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The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml', p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
founded by Russian ruling dynasty of
Rurikids The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids ( be, Ру́рыкавічы, Ryurykavichy; russian: Рю́риковичи, Ryurikovichi, ; uk, Рю́риковичі, Riurykovychi; literally "sons/descendants of Rurik"), was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) ...
. It is the best known of the kremlins (
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
n
citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brooke ...

citadel
s), and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing
Kremlin Wall The Moscow Kremlin Wall is a defensive wall that surrounds the Moscow Kremlin, recognisable by the characteristic notches and its List of Moscow Kremlin towers, Kremlin towers. The original walls were likely a simple wooden fence with guard tower ...

Kremlin Wall
with
Kremlin towers The following is a list of towers of Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml, p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow Mosc ...
. In addition, within this complex is the
Grand Kremlin Palace The Grand Kremlin Palace (Большой Кремлёвский дворец; ''Bolshoy Kremlyovskiy Dvorets''), also translated Great Kremlin Palace, was built from 1837 to 1849 in Moscow, Russia on the site of the estate of the Grand Princes, wh ...
that was formerly the
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

Tsar
's Moscow residence. The complex now serves as the official residence of the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
of the
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
and as a
museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, culture, cu ...
with almost 3 million visitors in 2017. The Kremlin overlooks the
Moskva River The Moskva (russian: река Москва, Москва-река, ''Moskva-reka'') is a river running through European Russia, western Russia. It River source, rises about west of Moscow and flows roughly east through the Smolensk Oblast, Smole ...
to the south,
Saint Basil's Cathedral The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (russian: собо́р Васи́лия Блаже́нного, '), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is an Orthodox church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building ...

Saint Basil's Cathedral
and
Red Square Red Square ( rus, Красная площадь, Krasnaya ploshchad', ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is one of the oldest and largest squares in Moscow, the capital of Russia. Owing to its historical significance and the adjacent historical build ...

Red Square
to the east, and the
Alexander Garden Alexander Gardens (russian: Александровский сад) was one of the first urban public parks in Moscow, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and ...
to the west. The name "''Kremlin''" means "fortress inside a city", and is often also used
metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
ically to refer to the government of the Russian Federation. It previously referred to the government of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
(1922–1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars). The term "
KremlinologyKremlinology is the study and analysis of the politics and policies of Russia while Sovietology is the study of politics and policies of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Feder ...
" refers to the study of Soviet and Russian politics. The Kremlin is open to the public and offers individual and group guided tours. Visible are the
Armoury Chamber
Armoury Chamber
,
Tsar Cannon The Tsar Cannon (russian: Царь-пушка, ''Tsar'-pushka'') is a large early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed ...
,
Tsar Bell The Tsar Bell (russian: Царь–колокол, ''Tsar'-kolokol''), also known as the Tsarsky Kolokol, Tsar Kolokol III, or Royal Bell, is a tall, diameter bell A bell is a struck idiophone, directly struck idiophone percussion instrumen ...

Tsar Bell
, artillery pieces, and the exposition of Russian wooden sculpture and carvings.


History


Origin

The site had been continuously inhabited by Finnic peoples since the 2nd century BC. The
East Slavs The East Slavs are the most populous subgroup of the Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity and language. Most ethnic groups share ...
occupied the south-western portion of
Borovitsky Hill Kremlin Hill (Russian language, Russian: Кремлёвский холм 'Kremlyovskiy kholm'' former name Borovitsky Hill - Боровицкий холм 'Borovitskiy kholm'' also known as Borovitskiy Cape - Боровицкий мыс 'B_...
_as_early_as_the_11th_century,_as_evidenced_by_a_metropolitan_seal_from_the_1090s_which_was_unearthed_by_Soviet_archaeologists_in_the_area._The_Vyatichi_built_a_Gord_(archaeology).html" ;"title="Vyatichi.html" ;"title="'B ...
as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s which was unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi">'B ...
as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s which was unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi built a Gord (archaeology)">fortified structure (or "grad") on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the
Moskva River The Moskva (russian: река Москва, Москва-река, ''Moskva-reka'') is a river running through European Russia, western Russia. It River source, rises about west of Moscow and flows roughly east through the Smolensk Oblast, Smole ...
. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow'. The word "Kremlin" was first recorded in 1331 (though etymologist
Max Vasmer Max Julius Friedrich Vasmer (; russian: Максимилиан Романович Фа́смер, translit=Maksimilian Romanovič Fásmer; 28 February 1886 – 30 November 1962) was a Russo- German linguist. He studied problems of etymology in I ...

Max Vasmer
mentions an earlier appearance in 1320). The grad was greatly extended by Prince
Yuri Dolgorukiy Yuri I Vladimirovich (russian: Юрий Владимирович), commonly known as Yuri Dolgoruky or the Long Arm (russian: Юрий Долгорукий, meaning "Far-Reaching", c. 109915 May 1157) was the first Rurikid prince to rule in the ...
in 1156, destroyed by the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongols
in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339.


Seat of grand dukes

Dmitri Donskoi Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (russian: Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 – 19 May 1389), son of Ivan I ...
replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366–1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls; this fortification withstood a siege by Khan
Tokhtamysh Tokhtamysh ( tt, Тухтамыш/Tuqtamış, fa, توقتمش),The spelling of Tokhtamysh varies, but the most common spelling is Tokhtamysh. Tokhtamısh, Toqtamysh, ''Toqtamış'', ''Toqtamıs'', ''Toktamys'', ''Tuqtamış'', and variants also ...

Tokhtamysh
. Dmitri's son
Vasily I Vasily I Dmitriyevich (russian: Василий I Дмитриевич; 30 December 137127 February 1425) was the Grand Prince of Moscow This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes the titles Prince of Novg ...
resumed construction of churches and cloisters in the Kremlin. The newly built
Cathedral of the AnnunciationAnnunciation Cathedral or Cathedral of the Annunciation can refer to: * Cathedral of the Annunciation, Gospić, Croatia * Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens, Greece * Cathedral of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St Nathy, Ballaghaderr ...

Cathedral of the Annunciation
was painted by
Theophanes the Greek 200px, Transfiguration of Jesus (1408). Theophanes the Greek (sometimes "Feofan Grek" from the russian: Феофан Грек, Greek language, Greek: Θεοφάνης; c. 1340 – c. 1410) was a Greeks, Byzantine Greek artist and one of the g ...
,
Andrei Rublev Andrei Rublev ( rus, Андре́й Рублёв, p=ɐnˈdrʲej rʊˈblʲɵf , also transliterated as ''Andrey Rublyov'') was a Russian icon painter born in the 1360s, and died between 1427 and 1430 in Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, М ...
, and Prokhor in 1406. The
Chudov Monastery The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow. The monastery A monastery is a building or ...

Chudov Monastery
was founded by Dmitri's tutor, Metropolitan Alexis; while his widow,
Eudoxia
Eudoxia
, established the
Ascension Convent of Ascension Convent (1580s), from an early 19th-century drawing. Ascension Convent, known as the Starodevichy Convent or Old Maidens' Convent until 1817 (russian: Вознесенский монастырь, ''Voznesensky monastyr''), was an Orth ...
in 1397.


Residence of the tsars

Grand Prince Ivan III
Grand Prince Ivan III
organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from
Renaissance Italy The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civil ...
, including Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marcus Ruffus who designed the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and
Muscovite Russia The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое Княжество Московское, ''Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye'', also known in English simply as Muscovy from the ...
was the
Ivan the Great Bell Tower The Ivan the Great Bell Tower (russian: Колокольня Ивана Великого, ''Kolokol'nya Ivana Velikogo'') is a church tower inside the Moscow Kremlin complex. With a total height of , it is the tallest tower and structure of Kre ...

Ivan the Great Bell Tower
, built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600. The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. Spasskie gates of the wall still bear a dedication in Latin praising Petrus Antonius Solarius for the design. After construction of the new kremlin walls and churches was complete, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel. The Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town ( Kitay-gorod) by a 30-meter-wide moat, over which
Saint Basil's Cathedral The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (russian: собо́р Васи́лия Блаже́нного, '), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is an Orthodox church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building ...

Saint Basil's Cathedral
was constructed during the reign of
Ivan the Terrible Ivan IV Vasilyevich (russian: Ива́н Васильевич; 25 August 1530 – ), commonly known in English language, English as Ivan the Terrible (from , Romanization of Russian, romanized: , Literal translation, lit. "Ivan the Formidable" ...
. The same tsar also renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, and endowed the Trinity
metochion {{redirects, Metochia, the central Balkan region, Metohija The metochion of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Alexandria in the Church of All Saints, Moscow A ''metochion'' or ''metochi'' ( gr, μετόχιον, metóchion or gr, μετόχι, met ...
inside the Kremlin. The metochion was administrated by the , and contained the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, which was described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country. During the
Time of Troubles The Time of Troubles (russian: Смутное время, ), or Smuta (russian: Смута), was a period of political crisis during the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russk ...
, the Kremlin was held by the
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of prince
Dmitry Pozharsky Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky ( rus, Дми́трий Миха́йлович Пожа́рский, p=ˈdmʲitrʲɪj mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ pɐˈʐarskʲɪj; 17 October 1577 - 30 April 1642) was a Russian prince known for his military leadership d ...

Dmitry Pozharsky
and
Kuzma Minin Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against ...

Kuzma Minin
paved the way for the election of
Mikhail Romanov Michael I (Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов, ''Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov'') () became the first Russian Tsar of the House of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia The ...
as the new tsar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis and grandson Feodor, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate,
Terem Palace Terem Palace or Teremnoy Palace (russian: Теремной дворец) is a historical building in the Moscow Kremlin, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe an ...
,
Amusement Palace The Amusement Palace (russian: Потешный дворец, translit=Poteshny Dvorets) is located at the Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml, p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kre ...
and the palace of
Patriarch Nikon Nikon ( ru , Ни́кон, Old Russian: ''Нїконъ''), born Nikita Minin (''Никита Минин''; 7 May 1605 – 17 August 1681) was the seventh Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' (russian: Патри ...
were built. Following the death of Alexis's son, Feodor, and the , escaped with much difficulty from the Kremlin and as a result developed a dislike for it. Three decades later, Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital,
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
.


Imperial period

Although still used for coronation ceremonies, the Kremlin was abandoned and neglected until 1773, when
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...

Catherine the Great
engaged
Vasili Bazhenov Vasily Ivanovich Bazhenov (russian: Васи́лий Ива́нович Баже́нов) (March 1 ( N.S. 12), 1737 or 1738 – August 2 (N.S. 13), 1799) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is ...

Vasili Bazhenov
to build her new residence there. Bazhenov produced a bombastic
Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
design on a heroic scale, which involved the demolition of several churches and palaces, as well as a portion of the Kremlin wall. After the preparations were over, construction was delayed due to lack of funds. Several years later the architect
Matvey Kazakov Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov (russian: Матве́й Фёдорович Казако́в, 1738 – 7 November 1812) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and ...
supervised the reconstruction of the dismantled sections of the wall and of some structures of the Chudov Monastery, and built the spacious and luxurious Offices of the Senate, since adapted for use as the principal workplace of the President of Russia. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, the Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with fashion. French forces occupied the Kremlin from 2 September to 11 October 1812, following the
French invasion of Russia The French invasion of Russia, also known as the Russian Campaign, the Second Polish War, the Second Polish Campaign, the Patriotic War of 1812 , and the War of 1812, was begun by Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – ...
. When
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
retreated from Moscow, he ordered the whole Kremlin to be blown up. The
Kremlin Arsenal The Kremlin Arsenal (russian: Арсенал Московского Кремля) is a former Armory (military), armory built within the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia. Initially constructed in 1736, it has been rebuilt several times. It r ...

Kremlin Arsenal
, several portions of the Kremlin Wall and several wall towers were destroyed by explosions and the Faceted Chamber and other churches were damaged by fire. Explosions continued for three days, from 21 to 23 October 1812. However, rain damaged the fuses, and the damage was less severe than intended. Restoration works were undertaken in 1816–1819, supervised by
Osip Bove Osip (Russian ''О́сип'') is a Russian male given name, a variant of the name Joseph Joseph is a common masculine given name, derived from the Hebrew Yosef. The form "Joseph" is used mostly in English, French and partially German-speaking ( ...
. During the remainder of the reign of
Alexander IAlexander I may refer to: * Alexander I of Macedon, king of Macedon 495–454 BC * Alexander I of Epirus (370–331 BC), king of Epirus * Pope Alexander I (died 115), early bishop of Rome * Pope Alexander I of Alexandria (died 320s), patriarch of Al ...

Alexander I
, several ancient structures were renovated in a fanciful neo-Gothic style, but many others, including all the buildings of the Trinity metochion, were condemned as "disused" or "dilapidated" and were torn down. On visiting Moscow for his coronation festivities, Tsar was not satisfied with the Grand Palace (alias Winter Palace), which had been erected in the 1750s to the design of
Francesco Rastrelli Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломе́евич) Растре́лли; 1700 in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in Fra ...
. The elaborate
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a of , , , , and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including the Iberian Peninsula it continued, together with new s ...

Baroque
structure was demolished, as was the nearby church of St. John the Precursor, built by
Aloisio the New 200px, Cathedral of the Metropolitan Peter is one of 12 churches built by Aloisio in Moscow. Aloisio the New, known in Russian as ''Aleviz Novyi'' or ''Aleviz Fryazin'', was an Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ), a ...
in 1508 in place of the first church constructed in Moscow. The architect
Konstantin Thon Konstantin Andreyevich Thon, also spelled Ton (russian: Константи́н Андре́евич Тон; October 26, 1794 – January 25, 1881) was an official architect of Russian Empire, Imperial Russia during the reign of Nicholas I of Russia, ...
was commissioned to replace them with the
Grand Kremlin Palace The Grand Kremlin Palace (Большой Кремлёвский дворец; ''Bolshoy Kremlyovskiy Dvorets''), also translated Great Kremlin Palace, was built from 1837 to 1849 in Moscow, Russia on the site of the estate of the Grand Princes, wh ...
, which was to rival the
Winter Palace The Winter Palace ( rus, Зимний дворец, Zimnij dvorets, p=ˈzʲimnʲɪj dvɐˈrʲɛts) is a palace in Saint Petersburg, which served as the official residence of the Russian Emperors from 1732 to 1917. the palace and its precincts ...

Winter Palace
in St. Petersburg in its dimensions and in the opulence of its interiors. The palace was constructed in 1839–1849, followed by the re-building of the
Kremlin Armoury The Kremlin Armoury,Officially called the "Armou/ory Chamber" but also known as the cannon yard, the "Armou/ory Palace", the "Moscow Armou/ory", the "Armou/ory Museum", and the "Moscow Armou/ory Museum" but different from the Kremlin Arsenal Th ...

Kremlin Armoury
in 1851. After 1851 the Kremlin changed little until the
Russian Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution was a period of Political revolution, political and social revolution that took place in the former Russian Empire and began during the First World War. Commencing in 1917 with the fall of the House of Romanov and concl ...
. The only new features added during this period were the Monument to Alexander II and a stone cross marking the spot where in 1905
Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia (''Сергей Александрович''; 11 May 1857 – 17 February 1905) was the fifth son and seventh child of Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and ...

Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia
was assassinated by
Ivan Kalyayev Ivan Platonovich Kalyayev (russian: Иван Платонович Каляев; 6 July 1877 – 23 May 1905) was a Russian Empire poet, a member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. He is best known for his role in the assassination of Grand ...

Ivan Kalyayev
. These monuments were destroyed by the
Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (росси ...

Bolshevik
s in 1918.


Soviet period and beyond

The
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
government moved from
Petrograd Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Petrograd
(present-day Saint Petersburg) to Moscow on 12 March 1918.
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
selected the
Kremlin Senate The Kremlin Senate (The Senate Palace) (russian: Сенатский дворец) is a building within the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia. Initially constructed from 1776 to 1787, it originally housed the Moscow branch of the Governing Se ...
as his residence.
Joseph Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin . ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgia (country), Georgian revolutionary and the ruler of the Soviet Union from 1927 until 1953. He served as both General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922 ...
also had his personal rooms in the Kremlin. He was eager to remove all the "relics of the tsarist regime" from his headquarters. Golden eagles on the towers were replaced by shining
Kremlin stars The Kremlin stars ( rus, Кремлёвские звёзды, Kremlyovskiye zvyozdyy) are pentagonal In geometry, a pentagon (from the Greek language, Greek πέντε ''pente'' meaning ''five'' and γωνία ''gonia'' meaning ''angle'') is an ...
, while the wall near
Lenin's Mausoleum Lenin's Mausoleum (from 1953 to 1961 Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum) ( rus, links=no, Мавзолей Ленина, r=Mavzoley Lenina, p=məvzɐˈlʲej ˈlʲenʲɪnə), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated on Red Square Red Square ( rus, Кр ...
was turned into the
Kremlin Wall Necropolis The Kremlin Wall Necropolis is the Soviet Union's National Cemetery for those who died in valour for the union from 1917 to its last burial in 1985. Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik v ...

Kremlin Wall Necropolis
. The
Chudov Monastery The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow. The monastery A monastery is a building or ...

Chudov Monastery
and
Ascension Convent of Ascension Convent (1580s), from an early 19th-century drawing. Ascension Convent, known as the Starodevichy Convent or Old Maidens' Convent until 1817 (russian: Вознесенский монастырь, ''Voznesensky monastyr''), was an Orth ...
, with their 16th-century
cathedrals A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual Conference, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually speci ...
, were dismantled to make room for the military school. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
the towers were repainted with different colors and covered with wooden tents. Every roof was painted rusty brown so as to make them indistinguishable from typical roofs in the city. The grounds, paved with cobblestone, were covered up with sand. Tents painted to look like roofs were stretched over the gardens, with facades of the buildings also painted to confuse the German pilots. The residence of the Soviet government was closed to tourists until 1955. It was not until the
Khrushchev Thaw The Khrushchev Thaw ( rus, хрущёвская о́ттепель, r=khrushchovskaya ottepel, p=xrʊˈɕːɵfskəjə ˈotʲ:ɪpʲɪlʲ or simply ''ottepel'')William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the pe ...
that the Kremlin was reopened to foreign visitors. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961, and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
in 1990. Although the current director of the Kremlin Museums, Elena Gagarina (
Yuri Gagarin Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin; Gagarin's first name is sometimes transliterated as ''Yuriy'', ''Youri'', or ''Yury''. (9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a pilot and who became the first human to journey into . Traveling in the capsule, Gag ...
's daughter) advocates a full-scale restoration of the destroyed cloisters, recent developments have been confined to expensive restoration of the original interiors of the Grand Kremlin Palace, which were altered during Stalin's rule.


State Kremlin Palace

The
State Kremlin Palace The State Kremlin Palace (russian: Государственный Кремлёвский Дворец), formerly and unofficially still better known as the Kremlin Palace of Congresses (Кремлёвский Дворец съездов), is a ...

State Kremlin Palace
(alias Kremlin Palace of Congresses), was commissioned by
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
as a modern arena for Communist Party meetings, and was built within the Kremlin walls 1959–1961. Externally the palace is faced with white marble and the windows are tinted and reflective. The construction of a large modern public building in a historic neighborhood generated an uproar, especially since the building replaced several heritage buildings including the old neo-classical building of the State Armory and some of the rear parts of the Great Kremlin Palace. Although this was not the first time that the Soviet government had destroyed architectural heritage (notably the
Chudov Monastery The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow. The monastery A monastery is a building or ...

Chudov Monastery
and Ascension Cloisters) in the Kremlin and in the country in general, by the mid 1950s laws were in place effectively considering all pre-Soviet constructions as historical monuments and preventing their demolition, in some ways making the construction illegal. Nevertheless, the Palace was integrated into the larger complex of the
Great Kremlin Palace The Grand Kremlin Palace (Большой Кремлёвский дворец; ''Bolshoy Kremlyovskiy Dvorets''), also translated Great Kremlin Palace, was built from 1837 to 1849 in Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p= ...
with walkways linking it to the Patriarchal Chambers and the
Terem Palace Terem Palace or Teremnoy Palace (russian: Теремной дворец) is a historical building in the Moscow Kremlin, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe an ...
.


Buildings

The existing
Kremlin wall The Moscow Kremlin Wall is a defensive wall that surrounds the Moscow Kremlin, recognisable by the characteristic notches and its List of Moscow Kremlin towers, Kremlin towers. The original walls were likely a simple wooden fence with guard tower ...

Kremlin wall
s and
towers A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...
were built by Italian masters from 1485 to 1495. The irregular triangle of the Kremlin wall encloses an area of . Its overall length is , but the height ranges from , depending on the terrain. The wall's thickness is between . Originally there were eighteen
Kremlin towers The following is a list of towers of Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml, p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow Mosc ...
, but their number increased to twenty in the 17th century. All but three of the towers are square in plan. The highest tower is the Troitskaya, which was built to its present height of in 1495. Most towers were originally crowned with wooden tents. The extant brick tents with strips of colored tiles date to the 1680s. Cathedral Square is the heart of the Kremlin. It is surrounded by six buildings, including three
cathedral A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual Conference, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually spec ...

cathedral
s. The
Cathedral of the Dormition The Cathedral of the Dormition (russian: Успенский Собор, or ''Uspensky sobor''), also known as the Assumption Cathedral or Cathedral of the Assumption is a Russian Orthodox church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) ...
was completed in 1479 to be the main church of Moscow and where all the
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

Tsar
s were crowned. The massive
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
façade, capped with its five golden
cupola In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archite ...

cupola
s, was the design of
Aristotele Fioravanti The Dormition Cathedral. Ridolfo "Aristotele" Fioravanti (c. 1415 or 1420 in Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label= Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna egl, Emigliàn (masculine) egl, Emi ...
. Several important metropolitans and patriarchs are buried there, including Peter and Makarii. The gilded, three-domed
Cathedral of the AnnunciationAnnunciation Cathedral or Cathedral of the Annunciation can refer to: * Cathedral of the Annunciation, Gospić, Croatia * Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens, Greece * Cathedral of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St Nathy, Ballaghaderr ...

Cathedral of the Annunciation
was completed next in 1489, only to be reconstructed to a nine-domed design a century later. On the south-east of the square is the much larger Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (1508), where almost all the Muscovite monarchs from
Ivan Kalita Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Russian: Ива́н I Данилович Калита; 1 November 1288 – 31 March 1340 or 1341Basil Dmytryshyn, ''Medieval Russia:A source book, 850-1700'', (Academic International Press, 2000), 194.) was Grand Duke o ...
to
Ivan V of Russia Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: ''Иван V Алексеевич'', – ) was a joint- Tsar of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It i ...
are interred. (
Boris Godunov Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (; russian: Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в; possibly 1551 ) ruled the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, translit=Russkoye tsarstvo, l ...

Boris Godunov
was originally buried there, but was moved to the .) There are two domestic churches of the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, the
Church of the Twelve Apostles The Patriarchal Chambers and the Church of the Twelve Apostles () is a minor cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, commissioned by Patriarch Nikon as part of his stately residence in 1653 and dedicated to Philip the Apostle three years later. Now it i ...
(1653–1656) and the exquisite one-domed Church of the Deposition of the Virgin's Robe, built by
Pskov Pskov ( rus, Псков, a=pskov-ru.ogg, p=pskof; see also names in other languages) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1 ...

Pskov
artisans from 1484 to 1488 and featuring superb icons and frescoes from 1627 and 1644. The other notable structure is the
Ivan the Great Bell Tower The Ivan the Great Bell Tower (russian: Колокольня Ивана Великого, ''Kolokol'nya Ivana Velikogo'') is a church tower inside the Moscow Kremlin complex. With a total height of , it is the tallest tower and structure of Kre ...

Ivan the Great Bell Tower
on the north-east corner of the square, which is said to mark the exact centre of Moscow and resemble a burning candle. Completed in 1600, it is high. Until the Russian Revolution, it was the tallest structure in the city, as construction of buildings taller than that was forbidden. Its 21 bells would sound the alarm if any enemy was approaching. The upper part of the structure was destroyed by the French during the Napoleonic Invasion and has been rebuilt. The
Tsar bell The Tsar Bell (russian: Царь–колокол, ''Tsar'-kolokol''), also known as the Tsarsky Kolokol, Tsar Kolokol III, or Royal Bell, is a tall, diameter bell A bell is a struck idiophone, directly struck idiophone percussion instrumen ...

Tsar bell
, the largest bell in the world, stands on a pedestal next to the tower. The oldest secular structure still standing is
Ivan III Ivan III Vasilyevich (russian: Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Names of Rus', Russ ...

Ivan III
's
Palace of Facets , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head o ...
(1491), which holds the imperial thrones. The next oldest is the first home of the royal family, the
Terem Palace Terem Palace or Teremnoy Palace (russian: Теремной дворец) is a historical building in the Moscow Kremlin, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe an ...
. The original Terem Palace was also commissioned by Ivan III, but most of the existing palace was built in the 17th century. The Terem Palace and the Palace of Facets are linked by the
Grand Kremlin Palace The Grand Kremlin Palace (Большой Кремлёвский дворец; ''Bolshoy Kremlyovskiy Dvorets''), also translated Great Kremlin Palace, was built from 1837 to 1849 in Moscow, Russia on the site of the estate of the Grand Princes, wh ...
. This was commissioned by Nicholas I in 1838. The largest structure in the Kremlin, it cost 11 million
rubles The ruble or rouble (; rus, рубль, p=rublʲ) is the currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia. Originally, the ruble was the currency unit of Imperial Russia and then the Sov ...
to build and more than one billion dollars to renovate in the 1990s. It contains dazzling reception halls, a ceremonial red staircase, private apartments of the tsars, and the lower storey of the Resurrection of Lazarus church (1393), which is the oldest extant structure in the Kremlin and the whole of Moscow. The northern corner of the Kremlin is occupied by the Arsenal, which was built for
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
in 1701. The southwestern section of the Kremlin holds the . Built in 1851 to a
Renaissance Revival , seat of the Rothschild family, 1874 Renaissance Revival architecture (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a group of 19th century Revivalism (architecture), architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival architecture, ...
design, it is currently a museum housing Russian state
Regalia Regalia is a Latin plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form ...
and
Diamond Fund The Diamond Fund (russian: Алмазный фонд) is a unique collection of gems, jewelry and natural gold nugget, nuggets, which are stored and exhibited in the Kremlin Armoury in Russia. The Fund was opened in 1967 and its collection dates ...
. The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium '' Methylophaga muralis'' (first called ''Methylophaga murata'') was first isolated from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin.


Helipad

To stop disruptions to traffic caused by motorcades, President
Vladimir Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current . He has been serving in this position since 2012, and he previously held this office from 1999 unti ...

Vladimir Putin
authorized the construction of the Kremlin helipad. The helipad was completed in May 2013. The President will now commute back and forth to the Kremlin using a
Mil Mi-8 The Mil Mi-8 (russian: Ми-8, NATO reporting name NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia, China, and historically, the Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pact). They provide unambiguo ...

Mil Mi-8
helicopter. Careful consideration was taken in choosing the location of the helipad. The location chosen is said to be of no threat to the architecture of the Kremlin.


Moscow Metro

The nearest
Moscow Metro The Moscow Metro is a metro Metro, short for metropolitan, may refer to: Geography * Metro (city), a city in Indonesia * A metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban c ...

Moscow Metro
stations to the Kremlin are: Okhotny Ryad and
Biblioteka Imeni Lenina Biblioteka Imeni Lenina (russian: Библиоте́ка и́мени Ле́нина, en, Lenin Library) is a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. The station was opened on May 15, 1935 as a part of the first stage of the Metro ...

Biblioteka Imeni Lenina
(
Sokolnicheskaya Line#REDIRECT Sokolnicheskaya line {{redirect shell, {{R from move {{R from alternative capitalization ...
), Teatralnaya (
Zamoskvoretskaya Line#REDIRECT Zamoskvoretskaya line {{redirect shell, {{R from move {{R from alternative capitalization ...
),
Ploshchad Revolyutsii Ploshchad Revolyutsii (russian: Пло́щадь Револю́ции) is a station on the Moscow Metro, in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow. The station is named after Revolution Square, Moscow, Revolution Square, under which it is located ...
( Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line), Arbatskaya ( Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line), Alexandrovsky Sad (
Filyovskaya Line#REDIRECT Filyovskaya line {{redirect shell, {{R from move {{R from alternative capitalization ...
), and Borovitskaya ( Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line).


References


Specific


Bibliography

* * *


External links


tour-planet.com – Sights of the Moscow Kremlin

Travel2moscow.com – Official Moscow Guide

History of the Kremlin

Moscow Kremlin State Historical and Cultural Museum Sanctuary

Open Kremlin

Rare access inside the Kremlin
video news report from ''
BBC News Online BBC News Online is the website of BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the United Kingdom’s state affiliated media British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public servi ...
'', 17 January 2013 * {{Authority control
Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml, p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow founded by Russian ruling dynasty of Rurikids. It is the bes ...
Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml, p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow founded by Russian ruling dynasty of Rurikids. It is the bes ...
Castles in Russia, Kremlin World Heritage Sites in Russia, Kremlin Tourist attractions in Moscow, Kremlin Royal residences in Russia, Kremlin Presidential residences, Kremlin 1495 establishments in Europe 15th-century establishments in Russia Kremlins