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Mozarabic, also called Andalusi Romance ( mxi, latino, link=no), was a
continuum Continuum may refer to: * Continuum (measurement) Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities. In contrast, categorical theories or models explain variatio ...
of related
Romance dialects
Romance dialects
spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region o ...

Iberian Peninsula
, known as
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
. Mozarabic descends from
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
and early Romance dialects spoken in
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
up to the 8th century and was spoken until around the 13th century when it was either replaced or merged with the northern peninsular Romance varieties, mostly
Spanish (Castilian)
Spanish (Castilian)
,
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * Ca ...
and
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
. The Andalusi Romance dialects came to be called ''Mozarabic'' by 19th-century Spanish scholars who studied medieval Al-Andalus, though there never was a common language standard. These dialects were largely spoken by the Christian community, as a part of the Romance dialect continuum in the Iberian Peninsula, but it was also spoken by Jews, and Muslims, as large parts of the population converted to Islam. The word ''
Mozarab , representing the Apocalypse. 10th century. The Mozarabs ( es, mozárabes ; pt, moçárabes ; ca, mossàrabs ; from ar, مستعرب, musta‘rab, lit=Arabized) is a modern historical term for the Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Christians who live ...
'' is a loanword from
Andalusi Arabic Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of Arabic spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * frenc ...
''musta'rab'', ,
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...
''musta'rib'', meaning " who adopts the ways of the Arabs".


Native name

The name ''Mozarabic'' is today used for many medieval Romance dialects, no longer spoken, such as those of
Murcia Murcia (, , ) is a city in south-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Murcia
or
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situated ...

Seville
.Leguay, Oliveira Marques, Rocha Beirante. Portugal das invasões germânicas à "reconquista". Editorial Presença, 1993. pg 209 The native name (autonym or
endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
) of the language was not ''Muzarab'' or ''Mozarab'' but ''Latin''. In Iberia, as in much of Western Europe, the various Romance languages including Mozarabic were for many centuries thought of simply as dialects of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
and so their speakers referred to their languages as ''Latin'', including the Mozarabs. They did not call themselves "Mozarabs" either.
At times between persecution, Christian communities prospered in Muslim Spain; these Christians are now usually referred to as ''Mozárabes'', although the term was not in use at the time (Hitchcock 1978)
It was only in the 19th century that Spanish historians started to use the words "Mozarabs" and "Mozarabic" to refer to those Christian people who lived under Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula in the Middle Ages, and their language. Another very common Arab
exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
for this language was ''al-ajamiya'' ("stranger/foreign") that had the meaning of Romance language in
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
. So the words "Mozarabic" or "ajamiya" are exonyms and not autonyms of the language. Roger Wright, in his book ''Late Latin and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France'', states:
The Early Romance of Moslem Spain was known to its users as ''latinus''. This word can lead to confusion; the Visigothic scholars used it to contrast with Greek or Hebrew, and Simonet (1888: XXIII-IV, XXXV-VII) established that in Moslem Spain it was used to refer to the non-Arabic vernacular (as was Arabic ''Al-Lathinī''). age 156/blockquote>
The use of ''latinus'' to mean Latin-Romance, as opposed to Arabic, is also found north of the religious border. age 158/blockquote> ''Latinus'' (from ''
Latium Latium ( , ; ) is the region of central western Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory large ...
'', modern-day
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
, Italy), that is,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
, was the language spoken in ancient Rome. The
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance languages
such as Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, etc., all evolved from
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, ...
and not from
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestur ...
. Contemporary Romance speakers of the Iberian Peninsula, of the time of Moslem Spain, saw their vernacular spoken language as Latin. This happened because
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestur ...
was seen as an educated speech, not as a different language. As Francisco Marcos-Marín (2015) has pointed out, following archaeological studies mainly by Juan Zozaya, Berber invaders could not have learnt to speak Arabic so soon. They used a continuum between Berber and Latin varieties. Latin was the cultural language of the Roman provinces of Africa before Arabic and continued in use (at least for some registers) until the 11th century. The interaction of these Afro-Romance varieties and Ibero-Romance has yet to be studied. Those African speakers also referred to their language as Latine. Both '' Ladino'', the name that Sephardic Jews gave to their spoken Romance language in Iberia, and '' Ladin'', the name that an Alpine Romance speaking people, the Ladins, gave to their language, mean Latin. In the Iberian Peninsula:
The word ''Ladino'' (< LATINUM) survived with the specific
linguistic meaning Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of meaning, reference, or truth. The term can be used to refer to subfields of several distinct disciplines, including linguistics Linguistics is th ...
of "Spanish written by Jews" (Roger Wright 1982, p. 158)
This is one of the main reasons why Iberian Jews (''Sephardim'') from central and southern regions called their everyday language ''Ladino'' - because this word had the sense of spoken Romance language (Ladino is today a Romance language more closely related to Spanish, mainly to Old Spanish, spoken by some Jews of Sephardic ancestry).


Language use

Mozarabic was spoken by
Mozarab , representing the Apocalypse. 10th century. The Mozarabs ( es, mozárabes ; pt, moçárabes ; ca, mossàrabs ; from ar, مستعرب, musta‘rab, lit=Arabized) is a modern historical term for the Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Christians who live ...
s (Christians living as
dhimmi ' ( ar, ذمي ', , collectively ''/'' "the people of the covenant") or Mu'ahid is a historical term for Kafir, non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection. The word literally means "protected person", referring to the state's o ...
s), Muladis (the native Iberian population converted to Islam) and some layers of the ruling Arabs and Berbers. The cultural language of Mozarabs continued to be
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
, but as time passed, young Mozarabs studied and even excelled in Arabic. Due to the northward migration of Mozarabs, Arabic placenames occur in areas where Islamic rule did not last long. With the deepening of Islamization and the advance of the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
, Mozarabic was substituted either by Arabic or by Northern Romance varieties, depending on the area and century. Mozarabic had a significant impact in the formation of
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, especially
Andalusian Spanish The Andalusian dialects of Spanish (Spanish: ''andaluz'' ; Andalusian: ) are spoken in Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most popu ...
, which explains why this language has numerous words of
Andalusian Arabic Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of Arabic spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * frenc ...
origin.


Scripts

Because Mozarabic was not a language of high culture, it had no official script. Unlike most Romance languages, Mozarabic was primarily written in the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
rather than the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
script, though it was also written in Latin and to a lesser extent in the
Hebrew alphabet The Hebrew alphabet ( he, wikt:אלפבית, אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי, ), known variously by scholars as the Ktav Ashuri, Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language ...

Hebrew alphabet
. Mozarab scholars wrote words of the Romance vernacular in alternative scripts in the margins or in the subtitles of Latin-language texts (glosses). The two languages of culture in Medieval Iberia were
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
in the north (although it was also used in the south by Mozarab scholars) and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
in the south (which was the principal literary language of Mozarab scholars). These are the languages that constitute the great majority of written documents of the Peninsula at that time. Mozarabic is first documented in writing in the Peninsula as choruses (''
kharja A kharja or kharjah ( ar, خرجة Arabic transliteration, tr. ''kharjah'' , meaning "final"; es, jarcha ; pt, carja ; also known as markaz), is the final refrain of a ''muwashshah'', a lyric genre of Al-Andalus (the Islamic Iberian Peninsula) w ...

kharja
s'') (11th century) in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
lyrics called ''
muwashshah ''Muwashshah'' ( ar, موشح '  literally means " girdled" in Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, ') or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic langu ...
s''. As these were written in the , the
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables * ...

vowel
s had to be reconstructed when transliterating it into Latin script.


Morphology and phonetics

The phonology of Mozarabic is more archaic than the other
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance languages
in Spain, fitting with the general idea that language varieties in more isolated or peripheral areas act as "islands of conservatism". Based on the written documents that are identified as Mozarabic, some examples of these more archaic features are: * The preservation of the Latin consonant clusters ''cl'', ''fl'', ''pl''. * The lack of
lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
of intervocalic ''p'', ''t'', ''c (k)'', as in the Mozarabic words (she-wolf), (all) and (ant). * The representation of Latin as (as in "night" < ), thought to have been an intermediate stage in the transition > , but represented nowhere else (
Galician-Portuguese Galician-Portuguese ( gl, galego-portugués or ', pt, galego-português or ), also known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle A ...
finished the transition, as shown by "night"). * The representation of palatalized , as (as in
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
and
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
), rather than as elsewhere in
Western Romance languages 270px, The Romance language family (simplified) Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the ...
(except Picard). * The preservation (at least in some areas) of original , . The morphology of some words is closer to Latin than other Iberian Romance or Romance languages in general.


Documents in Andalusi Romance (Old Southern Iberian Romance)

Some texts found in manuscripts of poetry in Muslim Iberian Peninsula (''Al-Andalus''), although mainly written in Arabic, have however some stanzas in Andalusi Romance (''Latino'') or in what seems to be Andalusi Romance. These are important texts because there are few examples of written Andalusi Romance. Proper Mozarabic (i.e. Christian) texts were written in Latin and are available in the accurate edition by Juan Gil. In ''Late Latin and Early Romance'' Roger Wright also makes an analysis of these poetry texts known as ''kharjas'':
Muslim Spain has acquired philological interest for a further reason: the ''kharjas''. These are apparently bilingual (Arabic-Romance) or macaronic final stanzas of some verses in the Hispano-Arabic ''muwashshaha'' form discovered in some Arabic and Hebrew manuscripts (...). Analyses of these have been hampered in the past by the belief that we know too little about ''mozárabe'' Romance to discuss the "Romance" element on a sound basis; but this is not entirely true. (...) The detailed investigations by Galmés de Fuentes (e.g. 1977, 1980) on later documents and toponyms have established the main features of ''mozárabe'' phonology, and many features of its morphology (...). The conclusion seems to be that ''mozárabe'' Romance is not particularly different from that of other parts of Iberia.
However, a better knowledge of Andalusi Arabic, particularly due to the work of Federico Corriente, placed the ''xarajat'' (a term which should be preferred to ''kharjas'') in the framework of Arabic Literature, and the linguistic diglossic situation of al-Andalus. Most ''xarajat'', actually, were written in Andalusi Arabic. Those with Andalusi Romance elements usually combine them with Andalusi Arabic forms.


Sample text (11th century)


See also

*
Mozarabs , representing the Apocalypse. 10th century. The Mozarabs ( es, mozárabes ; pt, moçárabes ; ca, mossàrabs ; from ar, مستعرب, musta‘rab, lit=Arabized) is a modern historical term for the Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Christians who lived ...
, the Christian population under Islamic rule. *
Mozarabic art and architectureMozarabic art refers to art of Mozarabs (from ''musta'rab'' meaning “Arabized”), Iberian Christians living in Al-Andalus, the Muslim conquered territories in the period that comprises from the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, Arab invasion of the Ib ...
*
Aljamiado. c. 16th century. Image:Poema de Yusuf.jpg, ''Poema de Yuçuf'' ''Aljamiado'' (; ; ar, عَجَمِيَة trans. ''ʿajamiyah'' ) or ''Aljamía'' texts are manuscripts that use the Arabic script for transcribing European languages, especially ...

Aljamiado
, the practice of writing a Romance language with the Arabic script. * Mozarabic Rite, the Christian liturgy preserved by the Mozarabs. *
Muwashshah ''Muwashshah'' ( ar, موشح '  literally means " girdled" in Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, ') or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic langu ...
, an Arabic poetic form. *
Kharja A kharja or kharjah ( ar, خرجة Arabic transliteration, tr. ''kharjah'' , meaning "final"; es, jarcha ; pt, carja ; also known as markaz), is the final refrain of a ''muwashshah'', a lyric genre of Al-Andalus (the Islamic Iberian Peninsula) w ...

Kharja
, xarjah, pl. xarajat, a part of the muwashshah. * Ladino, the Spanish language spoken by Sephardic Jews. *
Andalusian Arabic Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of Arabic spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * frenc ...
*
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
*
History of Spain The history of Spain dates to the Ancient history, Antiquity when the List of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, pre-Roman peoples of the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula made contact with the Greeks and ...


References


Further reading

*Corriente Córdoba, Federico. (1993). "Nueva propuesta de lectura de las xarajât de la serie árabe con texto romance". ''Revista de filología española'', , 73 / 1-2, 25-42 *Gil, Juan. (1974) . ''Corpus scriptorum muzarabicorum''. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. 2 v. *Marcos Marín, Francisco. (1998). "Romance andalusí y mozárabe: dos términos no sinónimos", ''Estudios de Lingüística y Filología Españolas. Homenaje a Germán Colón''. Madrid: Gredos, 335-341. https://www.academia.edu/5101871/Romance_andalusi_y_mozarabe_dos_terminos_no_sinonimos_ *Marcos Marín, Francisco. (2015). "Notas sobre los bereberes, el afrorrománico y el romance andalusí", ''Hesperia.Culturas del Mediterráneo'' 19, 203-222. https://www.academia.edu/13142108/Notas_sobre_los_bereberes_el_afrorrom%C3%A1nico_y_el_romance_andalus%C3%AD *Menéndez Pidal, Ramón. (2005). ''Historia de la Lengua Española'' (2 Vols.). Madrid: Fundación Ramón Menendez Pidal. *Wright, Roger. (1982). ''Late Latin and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France''. Liverpool: University of Liverpool (Francis Cairns, Robin Seager).


External links


Mozarabic overview
{{DEFAULTSORT:Mozarabic Language
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and ...
Medieval languages Pyrenean-Mozarabic languages Extinct Romance languages Culture of Al-Andalus
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...