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Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the It ...
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereignty, sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including c ...
and
microstate upright=1.4, Map of the smallest states in the world by land area. Note many of these are not considered microstates A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralize ...
on the
French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country prima ...

French Riviera
a few kilometres west of the Italian region of
Liguria Liguria (, ; lij, Ligûria ) is a Regions of Italy, region of north-western Italy; its Capital city, capital is Genoa. Its territory is crossed by the Alps and the Apennine Mountains, Apennines Mountain chain, mountain range and is roughly coexte ...

Liguria
, in
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
, on the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. It is bordered by
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
to the north, east and west. The
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...
is home to 38,682 residents, of whom 9,486 are Monégasque nationals; it is widely recognised for being one of the most expensive and wealthiest places in the world. The
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciary ...

official language
of the principality is
French
French
. In addition, Monégasque (a dialect of Ligurian),
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
are spoken and understood by many residents. With an area of , it is the second-smallest sovereign state in the world, after
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
. Its make it the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of and the world's shortest coastline of approximately ; it has a width that varies between . The highest point in the state is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of
Mont Agel Mont Agel is a mountain on the border between France and Monaco. The summit of this mount, at above sea level, is on the French side, but the highest point of Monaco, lying on a pathway named Chemin des Révoires, is on its slopes, at an altitude ...
, in the Les Révoires ward, which is
above sea level Above may refer to: * Above (artist), Tavar Zawacki (born 1981), contemporary urban artist * ''Above'' (magazine), an American environmental magazine 2009–2010 *Above (Mad Season album), ''Above'' (Mad Season album), 1995 *Above (Pillar album), ' ...
. The principality is about from the
border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called . Some borders—such as mos ...
with
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
. Its most populous ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins with a population of 5,443 as of 2008. Through
land reclamation Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a waste landfill A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of w ...
, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. In 2005, it had an area of only . The principality is governed under a form of
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from a ...
, with
Prince Albert II Albert II – Website of the Palace of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the Sovereign Prince of Monaco The Sovereign Prince (french: Prince de Monaco) or Princess of Monaco (french: princesse de Monaco) is t ...

Prince Albert II
as
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
, who is the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
, can be either a Monégasque or French citizen; the monarch consults with the
Government of France The Government of France (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primari ...
before an appointment. Key members of the judiciary in Monaco are detached French magistrates. The
House of Grimaldi The House of Grimaldi ( , also , , ) is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa, and of the Monaco, Principality of Monaco. The Grimaldi dynasty is a princely house originating in Genoa, founded by the Genoese leader of the Guelphs ...

House of Grimaldi
has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. The state's sovereignty was officially recognised by the Franco-Monégasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small
military units Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary Paramilitary forces usual ...
. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the state's first casino, the
Monte Carlo Casino The Monte Carlo Casino, officially named Casino de Monte-Carlo, is a gambling and entertainment complex located in Monaco. It includes a casino, the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, and the office of Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo. The Casino de Monte-Carl ...

Monte Carlo Casino
, as well as a railway connection to Paris. Since then, Monaco's mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. Monaco is famous for being a
tax haven A tax haven is a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation for foreign investors ("headline" rates may be higher). In some traditional definitions, a tax haven also offers Bank secrecy, financial secrecy. However, while countries wi ...
: the princality has no personal
income tax An income tax is a imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) in respect of the income or profits earned by them (commonly called ). Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times the taxable income. Taxation rates may v ...
and low business taxes. Over 30% of the residents are
millionaire A millionaire is an individual whose net worth Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic e ...
s, with real estate prices reaching €100,000 ($116,374) per square metre in 2018. Monaco is not formally a part of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. has been established through a standardised that apply in ...

European Union
(EU), but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the
euro The euro (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. Al ...

euro
as its sole currency; prior to this it used the
French franc The franc (; ; sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, cons ...
. Monaco joined the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
in 2004 and is a member of the
Organisation internationale de la Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF; sometimes shortened to the Francophonie, french: La Francophonie , but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English-language context) is an international organiza ...
(OIF). It is also the host of the annual street circuit motor race
Monaco Grand Prix The Monaco Grand Prix (french: Grand Prix de Monaco) is a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctio ...
, one of the original Grands Prix of
Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, ...
. The principality has a club football team,
AS Monaco Association Sportive de Monaco Football Club SA, commonly referred to as AS Monaco () or Monaco, is a professional football Football is a family of team sport A team is a French_Ligue_1_and_have_become_List_of_French_football_champions.html" ;"title="Ligue_1.html" ;"title="roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-hum ...
, who compete in the French_Ligue_1_and_have_become_List_of_French_football_champions">French_champions_on_multiple_occasions._A_centre_of_research_into_
French_Ligue_1_and_have_become_List_of_French_football_champions">French_champions_on_multiple_occasions._A_centre_of_research_into_marine_conservation">Ligue_1">French_Ligue_1_and_have_become_List_of_French_football_champions">French_champions_on_multiple_occasions._A_centre_of_research_into_marine_conservation,_Monaco_is_home_to_one_of_the_world's_first_protected_marine_habitats,_an_Oceanographic_Museum_of_Monaco.html" "title="marine_conservation.html" ;"title="Ligue 1">French Ligue 1 and have become List of French football champions">French champions on multiple occasions. A centre of research into marine conservation">Ligue 1">French Ligue 1 and have become List of French football champions">French champions on multiple occasions. A centre of research into marine conservation, Monaco is home to one of the world's first protected marine habitats, an Oceanographic Museum of Monaco">Oceanographic Museum Aerial view of the Rock with the museum. The Oceanographic Museum (''Musée océanographique'') is a museum of marine sciences in Monaco-Ville Monaco City (french: Monaco-Ville) is the southcentral ward in the Principality of Monaco Mo ...
, as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency Environment Labs, which is the only marine laboratory in the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
structure.


History

Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BCE
Phocaea Phocaea or Phokaia (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...
n
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
colony. Referred to by the
Liguria Liguria (, ; lij, Ligûria ) is a Regions of Italy, region of north-western Italy; its Capital city, capital is Genoa. Its territory is crossed by the Alps and the Apennine Mountains, Apennines Mountain chain, mountain range and is roughly coexte ...

Liguria
ns as ''Monoikos'', from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
"μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" (''monos'') "alone, single" + "οἶκος" (''oikos'') "house". According to an ancient myth,
Hercules Hercules (, ) is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divinity, divine hero Heracles, son of Jupiter (mythology), Jupiter and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventur ...

Hercules
passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there. Because this "House" of Hercules was the only temple in the area, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
, which gave it to the Genoese. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the
Grimaldi
Grimaldi
, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control. Though the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were th ...
would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, and, likewise, both France and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consi ...

French Revolution
, but after the defeat of
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
it was put under the care of the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
. In the 19th century, when
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
became a part of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
and for a short time was administered by Italy, then the
Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Third Reich
, before finally being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it resulted in the deportation of the
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jewish
population and execution of several
resistance Resistance may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics * Either of two similarly named but otherwise unrelated comic book series, both published by Wildstorm: ** ''Resistance'' (comics), based on the video game of the same title ** ''Th ...
members from Monaco. Since then Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union.


Arrival of the Grimaldi family

Following a land grant from Emperor
Henry VIHenry VI may refer to: * Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165–1197) * Henry VI, Count Palatine of the Rhine (ruled 1212–1214) * Henry VI, Count of Luxembourg (crowned 1281, died 1288) * Henry VI the Older (before 1345 – 1393) * Henry VI, Count o ...

Henry VI
in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "''Malizia''" (translated from Italian either as "The Malicious One" or "The Cunning One"), and his men captured the fortress protecting the
Rock of Monaco The Rock of Monaco (french: Rocher de Monaco) is a tall monolith Monolithos fortress on Greece.html"_;"title="Rhodes,_Greece">Rhodes,_Greece_ A_monolith_is_a_geological_feature_consisting_of_a_single_massive_rock_(geology).html" "title= ...
while dressed as
Franciscan , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , m ...
friar A friar is a brother A brother is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertil ...
s – a ''monaco'' in Italian – although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name. Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years after by the Genoese forces, and the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century. The Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, and in the late 1300s Genoa lost Monaco in conflict with the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a ruled by one king, originated by the of the and the and ended as a consequence of the . At the height of its power in the ...
over
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
.
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...

Aragon
eventually became part of a united Spain, and other parts of the land grant came to be integrated piecemeal into other states.


1400–1800

In 1419, the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco". In 1612, Honoré II began to style himself "Prince" of Monaco. In the 1630s, he sought French protection against the Spanish forces and, in 1642, was received at the court of
Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was from 1610 until his death in 1643 and (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth bi ...

Louis XIII
as a "duc et pair étranger". The princes of Monaco thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes. Though successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, and intermarried with French and Italian nobilities, the House of Grimaldi is Italian. The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consi ...

French Revolution
.


19th century

In 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and until 1814 it was occupied by the French (in this period much of Europe had been overrun by the French armies under the command of
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
). The principality was reestablished in 1814 under the Grimaldis, only to be designated a protectorate of the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
by the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) wa ...

Congress of Vienna
in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860 when, by the Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality; the surrounding
County of Nice The County of Nice (french: Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, it, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard oc, Contèa de Niça/País Niçard) is a historical region of France located around the southeastern city of Nice Nice ( , ; Niçard ...

County of Nice
(as well as
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont ...

Savoy
) was ceded to France. Monaco became a French protectorate once again. Before this time there was unrest in
Menton Menton (; , written ''Menton'' in classical norm or ''Mentan'' in Mistralian norm; it, Mentone ) is a Commune in France, commune in the Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, regio ...

Menton
and Roquebrune, where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family. They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France protested. The unrest continued until Charles III of Monaco gave up his claim to the two mainland towns (some 95% of the principality at the time) that had been ruled by the Grimaldi family for over 500 years. These were ceded to France in return for 4,100,000 francs. The transfer and Monaco's sovereignty were recognised by the Franco-Monégasque Treaty of 1861. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino. This made Monaco not only a playground for the rich, but a favoured place for them to live.


20th century

Until the
Monégasque Revolution The Monégasque Revolution of 1910 was a series of confrontations by the subjects of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sover ...
of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911
Constitution of Monaco The Constitution of Monaco, first adopted in 1911 after the Monégasque Revolution The Monégasque Revolution of 1910 was a series of confrontations by the subjects of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Princi ...
, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers. The new constitution, however, barely reduced the autocratic rule of the Grimaldi family and
Prince Albert I Albert I (Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi; 13 November 1848 – 26 June 1922) was Prince of Monaco from 10 September 1889 until his death. He devoted much of his life to oceanography, exploration and science. Alongside his expeditions, Albert I ...

Prince Albert I
soon suspended it during the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
. In July 1918, a new Franco-Monégasque Treaty was signed, providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, endorsed in 1919 by the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
, established that Monégasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military and economic interests. It also resolved the Monaco succession crisis. In 1943, the
Italian Army "The safeguard of the republic shall be the supreme law" , colors = , colors_labels = , march = ''Parata d'Eroi'' ("Heroes's parade") by Francesco Pellegrino, ''4 Maggio'' (May 4) ...
invaded and occupied Monaco, forming a
fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum than the standard political right, particularl ...

fascist
administration. In September 1943, following the fall from power of , the German
Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), the ''Kriegsmarine'' (navy) and the ''Luftwaffe'' (air force). The designation "''Wehrmacht ...
occupied
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
and Monaco and the
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazi
deportation of the Jewish population began. René Blum, the prominent French Jew who founded the Ballet de l'Opéra in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
home and held in the
Drancy Drancy () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
deportation camp outside the French capital before being transported to
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical description can be distinguishe ...

Auschwitz
, where he was later killed. Blum's colleague
Raoul Gunsbourg Raoul Samuel Gunsbourg (born January 6, 1860 in Bucharest - died May 31, 1955 in Monte Carlo) was a Jewish-Romania-bornBorn in Bucharest, Gunsbourg is a son of a French father and Romanian mother. His grandfather was a rabbi. opera director, impre ...

Raoul Gunsbourg
, the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, helped by the
French Resistance The French Resistance (french: La Résistance) was a collection of organisations who fought the Nazi occupation of France The Military Administration in France (german: Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; french: Occupation de la France par l' ...
, escaped arrest and fled to
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
. In August 1944, the Germans executed René Borghini, Joseph-Henri Lajoux and Esther Poggio, who were Resistance leaders.
Rainier III Rainier III (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 1923 – 6 April 2005) was the Prince of Monaco The Sovereign Prince (french: Prince de Monaco) or Princess of Monaco (french: princesse de Monaco) is the reigning monarch and ...
, who ruled until 2005, succeeded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress
Grace Kelly Grace Patricia Kelly (November 12, 1929September 14, 1982) was an American film actress who, after starring in several significant films in the early to mid-1950s, became List of Monégasque consorts, Princess of Monaco by marrying Prince Rain ...
, an event that was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny principality. A 1962 amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for
women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the women's rights, right of women to Suffrage, vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women so ...
and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties. In 1963, a crisis developed when Charles de Gaulle blockaded Monaco, angered by its status as a tax haven for wealthy French citizens. The 2014 film ''Grace of Monaco (film), Grace of Monaco'' is loosely based on this crisis. In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
, with full voting rights.


21st century

In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France. On 31 March 2005, Rainier III, who was too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Albert. He died six days later, after a reign of 56 years, with his son succeeding him as Albert II, Prince of Monaco, Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco. Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005, in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass (liturgy), Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Monaco, Saint Nicholas Cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monégasque throne was a two-step event with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate reception, held on 18 November 2005, at the historic Prince's Palace of Monaco, Prince's Palace in Monaco-Ville. On 27 August 2015, Albert II apologised for Monaco's role during World War II in facilitating the deportation of a total of 90 Jews and resistance fighters, of whom only nine survived. "We committed the irreparable in handing over to the neighbouring authorities women, men and a child who had taken refuge with us to escape the persecutions they had suffered in France," Albert said at a ceremony in which a monument to the victims was unveiled at the Monaco cemetery. "In distress, they came specifically to take shelter with us, thinking they would find neutrality." In 2015, Monaco unanimously approved a modest Land reclamation in Monaco, land reclamation expansion intended primarily to accommodate desperately needed housing and a small green/park area. Monaco had previously considered an expansion in 2008, but had called it off. The plan is for about six hectares of apartment buildings, parks, shops and offices to a land value of about 1 billion euros. The development will be adjacent to the Larvotto district and also will include a small marina. There were four main proposals, and the final mix of use will be finalised as the development progresses. The name for the new district is Le Portier, Anse du Portier. On 3 September 2020, the first Monégasque satellite, OSM-1 CICERO, was launched into space from French Guiana aboard a Vega (rocket), Vega rocket. The satellite was built in Monaco by Orbital Solutions Monaco.


Government


Politics

Monaco has been governed under a
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from a ...
since 1911, with the Prince of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco as
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
. The Executive (government), executive branch consists of a
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
as the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
, who presides over the other five members of the Council of Government. Until 2002, the Prime Minister was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the Government of France; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Prime Minister can be French or Monégasque. On 1 September 2020, Prince Albert II appointed a French citizen, Pierre Dartout, to the office. Under the 1962
Constitution of Monaco The Constitution of Monaco, first adopted in 1911 after the Monégasque Revolution The Monégasque Revolution of 1910 was a series of confrontations by the subjects of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Princi ...
, the prince shares his veto power with the Unicameralism, unicameral National Council (Monaco), National Council. The 24 members of the National Council are elected for five-year terms; 16 are chosen through a majority electoral system and 8 by proportional representation. All legislation requires the approval of the National Council, which is dominated by the conservative National and Democratic Union, Rally and Issues for Monaco (REM) party which holds 20 seats. Union Monégasque holds three seats while Renaissance (Monegasque political party), Renaissance holds one seat. The principality's city affairs are directed by the Communal Council of Monaco, Communal Council, which consists of 14 elected members and is presided over by a List of mayors of Monaco, mayor. Georges Marsan has been mayor since 2003. Unlike the National Council, communal councillors are elected for four-year terms and are strictly non-partisan; however, Opposition (politics), oppositions inside the council frequently form. Members of the judiciary of Monaco are appointed by the Sovereign Prince. Key positions within the judiciary are held by French magistrates, proposed by the Government of France.


Security

The wider defence of the nation is provided by France. Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has one of the largest police forces (515 police officers for about 38,000 people) and police presences in the world. Its police includes a special unit which operates patrol and surveillance boats jointly with the military. Police forces in Monaco are commanded by a French officer. There is also a small Military of Monaco, military force. This consists of a bodyguard unit for the prince and his palace in Monaco-Ville called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince's Company of Carabiniers); together with the militarised, armed fire and civil defence corps (Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers de Monaco, Sapeurs-Pompiers) it forms Monaco's total forces. The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince was created by Honoré IV, Prince of Monaco, Prince Honoré IV in 1817 for the protection of the principality and the princely family. The company numbers exactly 116 officers and men; while the non-commissioned officers and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army. In addition to their guard duties as described, the carabiniers patrol the principality's beaches and coastal waters.


Geography

Monaco is a sovereign
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereignty, sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including c ...
, with five quarters and ten wards, located on the
French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country prima ...

French Riviera
in
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
. It is bordered by France's Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, department on three sides, with one side bordering the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. Its centre is about from
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
and only northeast of Nice. It has an area of , or , and a population of 38,400, making Monaco the List of countries and dependencies by area, second-smallest and the most List of countries by population density, densely populated country in the world. The country has a land border of only , a coastline of , a Maritime boundary, maritime claim that extends , and a width that varies between . The highest point in the country is at the access to the ''Patio Palace'' residential building on the Chemin des Révoires (ward Les Révoires) from the D6007 (''Moyenne Corniche'' street) at
above sea level Above may refer to: * Above (artist), Tavar Zawacki (born 1981), contemporary urban artist * ''Above'' (magazine), an American environmental magazine 2009–2010 *Above (Mad Season album), ''Above'' (Mad Season album), 1995 *Above (Pillar album), ' ...
. The lowest point in the country is the Mediterranean Sea. Saint-Jean brook, Saint-Jean is the longest flowing body of water, around in length, and Fontvieille lake, Fontvieille is the largest lake, approximately in area. Monaco's most populated ''quartier'' is Monte Carlo, and the most populated ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. After a recent expansion of Port Hercules, Monaco's total area grew to or ; consequently, new plans have been approved to extend the district of Fontvieille by or , with land Reclaimed land, reclaimed from the Mediterranean Sea. Land reclamation projects include extending the district of Fontvieille. There are two ports in Monaco, Port Hercules and Port Fontvieille. There is a neighbouring French port called Cap d'Ail that is near Monaco. Monaco's only natural resource is fishing; with almost the entire country being an urban area, Monaco lacks any sort of commercial agriculture, agriculture industry.


Administrative divisions

Monaco is the list of sovereign states and dependencies by area, second-smallest country by area in the world; only
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
is smaller. Monaco is the most list of countries and territories by population density, densely populated country in the world. The state consists of only one municipality (''commune''), the Municipality of Monaco. There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government (state-level) and of the municipality (city-level) are different. According to the constitution of 1911, the
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...
was subdivided into three municipalities: * Monaco-Ville, the old city and seat of government of the principality on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean, known as the
Rock of Monaco The Rock of Monaco (french: Rocher de Monaco) is a tall monolith Monolithos fortress on Greece.html"_;"title="Rhodes,_Greece">Rhodes,_Greece_ A_monolith_is_a_geological_feature_consisting_of_a_single_massive_rock_(geology).html" "title= ...
, or simply "The Rock"; * Monte Carlo, the principal residential and resort area with the
Monte Carlo Casino The Monte Carlo Casino, officially named Casino de Monte-Carlo, is a gambling and entertainment complex located in Monaco. It includes a casino, the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, and the office of Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo. The Casino de Monte-Carl ...

Monte Carlo Casino
in the east and northeast; * La Condamine, the southwestern section including the port area, Port Hercules. The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, and they were accorded the status of ''Ward (electoral subdivision), Wards'' or ''Quartiers'' thereafter. * Fontvieille, Monaco, Fontvieille was added as a fourth ward, a newly constructed area claimed from the sea in the 1970s; * Moneghetti became the fifth ward, created from part of La Condamine; * Larvotto became the sixth ward, created from part of Monte Carlo; * Saint Roman (community), La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from part of Monte Carlo. Subsequently, three additional wards were created: * Saint Michel, Monaco, Saint Michel, created from part of Monte Carlo; * La Colle, Monaco, La Colle, created from part of La Condamine; * Les Révoires, also created from part of La Condamine. An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation to be settled beginning in 2014 but Prince Albert II announced in his 2009 New Year Speech that he had ended plans due to the economic climate at the time. However, Prince Albert II in mid-2010 firmly restarted the program. In 2015, a new development called Le Portier, Anse du Portier was announced.


Traditional quarters and modern geographic areas

The four traditional ''quartiers'' of Monaco are Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo and Fontvieille, Monaco, Fontvieille. However, the suburb of Moneghetti, the high-level part of La Condamine, is generally seen today as an effective fifth ''Quartier'' of Monaco, having a very distinct atmosphere and topography when compared with low-level La Condamine.


Wards

Monaco is divided into ten ward (electoral subdivision), wards, with their official numbers; either Fontvieille II or Le Portier would become the effective eleventh ward, if built: ''Note: for statistical purposes, the Wards of Monaco are further subdivided into 178 city blocks (îlots), which are comparable to the census blocks in the United States''. * Other possible expansions are Le Portier, a project relaunched in 2012 * Another possibility was Fontvieille II Development to commence in 2013


Architecture

Monaco exhibits a wide range of architecture, but the principality's signature style, particularly in Monte Carlo, is that of the Belle Époque. It finds its most florid expression in the 1878–9 Monte Carlo Casino, Casino and the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, Salle Garnier created by Charles Garnier (architect), Charles Garnier and Jules Dutrou. Decorative elements include turrets, balconies, pinnacles, multi-coloured ceramics, and caryatids. These were blended to create a picturesque fantasy of pleasure and luxury, and an alluring expression of how Monaco sought and still seeks, to portray itself. This Capriccio (art), capriccio of French, Italian, and Spanish elements were incorporated into hacienda villas and apartments. Following major development in the 1970s, Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, Prince Rainier III banned high-rise development in the principality. His successor,
Prince Albert II Albert II – Website of the Palace of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the Sovereign Prince of Monaco The Sovereign Prince (french: Prince de Monaco) or Princess of Monaco (french: princesse de Monaco) is t ...

Prince Albert II
, overturned this Sovereign Order. In recent years the accelerating demolition of Monaco's architectural heritage, including its single-family villas, has created dismay. The principality has no heritage protection legislation.


Climate

Monaco has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: ''Csa''), with strong maritime influences, with some resemblances to the oceanic climate (''Cfb'') and the humid subtropical climate (''Cfa''). As a result, it has balmy warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. The winters are very mild considering the city's latitude, being as mild as locations located much further south in the Mediterranean Basin. Cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the dry summer season, the average length of which is also shorter. Summer afternoons are infrequently hot (indeed, temperatures greater than are rare) as the atmosphere is temperate because of constant sea breezes. On the other hand, the nights are very mild, due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer. Generally, temperatures do not drop below in this season. In the winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare and generally occur once or twice every ten years. On 27 February 2018, both Monaco and Monte Carlo experienced snowfall.


Economy

Monaco has the world's highest List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, GDP nominal per capita at US$185,742, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, GDP PPP per capita at $132,571 and List of countries by GNI (nominal, Atlas method) per capita, GNI per capita at $183,150. It also has an List of countries by unemployment rate, unemployment rate of 2%, with over 48,000 workers who commute from France and Italy each day. According to the CIA World Factbook, Monaco has the world's List of countries by poverty, lowest poverty rate and the highest number of millionaires and billionaires per capita in the world. For the fourth year in a row, Monaco in 2012 had the world's most expensive real estate market, at $58,300 per square metre. The world's most expensive apartment is located in Monaco, a penthouse at the Odeon Tower valued at $335 million according to ''Forbes'' in 2016. One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism. Each year many foreigners are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate. It has also become a major banking centre, holding over Euro, €100 billion worth of funds. Banks in Monaco specialise in providing private banking, asset and wealth management services. Monaco is the only place in Europe that credit card points are not redeemable. Hotel points are not able to be accumulated nor are transactions recorded allowing for an increase in privacy that is sought by many of the locals. The principality has successfully sought to diversify its economic base into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries, such as cosmetics and biothermics. The state retains Monopoly, monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network (Monaco Telecom) used to be fully owned by the state; it now owns only 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by both Cable & Wireless Communications (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. Monaco is not a member of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. has been established through a standardised that apply in ...

European Union
. However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France and, as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the
euro The euro (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. Al ...

euro
. Before 2002, Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque euro coins, Monegasque designs on its national side.


Gambling industry

The plan for casino gambling was drafted during the reign of Florestan I, Prince of Monaco, Florestan I in 1846. Under Louis-Philippe's Petite bourgeoisie, petite-bourgeois regime, however, a dignitary such as the Prince of Monaco was not allowed to operate a gambling house. All this changed in the dissolute Second French Empire under Napoleon III. The
House of Grimaldi The House of Grimaldi ( , also , , ) is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa, and of the Monaco, Principality of Monaco. The Grimaldi dynasty is a princely house originating in Genoa, founded by the Genoese leader of the Guelphs ...

House of Grimaldi
was in dire need of money. The towns of Menton, France, Menton and Roquebrune, which had been the main sources of income for the Grimaldi family for centuries, were now accustomed to a much-improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to the Sardinian intervention and clamoured for financial and political concession, even for separation. The Grimaldi family hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the difficulties they faced, above all the crushing debt the family had incurred, but Monaco's first casino would not be ready to operate until after Charles III, Prince of Monaco, Charles III assumed the throne in 1856. The grantee of the princely concession (licence) was unable to attract enough business to sustain the operation and, after relocating the casino several times, sold the concession to French casino magnates François Blanc, François and Louis Blanc (businessman), Louis Blanc for 1.7 million francs. The Blancs had already set up a highly successful casino (in fact the largest in Europe) in Bad-Homburg in the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Homburg, a small German principality comparable to Monaco, and quickly petitioned Charles III to rename a depressed seaside area known as "Les Spelugues (Den of Thieves)" to "Monte Carlo (Mount Charles)." They then constructed their casino in the newly dubbed "Monte Carlo" and cleared out the area's less-than-savoury elements to make the neighbourhood surrounding the establishment more conducive to tourism. The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in 1858 and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created. Due to the combination of the casino and the railroads, Monaco finally recovered from the previous half-century of economic slump and the principality's success attracted other businesses. In the years following the casino's opening, Monaco founded its Oceanographic Museum and the Monte Carlo Opera House, 46 hotels were built and the number of jewelers operating in Monaco increased by nearly five-fold. In an apparent effort to not overtax citizens, it was decreed that the Monégasque citizens were prohibited from entering the casino unless they were employees. By 1869, the casino was making such a vast sum of money that the principality could afford to end tax collection from the Monegasques—a masterstroke that was to attract affluent residents from all over Europe in a policy that still exists today. Today, Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which owns Le Grand Casino, still operates in the original building that the Blancs constructed and has since been joined by several other casinos, including the Le Casino Café de Paris, the Monte Carlo Sporting Club & Casino and the Sun Casino. The most recent addition in Monte Carlo is the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort, Monte Carlo Bay Casino, which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Sea and, among other things, offers 145 slot machines, all equipped with "ticket-in, ticket-out" (TITO); it is the first Mediterranean casino to use this technology.


Taxes

Monaco has a 20% VAT plus high social-insurance taxes, payable by both employers and employees. The employers' contributions are between 28% and 40% (averaging 35%) of gross salary, including benefits, and employees pay a further 10% to 14% (averaging 13%). Monaco has never levied
income tax An income tax is a imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) in respect of the income or profits earned by them (commonly called ). Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times the taxable income. Taxation rates may v ...
on individuals, and foreigners are thus able to use it as a "
tax haven A tax haven is a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation for foreign investors ("headline" rates may be higher). In some traditional definitions, a tax haven also offers Bank secrecy, financial secrecy. However, while countries wi ...
" from their own country's high taxes, because as an independent country, Monaco is not obliged to pay taxes to other countries. The absence of a personal income tax has attracted many wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries, who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco. Celebrity, Celebrities, such as
Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, ...
drivers, attract most of the attention but the vast majority are lesser-known business people. However, due to a bilateral treaty with France, French citizens who reside in Monaco must still pay income and wealth taxes to France. The principality also actively discourages the registration of foreign corporations, charging a 33 per cent Corporate tax, corporation tax on profits unless they can show that at least three-quarters of turnover is generated within Monaco. Unlike classic tax havens, Monaco does not offer offshore financial services. In 1998, the Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), issued a first report on the consequences of the financial systems of known
tax haven A tax haven is a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation for foreign investors ("headline" rates may be higher). In some traditional definitions, a tax haven also offers Bank secrecy, financial secrecy. However, while countries wi ...
s. Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when the OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation and denounced it in a report, along with Andorra, Liechtenstein, Liberia, and the Marshall Islands. The report underlined Monaco's lack of co-operation regarding financial information disclosure and availability. Later, Monaco overcame the OECD's objections and was removed from the "grey list" of uncooperative jurisdictions. In 2009, Monaco went a step further and secured a place on the "white list" after signing twelve information exchange treaties with other jurisdictions. In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) stated: "The anti-money laundering system in Monaco is comprehensive. However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters. In addition, the FIU of Monaco (SICCFIN) suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The authorities of Monaco have stated that they will provide additional resources to SICCFIN." Also in 2000, a report by French Socialist Party (France), Socialist Member of Parliament (France), MPs Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon stated that Monaco had relaxed policies with respect to money laundering including within its casino and that the Government of Monaco had been placing political pressure on the judiciary so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated. In its Progress Report of 2005, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a
tax haven A tax haven is a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation for foreign investors ("headline" rates may be higher). In some traditional definitions, a tax haven also offers Bank secrecy, financial secrecy. However, while countries wi ...
, but in its Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, FATF report of the same year it took a positive view of Monaco's measures against money-laundering. The
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco was the only territory that refused to perform the second round, between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories had planned to implement the third and final round, planned between 2005 and 2007.


Numismatics

Monaco issued its own coins in various devaluations connected to the écu already in the seventeenth century, but its first decimal coins of the Monégasque franc were issued in 1837 continued until 2001. Although Monaco is not a
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. has been established through a standardised that apply in ...

European Union
member, it is allowed to use the
euro The euro (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. Al ...

euro
as its currency by arrangement with the Council of the European Union; it is also granted the right to use its Monégasque euro coins, own designs on the national side of the euro coins, which was introduced in 2002. In preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. Like Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and Spain, Monaco decided to put the minting date on its coins. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco have the year 2001 on them, instead of 2002, like the other countries of the Eurozone that decided to put the year of first circulation (2002) on their coins. Three different designs were selected for the Monégasque coins. However, in 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert. Monaco also mints collectors' coins, with face value ranging from €5 to €100. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone. The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised by all eurozone countries.


Population


Demographics

Monaco's total population was 38,400 in 2015, and estimated by the United Nations to be 39,511 as of July 1, 2021. Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monégasques are a minority in their own country: the largest group are French nationals at 28.4%, followed by Monégasque (21.6%), Italian (18.7%), British (7.5%), Belgian (2.8%), German (2.5%), Swiss (2.5%) and U.S. nationals (1.2%). Citizens of Monaco, whether born in the country or naturalised, are called ''Monégasque''. Monaco has the world's highest List of countries by life expectancy, life expectancy at nearly 90 years.


Language

The main and official language of Monaco is , while
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
is spoken by the principality's sizeable community from Italy. French and Italian are in fact more spoken in the principality today than Monégasque, its historic vernacular language. A dialect of Ligurian, Monégasque is not recognised as an official language; nevertheless, some signage appears in both French and Monégasque, and the language is taught in schools. English is used by Americans, American, British people, British, Anglo-Canadians, Canadian, and Irish people, Irish residents. The Grimaldi Family, Grimaldi, princes of Monaco, have Ligurian origin; thus, the traditional national language is Monégasque language, Monégasque, a variety of Ligurian, now spoken by only a minority of residents and as a common second language by many native residents. In Monaco-Ville, street signs are printed in both French and Monégasque.


Religion


Christianity

Christians comprise a total of 86% of Monaco's population. According to Monaco 2012 International Religious Freedom Report, Roman Catholic Christians are Monaco's largest religious group, followed by Protestant Christians. The Report states that there are two Protestant churches, an Anglican church and a Reformed church. There are also various other Evangelical Protestant communities that gather periodically.


Catholicism

The official religion is Catholicism, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. There are five Catholic parish churches in Monaco and one Cathedral of Our Lady Immaculate, cathedral, which is the seat of the archbishop of Monaco. The diocese, which has existed since the mid-19th century, was raised to a non-metropolitan archbishopric in 1981 as the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Monaco, Archdiocese of Monaco and remains exempt (i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See). The patron saint is Saint Devota.


Anglican Communion

There is one Anglican Communion, Anglican church (St Paul's Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. The church was dedicated in 1925. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglican residents in the principality but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists. The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books. The church is part of the Anglican Diocese in Europe.


Reformed Church of Monaco

There is one Reformed church, which meets in a building located in Rue Louis Notari. The building dates from 1958-59. The church is affiliated with the United Protestant Church of France (Église Protestante Unie de France, EPUF), a group that incorporates the former Reformed Church of France (Église Réformée de France). Through this affiliation with EPUF, the church is part of the World Communion of Reformed Churches. The church acts as a host-church to some other Christian communities, allowing them to use its building.


Charismatic Episcopal Church

The Monaco Parish of the Charismatic Episcopal Church (Parish of St Joseph) dates from 2017 and meets in the Reformed Church's Rue Louis Notari building.


Christian Fellowship

The Monaco Christian Fellowship, formed in 1996, meets in the Reformed Church's Rue Louis Notari building.


Greek Orthodoxy

Monaco's 2012 International Religious Freedom Report states that there is one Greek Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodox church in Monaco.


Russian Orthodox

The Russian Orthodox Parish of the Holy Royal Martyrs meets in the Reformed Church's Rue Louis Notari building.


Judaism

The Association Culturelle Israélite de Monaco (founded in 1948) is a converted house containing a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and a Kashrut, kosher food shop, located in Monte Carlo. The community mainly consists of retirees from Britain (40%) and North Africa. Half of the Jewish population is Sephardi Jews, Sephardic, mainly from North Africa, while the other half is Ashkenazi Jews, Ashkenazi.


Islam

The Muslim population of Monaco consists of about 280 people, most of whom are residents, not citizens. The majority of the Muslim population of Monaco are Arabs, though there is a Turkish people, Turkish minority as well. Monaco does not have any official mosques.


Sports


Formula One

Since 1929, the
Monaco Grand Prix The Monaco Grand Prix (french: Grand Prix de Monaco) is a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctio ...
has been held annually in the streets of Monaco. It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco takes six weeks to complete and the removal after the race takes another three weeks. The circuit is narrow and tight and its tunnel, tight corners and many elevation changes make it perhaps the most demanding
Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, ...
track. Driver Nelson Piquet compared driving the circuit to "riding a bicycle around your living room". Despite the challenging nature of the course it has only had two fatalities, Luigi Fagioli who died from injuries received in practice for the 1952 Monaco Grand Prix (run to sports car regulations that year, not Formula 1) and Lorenzo Bandini, who crashed, burned and died three days later from his injuries in 1967."Hulme Wins Monte Carlo; Bandini Hurt", ''Sheboygan Press'', 8 May 1967, Page 13. Two other drivers had lucky escapes after they crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix and Paul Hawkins (racing driver), Paul Hawkins, during the 1965 Monaco Grand Prix, 1965 race. In 2020, the Monaco Grand Prix was COVID-19 pandemic in Monaco, cancelled for the first time since 1954 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, global COVID-19 pandemic.


Monégasque Formula 1 Drivers

There are five Formula One drivers from Monaco: *Charles Leclerc (2018–present) *Robert Doornbos (2005, Dutch driver under a Monégasque license) *Olivier Beretta (1994) *André Testut (1958–1959) *Louis Chiron (1950–1958)


Formula E

Starting in 2015 Formula E started racing biennially with the Historic Grand Prix of Monaco on the Monaco ePrix and used a shorter configuration of the full Formula 1 circuit, keeping it around Port Hercules until 2021. Venturi Racing, ROKiT Venturi Racing is the only motor racing team based in the principality, headquartered in Fontvieille. The marque competes in Formula E and was one of the founding teams of the fully-electric championship. Managed by former racing driver Susie Wolff, the outfit holds seven podiums to date and won Formula E's landmark 50th race in 2019 Hong Kong ePrix, Hong Kong. 1997 Formula One World Championship, 1997 Formula One World Champion Jacques Villeneuve and eleven-time Formula One race winner Felipe Massa have raced for the team previously. Ten-time Guia Circuit, Macau winner Edoardo Mortara and 2020 24 Hours of Le Mans podium finisher Norman Nato currently race for the team.


Monte Carlo Rally

Since 1911 part of the Monte Carlo Rally has been held in the principality, originally held at the behest of
Prince Albert I Albert I (Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi; 13 November 1848 – 26 June 1922) was Prince of Monaco from 10 September 1889 until his death. He devoted much of his life to oceanography, exploration and science. Alongside his expeditions, Albert I ...

Prince Albert I
. Like the Grand Prix, the rally is organised by Automobile Club de Monaco. It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World Rally Championship (WRC). From 2009 until 2011, the rally served as the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge. The rally returned to the WRC calendar in 2012 and has been held annually since. Due to Monaco's limited size, all but the ending of the rally is held on French territory.


Football

Monaco hosts two major football teams in the principality: the men's football club, AS Monaco FC, and the women's football club, OS Monaco. AS Monaco plays at the Stade Louis II and competes in Ligue 1 the first division of French football. The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in the French league, having won Ligue 1 eight times (most recently in 2016–17 Ligue 1, 2016–17) and competed at the top level for all but six seasons since 1953. The club reached the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final, with a team that included Dado Pršo, Fernando Morientes, Jérôme Rothen, Akis Zikos and Ludovic Giuly, but lost 3–0 to Portuguese team FC Porto. French World Cup-winners Thierry Henry, Fabien Barthez, David Trezeguet, and Kylian Mbappe have played for the club. The Stade Louis II also played host to the annual UEFA Super Cup (1998–2012) between the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. The women's team, OS Monaco, competes in the women's French football league system. The club plays in the local regional league, deep down in the league system. It once played in the Division 1 Féminine, in the 1994–95 season, but was quickly relegated. The Monaco national football team represents the nation in association football and is controlled by the Monégasque Football Federation, the governing body for football in Monaco. However, Monaco is one of only two sovereign states in Europe (along with the
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
) that is not a member of UEFA and so does not take part in any UEFA European Football Championship or FIFA World Cup competitions. The team plays its home matches in the Stade Louis II.


Rugby

Monaco national rugby union team, Monaco's national rugby team, as of April 2019, is 101st in the World Rugby Rankings.


Basketball

Multi-sport club AS Monaco FC, AS Monaco owns AS Monaco Basket which was founded in 1928. They play in the European professional club basketball system, top-tier European basketball league, the EuroLeague, and the French basketball league system, French top flight, the LNB Pro A. They have three LNB Pro A Leaders Cup, Pro A Leaders Cup, two LNB Pro B, Pro B (2nd-tier), and one Nationale Masculine 1, NM1 (3rd-tier) championship. They play in Salle Gaston Médecin, which is part of Stade Louis II.


Professional boxing

Due in part to its position both as a tourist and gambling centre, Monaco has staged major professional boxing world title and non title fights from time to time; those include the Carlos Monzon versus Nino Benvenuti rematch, Monzon's rematch with Emile Griffith, Monzon's two classic fights with Rodrigo Valdes, Davey Moore (boxer, born 1959), Davey Moore versus Wilfred Benitez, Wilfredo Benitez, the Knockout, double knockout-ending classic between Lee Roy Murphy and Chisanda Mutti (won by Murphy), and Julio César Chávez, Julio César Chávez, Sr. versus Rocky Lockridge. All of the aforementioned contests took place at the Stade Louis II (1939), first Stade Louis II or the Stade Louis II, second Stade Louis II stadiums.


Other sports

The Monte-Carlo Masters is held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis's ATP Tour Masters 1000, ATP Masters Series. The tournament has been held since 1897. Golf's Monte Carlo Open (golf), Monte Carlo Open was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel in France between 1984 and 1992. Monaco has a national Monaco Davis Cup team, Davis Cup team, which plays in the European/African Zone. Monaco has also Monaco at the Olympics, competed in the Olympic Games, although, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal. At the Youth Olympic Games, Youth Olympic Winter Games, Monaco won a bronze medal in bobsleigh. The 2009 Tour de France, the world's premier cycle race, started from Monaco with a closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day, and the second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles, France. Monaco has also staged part of the Global Champions Tour (International Show-jumping). In 2009, the Monaco stage of the Global Champions tour took place between 25 and 27 June. The Monaco Marathon is the only marathon in the world to pass through three countries, those of Monaco, France and Italy, before the finish at the Stade Louis II. The Monaco Ironman 70.3 triathlon race is an annual event with over 1,000 athletes competing and attracts top professional athletes from around the world. The race includes a swim, bike ride and run. Since 1993, the headquarters of the International Association of Athletics Federations, the world governing body of athletics (sport), athletics, is located in Monaco. An IAAF Diamond League meet is annually held at Stade Louis II. A municipal sports complex, the Rainier III Nautical Stadium in the Port Hercules district consists of a heated saltwater Olympic-size swimming pool, diving boards and a slide. The pool is converted into an ice rink from December to March. In addition to Formula One, the Circuit de Monaco hosts several support series, including FIA Formula 2 Championship, FIA Formula 2 and Porsche Supercup. It has in the past also hosted Formula Three and other Formula Junior programs. From 10 to 12 July 2014 Monaco inaugurated the Solar1 Monte Carlo Cup, a series of ocean races exclusively for solar-powered boats., The women team of the chess club CE Monte Carlo won the European Chess Club Cup several times.


Culture


Cuisine

The cuisine of Monaco is a Mediterranean cuisine shaped by the cooking style of Provence and the influences of nearby northern Italian and southern French cooking, in addition to Monaco's own culinary traditions.


Music

Monaco has an Opéra de Monte-Carlo, opera house, a Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra, symphony orchestra and a Les Ballets de Monte Carlo, classical ballet company. Monaco participated regularly in the Monaco in the Eurovision Song Contest, Eurovision Song Contest between 1959–1979 and 2004–2006, winning in Eurovision Song Contest 1971, 1971, although none of the artists participating for the principality was originally Monegasque.


Visual arts

Monaco has a national museum of contemporary visual art at the New National Museum of Monaco. In 1997, the Audiovisual Institute of Monaco was founded aimed to preserve audiovisual archives and show how the Principality of Monaco is represented in cinema. The country also has numerous works of public art, statues, museums, and memorials (see list of public art in Monaco).


Museums in Monaco

* Monaco Top Cars Collection * Napoleon Museum (Monaco) * Oceanographic Museum


Events, festivals and shows

The Principality of Monaco hosts major international events such as : * International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo * Mondial du Théâtre * Monte-Carlo Television Festival


Bread Festival

Monaco also has an annual bread festival on 17 September every year.


Education


Primary and secondary schools

Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including: seven Nursery school, nursery and primary schools; one secondary school, Collège Charles III; one Secondary education in France, ''lycée'' that provides general and technological training, Lycee Albert Premier, Lycée Albert 1er; and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo. There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools, Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré and Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines, and one international school, the International School of Monaco, founded in 1994.


Colleges and universities

There is one university located in Monaco, namely the International University of Monaco (IUM), an English-language university specializing in business education and operated by the ''Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales'' (INSEEC) group.


Flag

The flag of Monaco is one of the world's oldest national flag designs. Adopted by Monaco on 4 April 1881, it is almost identical to the flag of Indonesia (The flag "Sang Saka Gula Kelapa" was the very old flag from Indonesian kingdom called Majapahit in the past, on 13th century and also adopted by modern Indonesia) except for the ratio of height to width.


Transport

The Rail transport in Monaco, Monaco-Monte Carlo station is served by the SNCF, the French national rail system. The Monaco Heliport provides helicopter service to the closest airport, Nice Côte d'Azur Airport, Côte d'Azur Airport in Nice, France. The Monaco bus company (CAM) covers all the tourist attractions, museums, Jardin Exotique de Monaco, Exotic garden, business centres, and the Casino or the Louis II Stadium.


Relations with other countries

Monaco is so old that it has outlived many of the nations and institutions that it has had relations with. The
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a ruled by one king, originated by the of the and the and ended as a consequence of the . At the height of its power in the ...
and
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were th ...
became a part of other countries, as did the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
. Honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
in 1633, and then from
Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was from 1610 until his death in 1643 and (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth bi ...

Louis XIII
of France by the Treaty of Péronne (1641). Monaco made a special agreement with France in 1963 in which French customs laws apply in Monaco and its territorial waters. Monaco uses the
euro The euro (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. Al ...

euro
but is not a member of the European Union. Monaco shares a border with France but also has about of coastline with the Mediterranean sea. Two important agreements that support Monaco's independence from France include the Franco-Monégasque Treaty of 1861 and the Monaco succession crisis of 1918#French Treaty of 1918, French Treaty of 1918 (see also
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
). The United States CIA Factbook records 1419 as the year of Monaco's independence. There are two embassies in Monaco: those of France and Italy. There are about another 30 or so consulates. By the 21st century Monaco maintained embassies in Belgium (Brussels), France (Paris), Germany (Berlin), the Vatican, Italy (Rome), Spain (Madrid), Switzerland (Bern), United Kingdom (London) and the United States (Washington). In the year 2000 nearly two-thirds of the residents of Monaco were foreigners. In 2015 the immigrant population was estimated at 60% However, it is reported to be difficult to gain citizenship in Monaco, or at least in relative number there are not many people who do so. In 2015 an immigration rate of about 4 people per 1,000 was noted, or about 100–150 people a year. The population of Monaco went from 35,000 in 2008 to 36,000 in 2013, and of that about 20 percent were native Monegasque (see also Nationality law of Monaco). A recurring issue Monaco encounters with other countries is the attempt by foreign nationals to use Monaco to avoid paying taxes in their own country. Monaco actually collects a number of taxes including a 20% VAT and 33% on companies unless they make over 75% of their income inside Monaco. Monaco does not allow dual citizenship but does have multiple paths to citizenship including by declaration and naturalisation. In many cases the key issue for obtaining citizenship, rather than attaining residency in Monaco, is the person's ties to their departure country. For example, French citizens must still pay taxes to France even if they live full-time in Monaco unless they resided in the country before 1962 for at least 5 years. In the early 1960s there was some tension between France and Monaco over taxation. There are no border formalities entering or leaving France. For visitors, a souvenir passport stamp is available on request at Monaco's tourist office. This is located on the far side of the gardens that face the Casino.


See also

* Japanese Garden, Monaco * Telecommunications in Monaco * Outline of Monaco * Microstates and the European Union * List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density * List of rulers of Monaco * List of diplomatic missions in Monaco * List of diplomatic missions of Monaco * ISO 3166-2:MC


Notes


References


External links

; Government
Official Government Portal

Official website of the Prince's Palace of Monaco



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