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Moesia (;
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
: ''Moesia''; el, Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
and later
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
situated in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
south of the
Danube River The Danube ( ; ) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of se ...

Danube River
, which included most of the territory of modern-day
Central Serbia Central Serbia ( sr, централна Србија, centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper ( sr, link=no, ужа Србија, uža Srbija), is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "e ...
,
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
, the north-eastern parts of
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
and the northern parts of
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A sub ...
(Moesia Superior), the whole of
Northern Bulgaria 350px, Northern Bulgaria Northern Bulgaria ( bg, Северна България, Severna Bylgarija), also called Moesia Moesia (; Latin: ''Moesia''; el, Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the B ...
, Romanian Dobruja and small parts of
Southern Ukraine Southern Ukraine ( uk, Південна Україна, ''Pivdenna Ukrayina'') refers, generally, to the territories in the South of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the List of Europea ...
(Moesia Inferior).


Geography

In ancient geographical sources, Moesia was bounded to the south by the
Haemus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. Modern ...
(
Balkan Mountains The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgar ...
) and Scardus (Šar) mountains, to the west by the
Drinus The Drina (Serbian Cyrillic The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, српска ћирилица/''srpska ćirilica'', pronounced ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кирилл ...
(Drina) river, on the north by the
Donaris The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. Its ...
(Danube) and on the east by the Euxine (Black Sea).


History

The region was inhabited chiefly by
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. ...
,
Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the area near the Carpathian Mountains and west of the Black Sea ...
(
Thraco-DacianThe linguistic classification of the ancient Thracian language has long been a matter of contention and uncertainty, and there are widely varying hypotheses regarding its position among other Paleo-Balkan languages. It is not contested, however, th ...
),
Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (South Slavic), a common na ...

Illyrian
and
Thraco-Illyrian Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Daco-Thracian and Illyrian languages The Illyrian language () was a language or group of languages spoken in the western Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geograph ...
peoples. The name of the region comes from
Moesi The Moesi ( or ; grc, Μοισοί, ''Moisoí'' or Μυσοί, ''Mysoí''; lat, Moesi or ''Moesae'') were a Paleo-Balkan languages, Paleo-Balkan tribe inhabiting the region around the River Timok to the south of the Danube, between present-day no ...
, Thraco-Dacian peoples who lived there before the . Parts of Moesia belonged to the
polity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cog ...
of
Burebista Burebista ( grc, Βυρεβίστας, Βοιρεβίστας) was a Thracians, Thracian king of the Getae and Dacians, Dacian tribes from 82/61BC to 45/44BC. He was the first king who successfully unified the tribes of the Dacian Kingdom, which ...
, a
Getae The Getae ( ) or Gets ( ; grc, Γέται, singular ) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest ri ...
king who established his rule over a large part of the northern Balkans between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in an inside plot, the empire was divided into several smaller states. In 75 BC, C. Scribonius Curio,
proconsul A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose wo ...

proconsul
of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
, took an army as far as the Danube and gained a victory over the inhabitants, who were finally subdued by M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the
triumvir A triumvirate ( la, triumvirātus) or a triarchy is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs ( la, triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this ...

triumvir
and later also proconsul of Macedonia during the reign of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
c. 29 BC. The region, however, was not organized as a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
until the last years of Augustus' reign; in 6 AD, mention is made of its governor,
Caecina Severus Aulus Caecina Severus was a Roman politician and general who was Roman consul, consul in 1 BC. He was Emperor Augustus' representative in Moesia when the Great Illyrian Revolt broke out. As a result, he spent 4 years in heavy fighting against t ...
.
Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (; ) or Dio Cassius ( ''Dion Kassios'')), Cassius Lucius Dio or Cassius Claudius Dio; alleged to have the ' (nickname) Cocceianus was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin. He published 80 volumes of the ...
, lv.29
As a province, Moesia was under an imperial consular (who probably also had control of
Achaea Achaea () or Achaia (), sometimes transliterated from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southe ...
and
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
). In 86 AD the Dacian king Duras ordered his troops to attack Roman Moesia. After this attack, the
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Politica ...
Domitian Domitian (; la, Domitianus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thr ...

Domitian
personally arrived in Moesia and reorganized it in 87 AD into two provinces, divided by the river Cebrus (Ciabrus): to the west Moesia Superior or Upper Moesia (meaning upriver) and to the east Moesia Inferior or Lower Moesia or Ripa Thracia (from the Danube river's mouth and then upstream). Each was governed by an imperial consular legate and a
procurator Procurator (with procuracy or procuratorate referring to the office itself) may refer to: * Procurator, one engaged in procuration, the action of taking care of, hence management, stewardship, agency * ''Procurator'' (Ancient Rome), the title of ...
. The chief towns of Upper Moesia in the Principate were:
Singidunum Singidunum ( sr, Сингидунум/''Singidunum'') was an ancient city which later evolved into modern Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; names in other languages) is the capital Capital most c ...
(
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
),
Viminacium Viminacium () or ''Viminatium'' was a major city (provincial capital) and military camp of the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people ...
(sometimes called municipium Aelium; modern
Kostolac The City municipality of Kostolac ( sr-cyrl, Градска општина Костолац, Gradska opština Kostolac; ro, Caştelu) is a town in Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a ...

Kostolac
), Remesiana (
Bela Palanka Bela Palanka ( Serbian Cyrillic: Бела Паланка, ) is a town and municipality located in the Pirot District of southeastern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the population of the town is 8,143, and the population of the municipality ...
), Bononia (
Vidin Vidin ( bg, Видин, ; is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the List of r ...

Vidin
),
Ratiaria Ratiaria (or: Raetiaria, Retiaria, Reciaria, Razaria; bg, Рациария; el, Ραζαρία μητρόπολις;) was a city founded by the Moesians, a Daco-Thracians, Thracian tribe, in the 4th century BC, along the river Danube. In Roman ...
( Archar) and
Skupi Scupi is an archaeological site located between Zajčev Rid (''Зајчев Рид'' 'Rabbit Hill') and the Vardar River The Vardar (; mk, , ) or Axios () is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwat ...

Skupi
(modern
Skopje Skopje ( , , ; mk, Скопје ; sq, Shkup) is the capital and List of cities in North Macedonia by population, largest city of North Macedonia. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre. The territory of S ...

Skopje
); of Lower Moesia:
Oescus Oescus, Palatiolon or Palatiolum ( bg, Улпия Ескус, ) was an important ancient city on the river in . It later became known as ''Ulpia Oescus''. It lay northwest of the modern n city of , near the village of . For a short time i ...

Oescus
(colonia Ulpia,
Gigen Gigen ( bg, Гиген, ) is a village in northern Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is ...
),
Novae A nova (plural novae or novas) is a transient astronomical eventA transient astronomical event, often shortened by astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field out ...
(near
Svishtov Svishtov ( bg, Свищов ) is a town in northern Bulgaria, located in Veliko Tarnovo Province on the right bank of the Danube river The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river after the Volga ...

Svishtov
, the chief seat of
Theodoric the Great Theodoric (or Theoderic) the Great (454 – 30 August 526), also called Theodoric the Amal ( la, Flāvius Theoderīcus; el, Θευδέριχος, Theuderichos), was king of the Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a ...
),
Nicopolis ad Istrum Nicopolis ad Istrum ( el, Νικόπολις ἡ πρὸς Ἴστρον) or Nicopolis ad Iatrum was a Roman and Early Byzantine town. Its ruins are located at the village of Nikyup, 20 km north of Veliko Tarnovo Veliko Tarnovo ( bg, ...
(Nikup; really near the river
Yantra Yantra () (literally "machine, contraption") is a geometrical diagram, mainly from the traditions of the . Yantras are used for the worship of deities in temples or at home; as an aid in meditation; used for the benefits given by their supposed ...

Yantra
),
Marcianopolis Marcianopolis or Parthenopolis was an ancient Greek, then Roman city in Moesia Inferior. It is located at the site of modern-day Devnya, Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Р ...
(
Devnya Devnya ( bg, Девня ) is a town in , Northeastern , located about 25 km away to the west from the city of and . It is the administrative centre of the homonymous . As of December 2009, the town has a population of 8,383 inhabitants.
),
Tyras Tyras ( grc, Τύρας) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Sea. It was founded by colonists from Miletus, probably about 600 BC. The city was situated some 10 km from the mouth of the Dniester, ...

Tyras
(
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi ( uk, Бі́лгород-Дністро́вський, Bílhorod-Dnistróvskyy; russian: Бе́лгород-Днестро́вский, Bélgorod-Dnestróvskiy), formerly known #Nomenclature, under different names, is a cit ...

Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
),
Olvia Pontic Olbia ( grc, Ὀλβία Ποντική, uk, Ольвія) or simply Olbia is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often co ...
, Odessus (
Varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a municipality in Italy *Varniai, a city in Lithuania *Varna (Šabac), a villag ...
) and Tomis ( Constanţa; to which the poet
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
was banished). The last two were Greek towns which formed a
pentapolis A pentapolis (from Greek ''penta-'', "five" and ''polis ''Polis'' (; grc-gre, :wikt:πόλις, πόλις ), plural ''poleis'' (, ) literally means "city" in Greek. It defined the administrative and religious city center, as distinct from ...
with Istros,
Mesembria Mesembria ( grc, Μεσημβρία; grc-x-doric, Μεσαμβρία, Mesambria) was an important Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, ...
(Nessebar) and
Apollonia Apollonia or Apolonia (named after the Greek god Apollo) may refer to : Places and jurisdictions Albania * Apollonia (Illyria), now Pojani (Polina) in Albania; former bishopric, now Latin titular see Bulgaria * Apollonia, Thrace, Apollon ...
(Sozopol). From Moesia, Domitian began planning future campaigns into
Dacia Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the ar ...

Dacia
and by 87 he started a strong offensive against Dacia, ordering General
Cornelius Fuscus Cornelius Fuscus (died 86 AD) was a Roman general who fought campaigns under the Emperors of the Flavian dynasty. During the reign of Domitian, he served as prefect of the imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, from 81 until his ...
to attack. Therefore, in the summer of 87, Fuscus led five or six legions across the Danube. The campaign against the Dacians ended without a decisive outcome, and
Decebalus Decebalus (), sometimes referred to as Diurpaneus, was the last king of Dacia Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who ...

Decebalus
, the , had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on at the war's end. Emperor
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Trajan
later arrived in Moesia, and he launched his first military campaign into the Dacian Kingdom c. March–May 101, crossing to the northern bank of the
Danube River The Danube ( ; ) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of se ...

Danube River
and defeating the Dacian army near Tapae, a mountain pass in the
Carpathians The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central regio ...
(see
Second Battle of Tapae The Second Battle of Tapae (101) was the decisive battle of the first Dacian War, in which Roman Emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The em ...
). Trajan's troops were mauled in the encounter, however, and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King
Decebalus Decebalus (), sometimes referred to as Diurpaneus, was the last king of Dacia Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who ...

Decebalus
launched a counter-attack across the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan's army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later. Trajan returned to Rome in triumph and was granted the title ''Dacicus''. The victory was celebrated by the
Tropaeum Traiani The Tropaeum Traiani or Trajanic Trophy is a monument in Roman Civitas Tropaensium (site of modern Adamclisi, Romania), built in 109 in then Moesia Inferior, to commemorate Roman Emperor Trajan's victory over the Dacians, in the winter of 101-102, ...

Tropaeum Traiani
. However, Decebalus in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against the empire. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of
Apollodorus of DamascusApollodorus (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as ...
his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered part of Dacia in 106 (see also
Second Dacian War The Second Roman–Dacian War was fought between 105 to 106 because the Dacian King, Decebalus, had broken his peace terms with the Roman Emperor Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 538August 117) was Roman emperor ...
). Sometime around 272, at the Moesian city of Naissus or Nissa (modern
Niš Niš (; sr-cyr, Ниш, ; names of European cities in different languages (M–P)#N, names in other languages) is the list of cities in Serbia, third largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District. It is located ...
in Serbia), future emperor
Constantine I Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). Th ...

Constantine I
was born. After the abandonment of
Roman Dacia Roman Dacia ( ; also known as Dacia Traiana, "Trajan Dacia", or Dacia Felix, "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , count ...
to the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between West ...
by
Aurelian Aurelian ( la, Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c. October 275) was Roman emperor from 270 to 275. As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had practically disintegrated ...

Aurelian
(270–275) and the transfer of the Roman citizens from the former province to the south of the Danube, the central portion of Moesia took the name of '' Dacia Aureliana'' (later divided into ''
Dacia Ripensis Dacia Ripensis () was the name of a Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and l ...
'' and ''
Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Mediterranea (Mediterranean Dacia; , ''Eparchia Dakias Mesogeiou'') was a late Roman province, split off from the former Dacia Aureliana by Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305). Serdica (or Sardica; later Sradetz or Sredets, now Sofia) was the ...
''). During administrative reforms of Emperor
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
(284–305), both of the Moesian provinces were reorganized. Moesia Superior was divided in two, northern part forming the province of
Moesia Prima Moesia Prima (; Latin: ''Moesia''; el, Μοισία) was a frontier Roman province, province of the late Roman Empire, situated in the central parts of present-day Serbia, along the south bank of the Danube River. Provincial capital was Viminaciu ...
including cities
Viminacium Viminacium () or ''Viminatium'' was a major city (provincial capital) and military camp of the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people ...
and
Singidunum Singidunum ( sr, Сингидунум/''Singidunum'') was an ancient city which later evolved into modern Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; names in other languages) is the capital Capital most c ...
, while the southern part was organised as the new province of Dardania with cities
Scupi Scupi is an archaeological site located between Zajčev Rid (''Зајчев Рид'' 'Rabbit Hill') and the Vardar River The Vardar (; mk, , ) or Axios () is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwate ...
and
Ulpiana Ulpiana was an ancient Roman city located in what is today Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a international recognition of Kosovo, partially recognised state in Southeastern ...

Ulpiana
. At the same time, Moesia Inferior was divided into Moesia Secunda and
Scythia Minor Scythia Minor or Lesser Scythia (: , ) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the at the north and west and the at the east, roughly corresponding to today's , with in , and in . By the 7th century BC, several Greek colonies were bui ...
. Moesia Secunda's main cities included
Marcianopolis Marcianopolis or Parthenopolis was an ancient Greek, then Roman city in Moesia Inferior. It is located at the site of modern-day Devnya, Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Р ...
(
Devnya Devnya ( bg, Девня ) is a town in , Northeastern , located about 25 km away to the west from the city of and . It is the administrative centre of the homonymous . As of December 2009, the town has a population of 8,383 inhabitants.
), Odessus (
Varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a municipality in Italy *Varniai, a city in Lithuania *Varna (Šabac), a villag ...
), Nicopolis ( Nikopol), Abrittus (
Razgrad Razgrad ( bg, Разград ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. Lon ...

Razgrad
), Durostorum (
Silistra Silistra ( bg, Силистра ; tr, Silistre; ro, Dârstor) is a town in List of cities and towns in Bulgaria, Northeastern Bulgaria. The town lies on the southern bank of the lower Danube river, and is also the part of the Romania, Romanian B ...

Silistra
), Transmarisca (
Tutrakan Tutrakan ( bg, Тутракан , ro, Тurtucaia, tr, Turtukai) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Rep ...

Tutrakan
), Sexaginta Prista (
Ruse Ruse may refer to: Places *Ruse, Bulgaria, a major city of Bulgaria **Ruse Municipality **Ruse Province **19th MMC – Ruse, a constituency *Ruše, a town and municipality in north-eastern Slovenia *Ruše, Žalec, a small settlement in east-centra ...
) and Novae (
Svishtov Svishtov ( bg, Свищов ) is a town in northern Bulgaria, located in Veliko Tarnovo Province on the right bank of the Danube river The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river after the Volga ...

Svishtov
), all in Bulgaria today. As a frontier province, Moesia was strengthened by stations and
fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, gov ...

fortress
es erected along the southern bank of the Danube, and a wall was built from Axiopolis to Tomi as a protection against the
Scythian The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
s and
Sarmatians The Sarmatians (; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
. The garrison of Moesia Secunda included
Legio I Italica , showing the Legio I Italica, stationed on the river Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river after the Volga River, Volga, flowing through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeas ...

Legio I Italica
and
Legio XI Claudia Legio XI Claudia ("Claudius' Eleventh Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. The legion was levied by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played ...
, as well as independent infantry units, cavalry units, and river flotillas. The
Notitia Dignitatum Palestine and the River Jordan, from the ''Notitia Dignitatum'' illuminated by Peronet Lamy.">Peronet_Lamy.html" ;"title="River Jordan, from the ''Notitia Dignitatum'' illuminated by Peronet Lamy">River Jordan, from the ''Notitia Dignitatum'' ...
lists its units and their bases as of the 390s CE. Units in Scythia Minor included
Legio I Iovia Legio I ''Iovia'' (''devoted to Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with ...
and Legio II Herculia. After 238 AD, Moesia was frequently invaded or raided by the Dacian Carpians, Carpi, and the Germanic peoples, East Germanic tribe of the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between West ...
, who invaded Moesia in 250. Hard-pressed by the Huns, the Goths again crossed the Danube during the reign of Valens (376) and with his permission settled in Moesia. After they settled, quarrels soon took place, and the Goths under Fritigern defeated Valens in a great Battle of Adrianople (378), battle near Adrianople. These Goths are known as Moeso-Goths, for whom Ulfilas made the Gothic translation of the Bible. The Slavs allied with the Pannonian Avars, Avars invaded and destroyed much of Moesia in 583–587 in the Avar–Byzantine wars. Moesia was settled by Slavs during the 7th century. Bulgars, arriving from Old Great Bulgaria, conquered Lower Moesia by the end of the 7th century. During the 8th century the Byzantine Empire lost also Upper Moesian territory to the First Bulgarian Empire.


See also

*Diocese of Moesia * Dacia Aureliana *List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia *List of Roman governors of Moesia *List of Roman governors of Lower Moesia *List of Roman governors of Upper Moesia *Inscriptions of Upper Moesia *Moesogoths *Margus (city)


References


Further reading

* András Mócsy, ''Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire, Routledge Revivals Series'', 2014. * Conor Whately, ''Exercitus Moesiae: The Roman Army in Moesia from Augustus to Severus Alexander. BAR international series, S2825''. Oxford: 2016.


External links


Inscriptions of Moesia Superior
University of Belgrade
Cities in the Provinces Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior

Timacum Maius
{{authority control Moesia, Ancient history of the Balkans Provinces of the Roman Empire Romanization of Southeastern Europe Historical regions in Bulgaria Historical regions in Romania Historical regions in Serbia Ancient Bulgaria Ancient history of Romania Ancient history of Serbia Ancient history of Ukraine Roman Balkans Bulgaria in the Roman era, . Serbia in the Roman era, . Šar Mountains Former countries in the Balkans