The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes
that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges
in U.S. states
using the proceeds of federal land sales. The Morrill Act of 1862 ( et seq.) was enacted during the American Civil War
, and the Morrill Act of 1890 (the Agricultural College Act of 1890 (, et seq.) expanded this model.
Passage of original bill
For 20 years prior to the first introduction of the bill in 1857, there was a political movement calling for the creation of agriculture colleges. The movement was led by Professor Jonathan Baldwin Turner
of Illinois College
. For example, the Michigan Constitution
of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school", though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham
signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, known today as Michigan State University
, which served as a model for the Morrill Act.
[Milestones of MSU's Sesquicentennial]
". MSU University Archives and Historical Collection. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
On February 8, 1853, the Illinois Legislature
adopted a resolution
, drafted by Turner, calling for the Illinois congressional delegation to work to enact a land-grant bill to fund a system of industrial colleges, one in each state. Senator Lyman Trumbull
of Illinois believed it was advisable that the bill should be introduced by an eastern congressman, and two months later Representative Justin Smith Morrill
introduced his bill.
Unlike the Turner Plan, which provided an equal grant to each state, the Morrill bill allocated land based on the number of senators and representatives each state had in Congress. This was more advantageous to the more populous eastern states.
The Morrill Act was first proposed in 1857, and was passed by Congress in 1859, but it was vetoed by President James Buchanan
. In 1861, Morrill resubmitted the act with the amendment that the proposed institutions would teach military tactics as well as engineering and agriculture. Aided by the secession of many states that did not support the plans, this reconfigured Morrill Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln
on July 2, 1862.
(a land-grant university), is named for Senator Justin Morrill
, in honor of the act he sponsored.
upImage:Beaumont_Tower_10_2007_BR.jpg.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Beaumont Tower">Image:Beaumont Tower 10 2007 BR.jpg">upCollege Hall
which is the first building in the United States to teach agricultural science.
The purpose of the land-grant colleges was:
without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactic, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.
From the early to mid-19th century the federal government, through 162 violence-backed cessions, expropriated approximately 10.7 million acres of land from 245 tribal nations and divided it into roughly 80,000 parcels for redistribution. Under the act, each eligible state received of federal land, either within or contiguous to its boundaries, for each member of congress the state had as of the census of 1860. This land, or the proceeds from its sale, was to be used toward establishing and funding the educational institutions described above. Under provision six of the Act, "No State while in a condition of rebellion or insurrection against the government of the United States shall be entitled to the benefit of this act," in reference to the recent [[secession of several [[Southern United States|Southern states and the contemporaneously raging [[American Civil War.
After the war, however, the 1862 Act was extended to the former Confederate states; it was eventually extended to every state and territory, including those created after 1862. If the federal land within a state was insufficient to meet that state's land grant, the state was issued scrip
which authorized the state to select federal lands in other states to fund its institution. For example, New York
carefully selected valuable timber land in Wisconsin
to fund Cornell University
The resulting management of this scrip by the university yielded one third of the total grant revenues generated by all the states, even though New York received only one-tenth of the 1862 land grant.
Overall, the 1862 Morrill Act allocated of land, which when sold yielded a collective endowment of $7.55 million.
On September 12, 1862, the state of Iowa
was the first to accept the terms of the Morrill Act which provided the funding boost needed for the fledgling State Agricultural College and Model Farm (eventually renamed Iowa State University
of Science and Technology). The first land-grant institution actually created under the Act was Kansas State University
, which was established on February 16, 1863, and opened on September 2, 1863.
The land grant colleges transformed engineering
education in America and boosted the United States into a position of leader in technical education. Before the Civil War, American colleges trained students in classical studies
and the liberal arts
. Education was for the affluent and entrance requirements often required proficiency in the dead language
s of Latin and Greek, excluding all the working classes. American engineers were mostly educated at the United States Military Academy
, on fortress construction, and their instructors were the authors of most engineering texts of the day. The Morrill Act changed all of that. Though the Congressional debates about the Act were largely focused on benefits to agriculture, the mechanic arts
were specifically included in the Act's language, meaning applied science
s and engineering
. The Act prohibited spending the endowment
on constructing buildings as expensive and unnecessary, so instead the tools for engineering education increased, such as textbooks, laboratories and equipment. The number of engineers skyrocketed. Whereas in 1866 there were around 300 American men who had graduated with engineering degrees and only six reputable colleges granting them, just four years later there were 21 colleges offering engineering degrees and the total number of engineers graduated had tripled to 866. The following decade added another 2,249 engineers, and by 1911 the United States was graduating 3,000 engineers a year, with a total of 38,000 in the work force. At the time, Germany was graduating 1,800 engineers per year. The US had become the leader in technical education just 50 years after passage of the Morrill Act.
With a few exceptions (including Cornell University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
), nearly all of the land-grant colleges are public. (Cornell University, while private, administers several state-supported contract college
s that fulfill its public land-grant mission to the state of New York.)
To maintain their status as land-grant colleges, a number of programs are required to be maintained by the college. These include programs in agriculture
, as well as a Reserve Officers' Training Corps
A second Morrill Act in 1890 was also aimed at the former Confederate states
. This act required each state to show that race was not an admissions criterion, or else to designate a separate land-grant institution for persons of color. Among the seventy colleges and universities which eventually evolved from the Morrill Acts are several of today's historically Black colleges and universities
. Though the 1890 Act granted cash instead of land, it granted colleges under that act the same legal standing as the 1862 Act colleges; hence the term "land-grant college" properly applies to both groups.
Later on, other colleges such as the University of the District of Columbia
and the "1994 land-grant colleges" for Native Americans were also awarded cash by Congress in lieu of land to achieve "land-grant" status.
In imitation of the land-grant colleges
' focus on agricultural and mechanical research, Congress later established programs of sea grant colleges
(aquatic research, in 1966), urban grant colleges
(urban research, in 1985), space grant colleges
(space research, in 1988), and sun grant colleges
(sustainable energy research, in 2003).
Agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension service
Starting in 1887, Congress also funded agricultural experiment station
s and various categories of agricultural and veterinary research "under direction of" the land-grant universities. Congress later recognized the need to disseminate the knowledge gained at the land-grant colleges to farmers and homemakers. The Smith–Lever Act of 1914
started federal funding of cooperative extension
, with the land-grant universities' agents being sent to virtually every county of every state. In some states, the annual federal appropriations to the land-grant college under these laws exceed the current income from the original land grants. In the fiscal year 2006 USDA budget, $1.033 billion went to research and cooperative extension activities nationwide. For this purpose, then President George W. Bush
proposed a $1.035 billion appropriation for fiscal year 2008.
File:Morrill Act 150th Anniversary Celebration, June 23, 2012 36.JPG|Celebration of the 150th Anniversary of the Morrill Act, at the Library of Congress, June 23, 2012
File:Morrill Act 150th Anniversary Celebration, June 23, 2012 35.jpg|James H. Billington and Vartan Gregorian at the Celebration of the 150th Anniversary of the Morrill Act, 2012
* Agricultural Experiment Stations Act of 1887
* Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities
* Hatch Act of 1887
* Land-grant university
* List of land-grant universities
* Manual labor college
* Smith-Lever Act of 1914
* United States Department of Agriculture
Further readingSorber, Nathan. 2018. ''Land-Grant Colleges and Popular Revolt: The Origins of the Morrill Act and the Reform of Higher Education''. Cornell University Press.
* A radio documentary on the Morrill Land-Grant Acts.
Category:1862 in American law
Category:1862 in the United States
Category:37th United States Congress
Category:History of universities and colleges in the United States
Category:United States federal agriculture legislation
Category:United States federal public land legislation