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The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data
The National Map
accessed October 3, 2011
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water ...

river
in the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a W ...
of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
. It is the largest
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage ba ...
of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a that flows from north to south primarily through eastern in the United States. It originates in the of and flows southward through the to the between and , eventually draining into the at . The river serves as a ...

Hudson River
. The Mohawk flows into the Hudson in
Cohoes, New York Cohoes ( ) is an incorporated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...

Cohoes, New York
, a few miles north of the city of Albany.Mohawk River
, The Columbia Gazetteer of North America
The river is named for the
Mohawk Nation The Mohawk people ( moh, Kanienʼkehá꞉ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal peop ...
of the
Iroquois Confederacy The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous peo ...

Iroquois Confederacy
. It is a major waterway in north-central New York. The largest tributary, the
Schoharie Creek 275px, Schoharie Creek near its source in the Catskills Schoharie Creek in New York (state), New York, flows north from the foot of Indian Head Mountain (New York), Indian Head Mountain in the Catskill Mountains, Catskills through the Schoharie ...

Schoharie Creek
, accounts for over one quarter (26.83%) of the Mohawk River's
watershed Watershed is a hydrological term, which has been adopted in other fields in a more or less figurative sense. It may refer to: Hydrology * Drainage divide, the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins ** European watershed * Drainage basin, ...

watershed
. Another main tributary is the
West Canada Creek The West Canada Creek is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...
, which makes up for 16.33% of the Mohawk's watershed.


Course

The river's source is at the confluence of the West Branch and East Branch in north-central Oneida County. It begins flowing generally southeastward towards the Hamlet of Hillside, first receiving Blue Brook then McMullen Brook and Haynes Brook. In Hillside is the confluence of Lansing Kill, after which it flows towards the Hamlet of North Western receiving Stringer Brook along the way. After North Western it receives Tannery Brook then
Wells Creek Wells Creek is a swift Stream, creek in Whatcom County, Washington (U.S. state), Washington. It is a tributary of the Nooksack River, joining the river just below Nooksack Falls. It is best known for having six major waterfalls along its course. ...
in the Hamlet of Frenchville. At Frenchville it curves to the southwest and heads toward the Hamlet of Westernville receiving Deans Gulf along the way. In Westernville it enters
Delta Reservoir Delta Reservoir, also known as Delta Lake, is a reservoir A reservoir (; from French language, French ''réservoir'' ) is most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake created using a dam to water storage, store water. Reservoirs can be ...
. After exiting the reservoir it heads south toward the City of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
receiving Hurlbut Glen Brook and passing the Rome Fish Hatchery along the way. On the south side of the City it enters the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
and begins to flow east. After Rome the river flows generally east through the
Mohawk Valley The Mohawk Valley The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primaril ...
, passing by the cities of Utica, Little Falls,
Canajoharie Canajoharie (), also known as the "Upper Castle", was the name of one of two major towns of the Mohawk nation The Mohawk people ( moh, Kanienʼkehá꞉ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an ...
,
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...
, and
Schenectady Schenectady () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...
before entering the Hudson River at
Cohoes
Cohoes
, just north of Albany.


Modifications

The river and its supporting canal, the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
, connect the Hudson River and port of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
with the
Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land ...

Great Lakes
at
Buffalo, New York Buffalo is the second-largest city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its ...

Buffalo, New York
. The lower part of the Mohawk River has five permanent
dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tast ...

dam
s, nine movable dams (seasonal), and five active hydropower plants.
Schoharie Creek 275px, Schoharie Creek near its source in the Catskills Schoharie Creek in New York (state), New York, flows north from the foot of Indian Head Mountain (New York), Indian Head Mountain in the Catskill Mountains, Catskills through the Schoharie ...

Schoharie Creek
and
West Canada Creek The West Canada Creek is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...
are the principal
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
of the Mohawk River. Both of these tributaries have several significant dams including the Hinckley Dam on the West Canada and the
Gilboa Dam
Gilboa Dam
on the upper reaches of Schoharie Creek. The Gilboa Dam, which was completed in 1926 as part of the
New York City water supply system A combination of aqueducts, reservoirs, and tunnels supply fresh water to New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With ...
, is the subject of an active and aggressive rehabilitation project.


Geology

The Mohawk watershed drains a large section of the
Catskill Mountains The Catskill Mountains, also known as the Catskills, are a Physiographic regions of the world, physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York (state), New York. As a cultural and geographic region, ...
, the Mohawk Valley proper, and a section of the southern
Adirondack Mountains The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the cr ...
. All three regions have distinct bedrock geology, and the underlying rocks become progressively younger to the south. Overall, this part of New York is represented by lower
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...
sedimentary rocks that
unconformably
unconformably
overlie the Grenville-aged (
Proterozoic The Proterozoic () is a geological eon spanning the time interval from 2500 to 541million years ago. It is the most recent part of the Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest par ...
, here about 1.1 billion years old) metamorphic rocks of the Adirondacks. In the watershed, these rocks are only significant in the headwaters of the West Canada Creek. Much of the main trunk of the Mohawk River sits in Cambro-
Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions i ...

Ordovician
carbonates (
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
) and Middle Ordovician
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
s and
shale Shale is a fine-grained, clastic Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defi ...

shale
s. The southern tributaries (Catskill Mountains) are underlain by a thin sequence of
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
limestones that are overlain by a thick sequence of sandstones and shale of the
Catskill Delta The Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a period (geology), geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60.3 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya. It is named after ...
, which is also Devonian in age. During the
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
(c. 1.8 to 0.01 mya), the watershed was extensively modified by continental
glaciation A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the o ...
. As a result of glacial scour and deposition, the surficial deposits in much of the watershed are poorly sorted boulder- and clay-rich glacial
till image:Geschiebemergel.JPG, Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is di ...

till
. During
deglaciationDeglaciation describes the transition from full glacial conditions during ice ages, to warm interglacials, characterized by global warming Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the ...
, several glacial lakes left
varve A varve is an annual layer of sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of ...
d clay deposits. In the final stages of deglaciation, approximately 13,350 years ago, the catastrophic draining of
Glacial Lake Iroquois Glacial Lake Iroquois was a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed at the end of the last ice age approximately 13,000 years ago. The lake was essentially an enlargement of the present Lake Ontario that formed because the St. Lawrence River downst ...
, a pro-glacial lake, was through what would become the modern Mohawk Valley. In this final phase, the enormous discharge of water caused local deep scour features (e.g. the Potholes at Little Falls), and extensive sand and gravel deposition, which is one of the key sources of municipal groundwater including the Scotia Delta, which is also known as the Great Flats Aquifer.


Etymology

The river is named for the
Mohawk Nation The Mohawk people ( moh, Kanienʼkehá꞉ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal peop ...
of the
Iroquois Confederacy The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous peo ...

Iroquois Confederacy
. In the 1700s and before, the Mohawk people, a section of
Iroquois Confederacy The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous peo ...

Iroquois Confederacy
, were based in the
Mohawk Valley The Mohawk Valley The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primaril ...
, which included the area around the creek. Their territory ranged north to the
St. Lawrence River The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes File:Location of the Great Lakes in North America.jpg, upr ...
, southern
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
and eastern
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
; south to greater
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
and into Pennsylvania; eastward to the
Green Mountains The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. The range runs primarily south to north and extends approximately from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada. The part of the same range that is in ...

Green Mountains
of
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
; and westward to the border with the Iroquoian
Oneida Nation The Oneida (wikt:autonym, autonym: Onyota'a:ka, ''the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone'', ''Thwahrù·nęʼ'' in Tuscarora language, Tuscarora) are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe and First Natio ...
's traditional homeland territory.


History

The river has long been important to transportation and migration to the west as a passage through the
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range, system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician, Ordovician Period. They once reache ...

Appalachian Mountains
, between the
Catskill Mountains The Catskill Mountains, also known as the Catskills, are a Physiographic regions of the world, physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York (state), New York. As a cultural and geographic region, ...
and
Allegheny Plateau The Allegheny Plateau , in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. ...
to the south and the
Adirondack Mountains The Adirondack Mountains () form a massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the cr ...
to the north. The Mohawk Valley allowed easier passage than going over the mountains to the north or south of the valley. As a result, it was strategically important during the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
and the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
, and a number of important battles were fought here. The fertile Mohawk Valley also attracted early settlers. The river was the highway of the native
Mohawk people The Mohawk people ( moh, Kanienʼkehá꞉ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America North America is a continent entirely within ...
. The
MohawkMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans *Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language, the language spoken by the Mohawk people *Mohawk hairstyle, from a hairstyle once thought to have been tr ...
name for the river was ''Tenonanatche'', "a river flowing through a mountain" (or ''Yenonanatche'', "going round a mountain"). The first recorded European exploration of the Mohawk was a trip by the Dutchman Harman Meyndertsz van den Bogaert in 1634. He followed the river upstream from Albany for a distance of 100 miles, including all the territory of the Mohawks. In 1661 Dutch colonists founded the city of Schenectady on the Mohawk River approximately from Albany. "For fifty years Schenectady was the outpost of civilization and Dutch-English rule in the Mohawk valley." In 1712 the British, now in control of New York, built
Fort Hunter Fort Hunter is a Hamlet (New York), hamlet in the Administrative divisions of New York#Town, Town of Florida, Montgomery County, New York, Florida in Montgomery County, New York, Montgomery County, New York (state), New York, west of the capital at ...
at the confluence of the Mohawk and the
Schoharie Creek 275px, Schoharie Creek near its source in the Catskills Schoharie Creek in New York (state), New York, flows north from the foot of Indian Head Mountain (New York), Indian Head Mountain in the Catskill Mountains, Catskills through the Schoharie ...

Schoharie Creek
, about upriver from Schenectady. Around 600
Palatine Germans The German Palatines were emigrants from the Middle Rhine region of the Holy Roman Empire who arrived in England between May and November 1709. Although only a minority were from the Electoral Palatinate, Palatinate, the name came to refer to the ...
were settled along the Mohawk and Schoharie Creek. In the early nineteenth century water transport was a vital means of transporting both people and goods. A corporation was formed to build the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
off the Mohawk River to
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America and the eleventh-largest globally. It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and theref ...

Lake Erie
. Its construction simplified and reduced the difficulties of European
westward settler migration
westward settler migration
. The Mohawk Valley still plays an important role in transportation. Railroads followed the
Water Level Route The New York Central Railroad was a railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transpo ...
, as did major east–west roads such as Route 5 and
Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (I-90) is an east–west transcontinental freeway and the longest Interstate Highway in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Conti ...
. The Mohawk River Heritage Corridor Commission was created to preserve and promote the natural and historic assets of the Mohawk River. This commission was created by the NY State Legislature in 1997 to improve historic preservation along the river.


Flooding and discharge

The Mohawk River has a relatively long record of flooding that has been documented back to settlement in the 17th century.Historic flooding on the Mohawk River
/ref> The average volume of water that flows through the Mohawk is about every year.
/ref> Much of the water flows through the
watershed Watershed is a hydrological term, which has been adopted in other fields in a more or less figurative sense. It may refer to: Hydrology * Drainage divide, the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins ** European watershed * Drainage basin, ...

watershed
in the spring as snow melts rapidly and enters the tributaries and the main trunk of the river. The maximum average daily flow on the river occurs between late March and early April. For the period between 1917 and 2000, the highest mean daily flow is c. as measured at Cohoes, near the confluence with the Hudson. The lowest mean daily flow of occurs in late August. There is a long record of significant and damaging floods along the entire length of the river. Because the river and its tributaries typically freeze in the winter, the spring melt is commonly accompanied by ice floes that get stuck and jammed along the main trunk of the river. This annual spring breakup typically occurs in the last few weeks of March, although there are numerous floods that have occurred before or after this time, such as in 2018 when the ice jam breakup happened in late February after record warm weather in the region. These ice jams can cause considerable damage to structures along the riverbanks and on the floodplain. The most severe flood of record on the main trunk of the Mohawk River was the spring breakup flood that occurred from 27 to 28 March 1914. This flood caused a tremendous amount of damage to the infrastructure because it was a spring breakup flood with enormous amounts of ice. Ice jams of some significance occur about every other year. One major flood on the Mohawk was on 26–29 June 2006, during the
Mid-Atlantic United States flood of 2006 The Mid-Atlantic United States flood of 2006 was a significant flood that affected much of the Mid-Atlantic region of the eastern United States 300px, This video was taken by the crew of ISS. The pass goes over the eastern United States.">Inter ...
. Flooding was caused by a stalled frontal system that resulted in of rain across central New York and widespread flooding occurred in the Mohawk,
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...

Delaware
, and watersheds. Across the state, this event caused over $227 million in damage and resulted in the loss of four lives. This flooding was acute in the upper parts of the Mohawk watershed. The Mohawk River also saw significant flooding during the weeks between August 21, 2011 and September 5, 2011 due to torrential rains experienced from
Hurricane Irene Hurricane Irene was a large and destructive tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-pressure area, low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, Beaufort sc ...

Hurricane Irene
and Tropical Storm Lee. Many of the Mohawk Barge Canal locks sustained major damage, especially near Waterford and Rotterdam Junction. Another major flood was on June 28, 2013. It was caused by heavy rain that had fallen in the region for weeks. On the night of June 27, 2013, the Jordanville area reported that 4 inches of rain fell in one hour. The next day, the Mohawk River flooded the valley, residents were stranded and without power for about a week. There was considerable damage everywhere, especially Mohawk and Fort Plain. On July 3, 1985, Congress approved a project at Amsterdam for work to be done on the Mohawk River and South Chuctanunda Creek. South Chuctanunda Creek was cleared at the upstream end of the project for approximately . New flood walls were installed along the right bank of South Chuctanunda Creek and the Mohawk River. A new wing wall was installed on the left bank of South Chuctanunda Creek at the upstream end of the New York Central Railroad Bridge. The South Chuctanunda was realigned and reshaped for approximately and riprap was added where needed. The existing channel of the South Chuctanunda was slightly reshaped downstream of the Florida Avenue bridge. Construction plans for the project were issued on November 15, 1962. Construction work began on February 25, 1963, with construction being completed on June 4, 1965. The flood walls protect the city of Amsterdam from floods of from the Mohawk River and floods of from South Chuctanunda Creek. The floodwalls were able to prevent $13.6 million in damages from tropical storms
Lee Lee may refer to: People Given name * Lee (given name) Lee is a given name derived from the Lee (English surname), English surname Lee (which is ultimately from a placename derived from Old English '':wikt:leah, leah'' "clearing; meadow"). As ...
and
Irene Irene is a name derived from εἰρήνη (eirēnē), the Greek for "peace". See Irene (given name) Irene (Greek: Ειρήνη- ''Eirēnē''), sometimes written Irini, is derived from εἰρήνη, the Greek language, Greek word for "peace". Eiren ...

Irene
. In July 2012, governor Cuomo announced a project to improve the flood walls on South Chuctanunda Creek and Mohawk River. The floodwalls and river banks were repaired at a cost of $164,248.


Watershed management

Historically, the Mohawk watershed has lacked a
watershed managementWatershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed funct ...
plan typical in many adjacent basins. In 2010, the
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (informally referred to as NYSDEC, DEC, EnCon or NYSENCON) is a department of New York state government. The department guides and regulates the conservation, improvement, and protecti ...
released the Mohawk River Basin Action Agenda, which is the first framework for a watershed management plan in this basin. This plan identifies five priority goals for the Mohawk River Basin that are designed to enhance
ecosystem health Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. The ...
and the vitality of the region. The Action Agenda, developed by the NYS DEC in collaboration with a number of stakeholders in the basin with public input, advocates an ecosystem-based approach to watershed management. In October 2014, Riverkeeper, an environmental advocacy and clean water watchdog organization, announced that they will be expanding the reach of their efforts from the Hudson River to the Mohawk as well.


Tributaries


Right

* McMullen Brook * Deans Gulf * Wheelers Creek * Oriskany Creek *
Sauquoit Creek Sauquoit Creek is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed August 31, 2015 river in New York (state), New York, United States. It lies within the southern part of Oneida County, N ...
* Starch Factory Creek *Bonny Brook *Moyer Creek *Steele Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Steele Creek *Fulmer Creek *Nowadaga Creek *Otsquago Creek *Canajoharie Creek *Flat Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Flat Creek *Lasher Creek *Yatesville Creek *Van Wie Creek *Auries Creek *
Schoharie Creek 275px, Schoharie Creek near its source in the Catskills Schoharie Creek in New York (state), New York, flows north from the foot of Indian Head Mountain (New York), Indian Head Mountain in the Catskill Mountains, Catskills through the Schoharie ...

Schoharie Creek
*South Chuctanunda Creek *Terwilleger Creek *Sandsea Kill *Moccasin Kill *Plotter Kill (Mohawk River tributary), Plotter Kill *Lisha Kill (Mohawk River tributary), Lisha Kill *Shakers Creek *Delphus Kill


Left

* Blue Brook * Haynes Brook *Lansing Kill * Stringer Brook * Tannery Brook *
Wells Creek Wells Creek is a swift Stream, creek in Whatcom County, Washington (U.S. state), Washington. It is a tributary of the Nooksack River, joining the river just below Nooksack Falls. It is best known for having six major waterfalls along its course. ...
* Hurlbut Glen Brook *Sixmile Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Sixmile Creek *Ninemile Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Ninemile Creek *Crane Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Crane Creek *Decks Creek *Jones Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Jones Creek *Gridley Creek *Reall Creek *Budlong Creek *Wood Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Wood Creek *Knapp Brook *Burch Creek *Sterling Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Sterling Creek *Pratt Creek *Bridenbecker Creek *
West Canada Creek The West Canada Creek is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map accessed October 3, 2011 river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocea ...
*Beaver Brook (Mohawk River tributary), Beaver Brook *Crum Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Crum Creek *East Canada Creek *Timmerman Creek *Zimmerman Creek *Mother Creek *Caroga Creek *Knauderack Creek *Briggs Run *Cayadutta Creek *Danascara Creek *Kayaderasseras Creek *Dove Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Dove Creek *Bunn Creek *North Chuctanunda Creek *Degraff Creek *Evas Kill *Compaanen Kill *Chaughtanoonda Creek *Verf Kill *Washout Creek *Alplaus Kill *Stony Creek (Mohawk River tributary), Stony Creek


Islands

*Abeel Island – Located north of Fort Plain, New York, Fort Plain. *Bronson Island (Mohawk River), Bronson Island – Located west of Amsterdam. *Davey Island – Located South of Amsterdam. *Dalys Island – Located by Scotia, New York, Scotia. *Giording Island – Located south of
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...
. *Goat Island (Mohawk River), Goat Island – Located north of Niskayuna, New York, Niskayuna. *Isle of the Oneidas – Located south of Scotia. *Isle of the Onondagas – Located south of Scotia. *Isle of the Senecas – Located south of Scotia. *Isle of the Mohawks – Located south of Scotia. *Isle of the Cayugas – Located south of Scotia. *Upper Pepper Island – Located south of Fort Johnson, New York, Fort Johnson. *Pepper Island (Mohawk River), Pepper Island – Located south of Fort Johnson. *Robb Island – Located southeast of Fort Johnson. *Swart Island – Located west of Hoffmans, New York, Hoffmans.


See also

*List of rivers of New York *Oneida Carry *Great Flats Nature Trail


References


External links


"Mohawk River: Flooding and Watershed Analysis" by J. I. Garver
(Union College)
NY State Department of Environmental Conservation - Mohawk River Basin Program Action Agenda (PDF, 928 Kb)

Groundwater Quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York
United States Geological Survey {{Authority control Mohawk River, Rivers of New York (state) Tributaries of the Hudson River Rivers of Schenectady County, New York Rivers of Montgomery County, New York Rivers of Fulton County, New York Rivers of Herkimer County, New York Rivers of Oneida County, New York