the Weekly Mozilla call
Mozilla Labs

Mozilla Research
{{Authority control 2003 establishments in the United States 501(c)(3) organizations Free software project foundations in the United States Mountain View, California Mozilla Non-profit organizations based in the San Francisco Bay Area Organizations established in 2003 Foundations based in the United States Internet-related activism