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''Monas'' is a genus of
Chrysophyceae The Chrysophyceae, usually called chrysophytes, chrysomonads, golden-brown algae or golden algae are a large group of algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a pr ...

Chrysophyceae
, described by
Otto Friedrich Müller Otto Friedrich Müller, also Mueller (2 November 1730 – 26 December 1784) was a Denmark, Danish natural history, naturalist and scientific illustrator. Biography Müller was born in Copenhagen. He was educated for the church, became tutor to a yo ...
in 1773 as a group of
Infusoria Infusoria is a collective term for minute aquatic creatures such as ciliates, euglenoids, protozoa, unicellular algae and small invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a '' ...
. Throughout time, it represented an aggregate genus.


Taxonomic history

Many organisms were transferred to this genus, and most ''Monas'' spp. have later been synonymised with or integrated in other genera. The organisms once affiliated with ''Monas'' spp. truly belong to all major eukaryotic lineages ( Opisthokonta,
Amoebozoa Amoebozoa is a major Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of Amoeba, amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, Pseudopod#Morphology, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae. In most ...
,
Rhizaria The Rhizaria are an ill-defined but species-rich supergroup of mostly unicellular A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of a single cell (biology), cell, unlike a multicellular organism that ...
,
Archaeplastida The Archaeplastida (or kingdom ') are a major group of s, comprising the (Rhodophyta), the , and the s, and some smaller groups such as the s. All of the lineages of Archaeplastida have become ic, except for the lineage , sister to the Rhodoph ...
,
Stramenopiles Stramenopile is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic—that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage ( ...
, Alveolata,
Cryptophyta The cryptophyceae are a class of algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light ene ...
,
Excavata Excavata is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota. It was first suggested by Simpson and Patterson in 1999 and introduced by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 2002 as a formal taxon. It contains a variety of fr ...
), and even to prokaryotic lineages. The genus was also included in other groups, as in
Mastigophora 's ''Kunstformen der Natur, Artforms of Nature'', 1904 (''Giardia lamblia'') (''Chlamydomonas'') A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like appendages called flagellum, flagella. The word ''flagellate'' also describes a partic ...

Mastigophora
or
Flagellata 's '' Artforms of Nature'', 1904 (''Giardia lamblia'') (''Chlamydomonas alt=, 329x329px, Cross section of a ''Chlamydomonas reinhardtii'' cell ''Chlamydomonas'' is a genus of green algae consisting of about 325 speciesSmith, G.M. 1955 ''Cr ...
. The current practice is the (questionable) synonymous use, based on morphological similarity, of the generic names ''Monas'' (mostly used in the east-Asian literature) and ''Spumella'' (synonymously used in the European and American literature) as unpigmented biflagellates in
Chrysophyceae The Chrysophyceae, usually called chrysophytes, chrysomonads, golden-brown algae or golden algae are a large group of algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a pr ...

Chrysophyceae
. However, there is a conflict between the morphological and molecular investigations. The present-day taxon ''Monas''/''Spumella'' is still
polyphyletic 300px, Cladogram of the primates, showing a monophyly (the simians, in yellow), a paraphyly">monophyly.html" ;"title="primates, showing a monophyly">primates, showing a monophyly (the simians, in yellow), a paraphyly (the prosimians, in cyan, inc ...

polyphyletic
, comprising at least three to five lineages, and evidence about the identity of the
type species In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is al ...
of ''Monas'' is missing. This problem in the circumscription of groups, using the practical morphological (or taxonomic) species concept or the
biological species conceptThe species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologist Francesco Redi, the founder of biology, is recognized to be one of the greatest biologists of all time A biologist is a professional who has specialized knowledge in the fiel ...
(based on the degree of molecular similarity), is also faced in the taxonomy of other microorganisms, like other flagellates (e.g., ''
BodoBodo may refer to: Ethnicity * Bodo people, an ethno-linguistic group mainly from Northwest Assam, India * Bodo-Kachari people, an umbrella group from Nepal, India and Bangladesh that includes the Bodo people Culture * Bodo culture, the cul ...
'', ''
Cercomonas Cercomonads are small flagellate 's '' Artforms of Nature'', 1904 (''Giardia lamblia'') ('' Chlamydomonas'') A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like Appendage, appendages called flagellum, flagella. The word ''flagellate' ...
'') and
microalgae Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic The microscopic scale (from , ''mikrós'', "small" and σκοπέω, ''skopéō'' "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye Naked eye, ...
(e.g.,
Chlorococcales Chlorococcales is an Order (biology), order of green algae in the Class (biology), class Chlorophyceae. Individual specimens are sometimes found in soil, but mostly in fresh and marine waters. The order contains approximately 780 species. Conv ...

Chlorococcales
).


References

{{Taxonbar, from=Q18180890 Heterokont genera Algae genera Chrysophyceae Taxa named by Otto Friedrich Müller