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A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or
vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracy, Democracie ...

vote
about whether a person in a
position of responsibility
position of responsibility
(
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
,
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spok ...

management
, etc.) is still deemed fit to hold that position, such as because they are inadequate in some aspect, fail to carry out their obligations, or make decisions that other members feel as being detrimental. The parliamentary motion demonstrates to the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
that the elected
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...

Parliament
either has or no longer has confidence in one or more members of the appointed
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
. In some countries, a no confidence motion being passed against an individual
minister Minister may refer to: * Minister (Christianity)Image:LutheranClergy.JPG, upA Lutheran minister wearing a Geneva gown and Bands (neckwear), bands. In many churches, ministers wear distinctive clothing, called vestments, when presiding over service ...
requires the minister to resign. In most cases, if the minister in question is the
premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other g ...

premier
, all other ministers must also resign. A
censure A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the accepted rules Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) ...
motion is different from a no-confidence motion. Depending on the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
of the body concerned, "no confidence" may lead to the dismissal of the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...

Council of Ministers
or other position-holders and often the
dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...
of most of the leadership of the executive branch. On the other hand, "censure" is meant to show disapproval and does not result in the resignation of ministers. The motion of censure may be against an individual minister or a group of ministers. However, depending on a country's constitution, a no-confidence motion may be more directed against the entire
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
. Again, depending on the applicable rules, censure motions may need to state the reasons for the motion, but specific reasons may not be required for no confidence motions.


Parliamentary systems

There are a number of variations in this procedure between parliaments. In some countries, a motion of no confidence can be directed at the government collectively or at any individual member, including the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. Sometimes, motions of no confidence are proposed even though they have no likelihood of passage simply to pressure a government or to embarrass its own critics, who may for political reasons decide not to vote against it. In many
parliamentary democracies A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy fro ...
, there are strict time limits for no confidence motions such as being allowed only once every three, four or six months. Thus, the timing of a motion of no confidence is a matter of political judgement. A motion of no confidence on a relatively trivial matter may then prove counterproductive if a more important issue suddenly arises that actually warrants a motion of no confidence. Sometimes, the government chooses to declare that one of its bills is a "motion of confidence" to prevent dissident members of its own party voting against it.


Australia

In the
Australian Parliament The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth Parliament) is the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind o ...
, a motion of no confidence requires a majority of the members present in the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...

House of Representatives
to agree to it. The House of Representatives has 151 members and so requires 76 votes in favour of the motion when all members of the House are present. A straight vote of no confidence in the
Australian government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the ...
and a motion or amendment censuring a government have never been successful in the House of Representatives. However, governments have on on eight occasions resigned or advised a dissolution after their defeat on other questions before the House. The last time that a government resigned after being defeated in the House came in October 1941, when the House rejected the budget of
Arthur Fadden Sir Arthur William Fadden, (13 April 189421 April 1973) was an Australian politician who served as Prime Minister of Australia from 29 August to 7 October 1941. He was the leader of the Country Party from 1940 to 1958. Fadden was born in Ing ...

Arthur Fadden
's minority government. Specific motions of no confidence or
censure A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the accepted rules Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) ...
against the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, ministers, the
Leader of the Opposition The leader of the opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the Opposition (parliamentary), largest party not in government in a parliamentary democracy. The leader of the opposition is seen as the alternative prime minister, premi ...
, Senators and leaders of political parties have been successful on some occasions. Motions of no confidence against the government may be passed in the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
but have little or no impact in the House. However, the Senate's right to refuse supply helped spark the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. The convention remains a grey area, as Westminster governments are not normally expected to maintain the confidence of the upper house.


Bangladesh

In the
Parliament of Bangladesh The Jatiya Sangsad ( bn, জাতীয় সংসদ ''Jatiyô Sôngsôd''; lit. ’National Parliament’), often referred to simply as the ''Sangsad'' or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme Legislature, legislat ...
, there is no provision to hold motions of no-confidence, as a result of
Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh is a controversial clause restricting voting freedom in the Parliament of Bangladesh, written in the country's constitution. History Article 70 was written as a result of the Bangladesh Constituent A ...
, which prohibits Members of Parliament voting against their party and made the removal of a sitting government unattainable.


Canada

In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, a vote of no confidence is a motion that the legislature disapproves and no longer consents to the governing
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
or provincial
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other g ...
and the incumbent Cabinet. A vote of no confidence that passes leads to the fall of the incumbent government. Originating as a constitutional convention, it remains an uncodified practice which is not outlined in any standing orders for the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
. A no confidence motion may be directed against only the incumbent government in the legislature, with votes of no confidence against the legislature's
Official Opposition Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster Westminster is a district in central London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the Unite ...
being inadmissible. At the federal level, a vote of no confidence is a motion presented by a member of the House of Commons that explicitly states the House has no confidence in the incumbent government. The government may also declare any bill or motion to be a question of confidence. Several motions and bills are also considered implicit motions on confidence, and a vote of no confidence may be asserted automatically if such a bill fails to pass. Bills and motions that are considered implicit motions of confidence includes appropriations or
supply bill In the Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of Parliamentary procedure, procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in Eng ...
s, motions concerning budgetary policy, and the Address in Reply to the
Speech from the Throne Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound different from all French words, even if the ...
. The failure to pass those bills may be used as an automatic assertion of a vote of no confidence, but the opposition is not obligated to assert the failure as a no confidence motion against the government. If a vote of no confidence passes, the Prime Minister is required to submit his or her resignation to the
Governor General of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ...
, who may either invite the leader of another coalition/party to attempt to form a new government in the House of Commons, or dissolve Parliament and call a
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
. Six motions of no confidence have been passed in the House of Commons: in 1926, 1963, 1974, 1979, 2005, and 2011. All successful votes of no confidence in the 20th century were the result of a
loss of supply Loss of supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where t ...
; votes of no confidence in 2005 and 2011 were the result of explicit confidence motions presented by the opposition. The confidence convention is also present in the provincial legislatures of Canada, operating much like their federal counterpart. However, the decision to dissolve the legislature and call an election or to see if another coalition/party can form a government is left to the provincial
lieutenant governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lie ...
, not the Governor General. Two Canadian territories, the
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...

Northwest Territories
and
Nunavut Nunavut ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ; ) is the largest and northernmost provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the ''Nunavut Act'' and the ''Nunavut ...
, operate as a
consensus government A consensus government is one in which the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass ...
system in which the premier is chosen by the members of the nonpartisan legislature. If a vote of no confidence against the incumbent government passes, the premier and the cabinet are removed from office, and the legislature elects a new premier. In a consensus governments, confidence motions may be directed against any individual ministers holding office as they are also nominated by members of the legislature.


European Union

The
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legi ...

European Parliament
can dismiss the
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
, the executive body of the European Union, through a successful motion of no confidence, which requires a two-thirds vote. A successful vote on the motion leads to the resignation of the entire Commission.


Germany

In
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
,German Constitution Official English Translation
Article 67 - Vote of No Confidence
a vote of no confidence in the Federal Chancellor requires the opposition, on the same ballot, to propose a candidate of its own whom it wants the Federal President to appoint as its successor. Thus, a motion of no confidence may be brought forward only if there is a positive majority for the new candidate. The idea was to prevent the state crises that occurred near the end of the German
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
. Frequently, chancellors were then turned out of office without their successors having enough parliamentary support to govern. Unlike the British system, chancellors do not have to resign in response to the failure of a vote of confidence if it has been initiated by them, rather than by the parliamentary opposition, but they may ask the President to call general elections, a request that the President decides on whether to fulfill.


Greece

The Parliament may, by its decision, withdraw its confidence from the Government or from a member of it. A motion of no confidence can only be submitted six months after the Parliament has rejected a previous one. The motion must be signed by at least one-sixth of the Members and must clearly state the issues to be debated. A motion of no confidence is accepted only if it is approved by the absolute majority of the total number of Members.


India

In India, a motion of no confidence can be introduced only in the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human ...

Lok Sabha
(the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
of the
Parliament of India The Parliament of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scien ...
) and is admitted for discussion when at least 50 percent members support the motion (under Rule 198 of Lok Sabha Rules, 16th edition). If the motion carries, the house debates and votes on the motion. If a majority of the members vote in favour of the motion, it is passed, and the government is bound to vacate the office.
Acharya Kripalani Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani (11 November 1888 – 19 March 1982), popularly known as Acharya Kripalani, was an Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal A ...
moved the first-ever no confidence motion on the floor of the Lok Sabha in August 1963, immediately after the disastrous
Sino-Indian War The Sino-Indian War, also known as the Indo-China War, Sino-Indian Border Conflict and, by some, Clash on the Roof of the World, was a war between China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia ...
. As of July 2019, 27 nonconfidence motions have been moved. Prime Minister
Indira Gandhi Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (; ''née'' Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or ...

Indira Gandhi
faced the most no confidence motions (15), followed by
Lal Bahadur Shastri Lal Bahadur Shastri (, 2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was an Indian statesman who served as the second Prime Minister of India. He promoted the Operation Flood, White Revolution – a national campaign to increase the production and ...
and
P. V. Narasimha Rao Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in eve ...
(three each),
Morarji Desai Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist and served between 1977 and 1979 as the 4th Prime Minister of India The Prime Minister of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Trans ...

Morarji Desai
(two) and
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian Anti-colonial nationalism, anti-colonial nationalist, secular humanist, social democrat, and author who was a central figure in India during the middle third o ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
,
Rajiv Gandhi Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (; 20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the sixth prime minister of India from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the Assassination of Indira Gandhi, 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime ...

Rajiv Gandhi
,
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vajpayee (; 25 December 1924 – 16 August 2018) was an Indian statesman who served three terms as the Prime Minister of India, first for a term of 13 days in 1996, then for a period of 13 months from 199 ...

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
,
Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi (; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the List of chief ministers of Gujarat, chief minist ...

Narendra Modi
(one each). Vajpayee lost the no confidence motion by a margin of one vote (269-270) in April 1999. Prime Minister Desai resigned on 12 July 1979. The most recent no confidence motion was against the
Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi (; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the List of chief ministers of Gujarat, chief minist ...

Narendra Modi
government and accepted by the Speaker but defeated by 325–126. With the Anti-Defection Law, a vote of no confidence has no relevance when the majority party has an absolute majority since it can
whip A whip is a tool designed to strike humans or other animals to exert control through pain compliance Pain compliance is the use of painful stimulus to control or direct an organism. The stimulus can be manual (brute force, placing pressure on ...
party members to vote in favour of the government; it is thus impossible to remove the government by a no confidence motion. Hence, the no confidence exercise of the house becomes a no confidence exercise of the party.


Ireland

In
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
, if a motion of no confidence in the
Taoiseach The Taoiseach is the prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a p ...
or the
government of Ireland The Government of Ireland ( ga, Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet (government), cabinet that exercises executive (government), executive authority in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The Constitution of Ireland vests executive authority in a gove ...
is passed by the
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community i ...
, and the Taoiseach and the government do not resign, the Dáil must be dissolved and a
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
must be called.


Israel

The motion of no confidence is outlined in Israeli Basic Law Article 28 and Article 44 of the Knesset's Rule of Procedure.


Italy

In
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, the government requires the support of both houses of
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...

Parliament
. A vote of no confidence may be proposed if a tenth of the members of either house sign the proposition and within three days before the appointed date, the vote can be brought into discussion. After the case of
Filippo Mancuso Filippo Mancuso (22 July 1922 – 30 May 2011) was an Italian judge and politician. In 1995 he was Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Ita ...

Filippo Mancuso
in 1995 and the subsequent
Constitutional Court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...
sentence in 1996, it is possible to propose an individual vote of no confidence against a single
minister Minister may refer to: * Minister (Christianity)Image:LutheranClergy.JPG, upA Lutheran minister wearing a Geneva gown and Bands (neckwear), bands. In many churches, ministers wear distinctive clothing, called vestments, when presiding over service ...
, instead of the whole government.


Japan

Article 69 of the 1947
Constitution of Japan The Constitution of Japan (Shinjitai are the simplified forms of kanji are a set of logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured ...
provides that "if the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
passes a non-confidence resolution, or rejects a confidence resolution, the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
shall resign en masse, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within ten (10) days."


Pakistan

The
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
has provision for a no confidence motion in all constituents of the
Electoral College An electoral college is a set of Voting, electors who are selected to elect a candidate to particular offices. Often these represent different organizations, political parties or Legal entity, entities, with each organization, political party or ...
of the state. The motions can target speakers and deputy speakers of
provincial Provincial may refer to: Government & Administration * Provincial capitals, an administrative sub-national capital of a country * Provincial city (disambiguation) * Provincial minister (disambiguation) * Provincial Secretary, a position in Canadi ...
and national assemblies, the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, chief ministers of
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
, as well as the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
. Before it can be put for vote on the pertinent house's floor, it must have the backing of at least 20% of the elected members in all cases except those moved against speakers or deputy speakers in which case there is no minimum. After being put to vote, the motion is deemed to be successful only if passed by a majority. The no confidence procedure has historically been mostly used to remove speakers and deputy speakers. Of the 11 times that the motion has been invoked, nine cases targeted those posts, with four being effective. An incumbent Prime Minister of Pakistan has only been subject to a no confidence vote once, in November 1989, when
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto ( sd, بينظير ڀُٽو; ; ; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product ( ...

Benazir Bhutto
faced an ultimately-unsuccessful motion by
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (Sindhi:غلام مصطفا جتوئي) ( ur, ) (14 August 1931 – 20 November 2009) was a Pakistani politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that ...

Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
. The same is the case for a provincial Chief Minister, as the only instance of its use is the one moved against Chief Minister of
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...
,
Sanaullah Zehri Nawab Sanaullah Khan Zehri ( ur, ) was the Chief Minister of Balochistan from December 24, 2015 to December 9, 2017. He belongs to Channal Zarakzai family and also the ''Nawab Nawab ( Bengali: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari ...
in January 2018, who resigned before the vote could take place.


Peru

In Peru, both the legislative and the executive branches have the power to bring a motion of no confidence against acting legal members of the other branch. The President of the Cabinet may propose a motion of no confidence against any minister to Congress, which then needs more than half the Congress to approve it. The
President of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
may dissolve
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
if it has censured or denied its confidence to two Cabinets. The relevant Articles 132-134 are in the 1993 version of the
Constitution of Peru The Constitution of Peru is the supreme law of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type ...
. During the
2019 Peruvian constitutional crisis Nineteen or 19 may refer to: * 19 (number) 19 (nineteen) is the natural number following 18 (number), 18 and preceding 20 (number), 20. It is a prime number. Mathematics 19 is the 8th prime number, the seventh Mersenne prime exponent, and t ...
, President enacted a constitutional process on 29 May 2019 to create a motion of no confidence towards Congress if it refused to co-operate with his proposed actions against corruption.


South Africa

Any MP in the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
may request a motion of no confidence in either the Cabinet, excluding the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, or the President. The Speaker, within the rules of
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, must add such a motion to the Order Paper and give it due priority. If a motion of no confidence cannot be scheduled by the last sitting day of the annual sitting, it must be the first item on the Order Paper of the next sitting. In the event of a successful motion, the Speaker automatically assumes the position of acting president. On 7 August 2017, Speaker
Baleka Mbete Baleka Mbete (born 24 September 1949) is a South African politician who served as the Speaker of the National Assembly of South Africa The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western ...

Baleka Mbete
announced that she would permit a motion of no confidence in
Jacob Zuma Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (; born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who was the fourth president of South Africa The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is t ...

Jacob Zuma
's government to proceed in the National Assembly via
secret ballot The secret ballot, also known as the Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or expres ...
. It was the eighth motion to be brought against Zuma in his presidency and the first to be held via secret ballot. After the vote was held the next day, the motion was defeated 198–177, with 25 abstentions. Around 20 governing
ANC The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populou ...

ANC
MPs voted in favour of the measure.


Spain

The
Spanish Constitution of 1978 The Spanish Constitution (Spanish language, Spanish, Asturleonese language, Asturleonese, and gl, Constitución Española; eu, Espainiako Konstituzioa; ca, Constitució Espanyola; oc, Constitucion espanhòla) is the Democracy, democratic la ...
provides for motions of no confidence to be proposed by one tenth of the
Congress of Deputies The Congress of Deputies ( es, link=no, Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chamb ...

Congress of Deputies
. Following the German model, votes of no confidence in Spain are
constructive Although the general English usage of the adjective constructive is "helping to develop or improve something; helpful to someone, instead of upsetting and negative," as in the phrase "constructive criticism," in legal writing ''constructive'' has a ...
and so the motion must also include an alternative candidate for
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. For a motion of no confidence to be successful, it has to be carried by an absolute majority in the Congress of Deputies. At least five days must pass after the motion is registered before it can come up for a vote. Other parties may submit alternative motions within two days of the registration. Also, the Prime Minister is barred from dissolving the
Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative ...
and calling a general election while a motion of no confidence is pending. If the motion is successful, the incumbent Prime Minister must resign. According to the Constitution, the replacement candidate named in the motion is automatically deemed to have the confidence of the Congress of Deputies and is immediately appointed as Prime Minister by the
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...
. If the motion is unsuccessful, its signatories may not submit another motion during the same session. The current Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez was sworn in on 2 June 2018 after a motion of no-confidence against Prime Minister
Mariano Rajoy Mariano Rajoy Brey (; born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a 2018 vote of no confidence in the government of Mariano Rajoy, vote of no confidence ousted his government. On 5 Ju ...

Mariano Rajoy
had been approved on 1 June 2018.


Sweden

A motion of no confidence may be levelled against either the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
on behalf of the entire
Swedish government Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Gr ...
or against an individual lower-level minister. At least 35 members of parliament (MPs) must support a proposal to initiate such a vote. A majority of MPs (175 members) must vote for a motion of no confidence for it to be successful. An individual minister who loses a confidence vote must resign. If a prime minister loses a no confidence vote, the entire government must resign. The speaker may allow the ousted prime minister to head a transitional or caretaker government until Parliament elects a new prime minister. Under the principle of negative parliamentarism, a prime ministerial candidate nominated by the Speaker does not need the confidence of a majority of MPs to be elected. However, a majority of MPs must not vote against the candidate, which renders prime ministerial votes similar to no confidence votes. That means that a prime ministerial candidate, to be successful in the parliamentary vote, must have at least a total of 175 votes in favour and/or abstention. If a Speaker fails four times to have a nominee elected, an election must be held within three months of the final vote.


United Kingdom

Traditionally, in the
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ...
, the defeat of a
supply bill In the Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of Parliamentary procedure, procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in Eng ...
, which concerns the spending of money, is seen to require automatically for the government to resign or ask for a new election, much like a no confidence vote. A government in a Westminster system that cannot spend money is hamstrung, which is also called a
loss of supply Loss of supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where t ...
. Prior to 2011, in the
British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
, a no confidence motion generally first appeared as an
early day motion An early day motion (EDM), in the Westminster system, is a motion, expressed as a single sentence, tabled by Members of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countri ...
although the vote on the
Speech from the Throne Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound different from all French words, even if the ...
was also a confidence motion. However, under the
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) (FTPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make ...
, only a motion explicitly resolving that "this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government" is treated as a motion of no confidence.


Semi-presidential systems

In
semi-presidential systems A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a President (government title), president exists alongside a prime minister and a Cabinet (government), cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legi ...
, the legislature may occasionally pass motions of no confidence, which removes only the cabinet and the prime minister. The legislature may also have the power to
impeach Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body or other legally constituted tribunal initiates charges against a public official for misconduct. Impeachment may be understood as a unique process involving both political Politics ...
an executive or judicial officer, with another institution or the legislature removing the officer from their office.


Russia

In
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, the lower house of the
Federal AssemblyFederal Assembly may refer to: *Federal Assembly (Russia), the Russian federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia), the former Czechoslovak federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland), the former federal par ...
(the
State Duma The State Duma ( rus, Госуда́рственная ду́ма, r=Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma ( rus, Госду́ма), is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to ...
) may by a simple majority (at least 226 votes out of 450) pass a motion of no confidence against the
government of Russia The government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister of Russia, Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. ...
as a whole. In that case, the matter goes for consideration of the
Russian President The President of the Russian Federation ( rus, Президент Российской Федерации, Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially emb ...
, who may choose to dismiss the cabinet, which he can do anyway anytime at his own discretion, or just to ignore the Duma's decision. If the Duma passes a second motion of no confidence against the same composition of the cabinet within three months, the President is forced to make a concrete decision on whether to dismiss the government or to dissolve the Duma itself and call for new
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
. The State Duma may not be dissolved on those grounds if it was elected less than a year earlier, if it has already initiated impeachment proceedings against the President himself by bringing respective accusations, if less than six months remain left until presidential elections, or if there is a
state of emergency A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of its citizens. A government can declare such a state duri ...
or
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an occupied te ...
throughout the whole territory of Russia. In the above-mentioned cases, the President is then effectively forced to dismiss the government.


France

In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, the lower house of
French Parliament The French Parliament (french: Parlement français) is the bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, ...
(the
French National Assembly The National Assembly (french: link=no, italics=set, Assemblée nationale; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Ala ...
) may by a simple
majority A majority, also called a simple majority to distinguish it from similar terms (see the "Related terms" section below), is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.See dictionary definitions of "majority" aMerriam-Webster
vote pass a motion of no confidence against the
French government The Government of the French Republic (french: Gouvernement de la République française ) exercises executive power ''Executive Power'' is Vince Flynn's fifth novel, and the fourth to feature Mitch Rapp, an American agent that works for t ...

French government
as a whole. In that case, the government is removed from power, and the
President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state of France, as well as the Chief of the Armed Forces (France), commander-in-chief of the French Arm ...
has to appoint a new
Prime Minister of France The prime minister of France (french: link=no, Premier ministre français), officially the prime minister of the French Republic, is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Exe ...
, who then has to form a new government.


Sri Lanka

In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
, the
Parliament of Sri Lanka The Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව ''Shri Lanka Parlimenthuwa'', Tamil: இலங்கை நாடாளுமன்றம் ''Ilaṅkai ...
may pass a motion of no confidence against the
Sri Lankan government The Government of (GoSL) ( si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා රජය, Śrī Lankā Rajaya) is a determined by the . It administers the island from both its commercial capital of and the administrative capital of . Constitution The Consti ...
. In that case, the government is removed from power and the
President of Sri Lanka The president of Sri Lanka ( si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති ''Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi''; ta, இலங்கை சனாதிபதி ''Ilankai janātipati'') is the head of state A head of state (or c ...
has to appoint a new
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, who has to form a new government.


History

The first motion of no confidence against an entire government occurred in March 1782 when, following news of the British defeat at Yorktown in the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
the previous October, the
Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to m ...
voted that it "can no longer repose confidence in the present ministers".
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), b ...
Lord North Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (13 April 17325 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Courtesy (from the word ''courteis'', from the 12th century) is gentle politeness and courtly manners. In the Middle Ages I ...
responded by asking King
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
to accept his resignation. That did not immediately create a constitutional convention. Although it is considered the first formal motion of no-confidence, Sir
Robert Walpole Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745; known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the Unit ...

Robert Walpole
's resignation after a defeat on a vote in the House of Commons in 1742 is considered to be the first ''de facto'' motion of no-confidence. During the early 19th century, attempts by prime ministers, such as
Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–1835 and 1841–1846) simultaneously serving as Cha ...

Robert Peel
, to govern in the absence of a parliamentary majority proved unsuccessful, and by the mid-19th century, the power of a motion of no confidence to break a government was firmly established in the UK. In the United Kingdom, 11 prime ministers have been defeated through a no-confidence motion, but there has been only one such motion since 1925, in
1979 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day ma ...
(against
James Callaghan Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (; 27 March 191226 March 2005), commonly known as Jim Callaghan, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdo ...

James Callaghan
). In modern times, passage of a motion of no confidence is a relatively rare event in two-party democracies. In almost all cases,
party discipline Party discipline is the ability of parliamentary members of a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have sim ...
is sufficient to allow a majority party to defeat a motion of no confidence, and if faced with possible defections in the government party, the government is likely to change its policies, rather than lose a vote of no confidence. The cases in which a motion of no confidence has passed are generally those in which the government party's slim majority has been eliminated by either
by-elections A by-election (also spelled bye-election), also known as a special election in the United States and the Philippines, or a bypoll (India), is an election used to fill an office that has become vacant between general elections. In most cases these ...
s or defections, such as the
1979 vote of no confidence in the Callaghan ministry Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day ...
in the UK which was carried by one vote and forced a general election, which was won by
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
's
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...

Conservative Party
. Motions of no confidence are far more common in multi-party systems in which a minority party must form a
coalition government A coalition government is a form of government in which political parties cooperate to form a government. The usual reason for such an arrangement is that no single party has achieved an absolute majority after an election An election is a ...
. That can mean that there have been many short-lived governments because the party structure allows small parties to defeat a government without the means to create a government. This has widely been regarded as the cause of instability for the
French Fourth Republic The French Fourth Republic (french: Quatrième république française) was the republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually assoc ...
and the German
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
. More recent examples have been in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
between the 1950s and 1990s,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
. To deal with that situation, the French placed a greater degree of executive power in the office of the
French President The president of France, officially the president of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state ( ...
, who is immune from motions of no confidence, along with a two-round
plurality voting system Plurality voting is an electoral system in which a candidate, or candidates, who poll more than any other counterpart (that is, receive a plurality (voting), plurality), are elected. In a system based on single-member districts, it elects just ...
, which makes it easier to form a stable
majority government A majority government refers to one or multiple governing parties that hold an absolute majority of seats in legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of s ...
. In 2008,
Canadian Prime Minister The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, link=no) is the first minister of the Crown. The prime minister acts as the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official i ...
Stephen Harper Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is a Canadian politician who served as the 22nd prime minister of Canada from 2006 to 2015. Harper won three mandates during Premiership of Stephen Harper, his nearly decade-long tenure, and is ...
, of the re-elected minority government of Canada, successfully requested Canadian Governor-General Michaëlle Jean to prorogation in Canada, prorogue Parliament. That allowed Harper to delay a potential vote on the non-confidence motion presented by the opposition. (See 2008–2009 Canadian parliamentary dispute.) Three years later, in 2011, Harper's minority government was defeated by a motion of non-confidence, which declared the government to be in contempt of Parliament and led to an 2011 Canadian federal election, election that year. In 2013, during the Euromaidan pro-European riots, the opposition in Ukraine called for a motion of no confidence against the Cabinet of Ministers, led by the pro-Russian and eurosceptic Prime Minister Mykola Azarov. At least 226 votes were needed to gain a majority in Ukraine's Verkhovna Rada. However, it fell 40 votes short, and Azarov's government prevailed. On 1 June 2018, in Spain, the Rajoy II Government, government of
Mariano Rajoy Mariano Rajoy Brey (; born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a 2018 vote of no confidence in the government of Mariano Rajoy, vote of no confidence ousted his government. On 5 Ju ...

Mariano Rajoy
was ousted after a 2018 vote of no confidence in the government of Mariano Rajoy, motion of no confidence passed 180–169 after the sentence of the Gürtel case, Gürtel corruption scandal, which involved the ruling party. Pedro Sánchez was sworn in as the new Spanish prime minister. That was the first time in the history of Spain that a vote of no confidence resulted in a change of government. On 25 September 2018, Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven was ousted after he lost a vote of no confidence in the Riksdag after an election was held on 9 September. The centre-left bloc led by Löfven's Social Democratic Party won only 144 seats in parliament, 31 seats short of an absolute majority and just one seat more than the opposition Alliance for Sweden bloc. The Sweden Democrats, having just won 62 seats, also voted with the main opposition bloc's motion of no confidence.


See also

*Constructive vote of no confidence *Interpellation (politics), Interpellation *Motions of no confidence in the United Kingdom


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Motion Of No Confidence Motions of no confidence, Voting