HOME

TheInfoList




Mobile computing is
human–computer interaction Human–computer interaction (HCI) studies the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people ( users) and computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or lo ...
in which a
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for the transmission of data, voice, and video. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties,
protocols Protocol may refer to: Sociology and politics * Protocol (politics)Protocol originally (in Late Middle English, c. 15th century) meant the minute or logbook taken at a meeting, upon which an agreement was based. The term now commonly refers to an a ...
, data formats, and concrete technologies. Hardware includes
mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known a ...
s or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.


Main principles

* Portability: Devices/nodes connected within the mobile computing system should facilitate mobility. These devices may have limited device capabilities and limited power supply but should have a sufficient processing capability and physical portability to operate in a movable environment. * Connectivity: This defines the
quality of service Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony Telephony ( ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication Tel ...
(QoS) of the network connectivity. In a mobile computing system, the network availability is expected to be maintained at a high level with a minimal amount of lag/downtime without being affected by the mobility of the connected nodes. * Interactivity: The nodes belonging to a mobile computing system are connected with one another to communicate and collaborate through active transactions of data. * Individuality: A portable device or a mobile node connected to a mobile network often denotes an individual; a mobile computing system should be able to adopt the technology to cater to the individual needs and also to obtain contextual information of each node.


Devices

Some of the most common forms of mobile computing devices are as given below: * Portable computers, compact, lightweight units including a full character set keyboard and primarily intended as
host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may also refer to: Places *Host, Pennsylvania, a village in Berks County People *Jim Host (born 1937), American businessman *Michel Host (19 ...
s for software that may be parameterized, such as
laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with ...

laptop
s/
desktops A desktop traditionally refers to: * The surface of a desk (often to distinguish office appliances that fit on a desk, such as photocopiers and printers, from larger equipment covering its own area on the floor) Desktop may refer to various comput ...
,
smartphones A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extens ...

smartphones
/ tablets, etc. *
Smart card A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC or IC card) is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card #REDIRECT Credit card A credit card is a paym ...
s that can run multiple applications but are typically used for payment, travel, and secure area access. *
Mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the tra ...

Mobile phone
s, telephony devices which can
call Call or Calls may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Games * Call, a type of betting in poker * Call, in the game of contract bridge, a bid, pass, double, or redouble in the bidding stage Music and dance * Call (band), from Lahore, Pakis ...
from a distance through cellular networking technology. *
Wearable computer A wearable computer, also known as a wearable or body-borne computer, is a computing device worn on the body. The definition of 'wearable computer' may be narrow or broad, extending to smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines ...
s, mostly limited to functional keys and primarily intended for the incorporation of
software agentIn computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algorith ...
s, such as bracelets, keyless implants, etc. These classes are expected to endure and to complement each other, none replacing another completely. Other types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, including the: *
Portable computer , one of the first portable IBM PC compatible systems Image:MIT Suitcase Computer 1975.jpg, The MIT Suitcase Computer, MIT Digital Systems Laboratory, 1975 A portable computer is a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another ...
(discontinued) *
Personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widesprea ...
/
Enterprise digital assistant Typical PDT A portable data terminal, or shortly PDT, is an electronic device Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses ...
(discontinued) *
Ultra-Mobile PC An ultra-mobile PC (ultra-mobile personal computer or UMPC) is a miniature version of a pen computer, a class of laptop whose specifications were launched by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multin ...
(discontinued) *
Laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with ...

Laptop
*
Smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

Smartphone
and
tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations auto ...
*
Wearable computer A wearable computer, also known as a wearable or body-borne computer, is a computing device worn on the body. The definition of 'wearable computer' may be narrow or broad, extending to smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines ...
*
E-reader An e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading digital e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a pub ...

E-reader
*
CarputerA carputer is a computer with specializations to run in a car, such as compact size, low power requirement, and some customized components. The computing hardware is typically based on standard PCs or mobile devices. They normally have standard inter ...

Carputer


Limitations

* Expandability, Replaceability and
Modularity Broadly speaking, modularity is the degree to which a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its en ...
: In contrast to the common traditional
motherboard A motherboard (also called mainboard, main circuit board, or mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in general-purpose computers and other expandable systems. It holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic compone ...

motherboard
-based PC the SoC architecture in which they are embedded makes these features impossible. * Lack of a
BIOS In computing, BIOS (, ); an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is firmware used to perform Computer hardware, hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and t ...

BIOS
: As most smart devices lack a proper
BIOS In computing, BIOS (, ); an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is firmware used to perform Computer hardware, hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and t ...

BIOS
, their bootloading capabilities are limited as they can only boot into the single operative system with which it came, in contrast with the PC BIOS model. * Range and bandwidth: Mobile Internet access is generally slower than direct cable connections, using technologies such as
GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's Global System for Mobile Communications, global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS was established by Europ ...
and
EDGE Edge or EDGE may refer to: Technology Computing * Edge computing Edge computing is a distributed computing paradigm that brings computation and data storage closer to the sources of data. This is expected to improve response times and save bandw ...

EDGE
, and more recently
HSDPA High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols Protocol may refer to: Sociology and politics * Protocol (politics)Protocol originally (in Late Middle English, c. 15th century) meant the minute or logbook taken at a ...
,
HSUPA High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols Protocol may refer to: Sociology and politics * Protocol (politics)Protocol originally (in Late Middle English, c. 15th century) meant the minute or logbook taken at a ...
,
3G
3G
and 4G networks and also the proposed 5G network. These networks are usually available within a range of commercial cell phone towers. High-speed network wireless LANs are inexpensive but have a very limited range. * Security standards: When working mobile, one is dependent on public networks, requiring careful use of
VPN A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network In Internet networking, a private network is a computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over ...
. Security is a major concern while concerning the mobile computing standards on the fleet. One can easily attack the VPN through a huge number of networks interconnected through the line. * Power consumption: When a power outlet or portable generator is not available, mobile computers must rely entirely on battery power. Combined with the compact size of many mobile devices, this often means unusually expensive batteries must be used to obtain the necessary battery life. * Transmission interferences: Weather, terrain, and the range from the nearest signal point can all interfere with signal reception. Reception in tunnels, some buildings, and rural areas is often poor. * Potential health hazards: People who use mobile devices while driving are often distracted from driving and are thus assumed more likely to be involved in traffic accidents. (While this may seem obvious, there is considerable discussion about whether banning mobile device use while driving reduces accidents.) Cell phones may interfere with sensitive medical devices. Questions concerning
mobile phone radiation and health The antennas contained in mobile phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive teleph ...
have been raised. * Human interface with device: Screens and keyboards tend to be small, which may make them hard to use. Alternate input methods such as speech or
handwriting recognition Handwriting recognition (HWR), also known as Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR), is the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible handwritten input from sources such as paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mecha ...
require training.


In-vehicle computing and fleet computing

Many commercial and government field forces deploy a rugged portable computer with their fleet of vehicles. This requires the units to be anchored to the vehicle for driver safety, device security, and
ergonomics Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human e ...
.
Rugged computer A rugged, or ruggedized computer is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer ...
s are rated for severe vibration associated with large service vehicles and off-road driving and the harsh environmental conditions of constant professional use such as in
emergency medical services Emergency medical services (EMS), also known as ambulance services or paramedic services, are emergency service Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety Public security is the function of govern ...

emergency medical services
, fire, and public safety. Other elements affecting function in the vehicle: *
Operating temperature An operating temperature is the allowable temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of heat, a flow of ...
: A vehicle cabin can often experience temperature swings from . Computers typically must be able to withstand these temperatures while operating. Typical fan-based cooling has stated limits of of ambient temperature and temperatures below freezing require localized heaters to bring components up to operating temperature (based on independent studies by the SRI Group and by Panasonic R&D). * Vibration can decrease the life expectancy of computer components, notably rotational storage such as
HDDs
HDDs
. * Visibility of standard screens becomes an issue in bright sunlight. * Touchscreen users easily interact with the units in the field without removing gloves. * High-temperature battery settings: Lithium-ion batteries are sensitive to high-temperature conditions for charging. A computer designed for the mobile environment should be designed with a high-temperature charging function that limits the charge to 85% or less of capacity. * External antenna connections go through the typical metal cabins of vehicles which would block wireless reception and take advantage of much more capable external communication and navigation equipment.


Security issues involved in mobile

Mobile security Mobile security, or more specifically mobile device security, is the protection of smartphones, tablets, and laptops from threats associated with wireless computing. It has become increasingly important in mobile computing. Of particular concern ...
has become increasingly important in mobile computing. It is of particular concern as it relates to the
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

security
of personal information now stored on the
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
. Mobile applications might copy user data from these devices to a remote server without the users’ permission and often without the users’ consent. The user profiles automatically created in the cloud for smartphone users raise
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...

privacy
concerns on all major platforms, in terms of, including, but not limited to, location tracking and personal data collection, regardless of user settings on the device. More and more users and businesses use smartphones as a means of planning and organizing their work and private life. Within companies, these technologies are causing profound changes in the organization of
information systems An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. In a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, struc ...
and therefore they have become the source of new risks. Indeed, smartphones collect and compile an increasing amount of sensitive information to which access must be controlled to protect the
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...
of the user and the
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of ...
of the company. All smartphones are preferred targets of attacks. These attacks exploit weaknesses related to smartphones that can come from means of wireless telecommunication like WiFi networks and
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
. There are also attacks that exploit software vulnerabilities from both the web browser and operating system. Finally, there are forms of
malicious software Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatical ...

malicious software
that rely on the weak knowledge of average users. Different security counter-measures are being developed and applied to smartphones, from security in different layers of software to the dissemination of information to end-users. There are good practices to be observed at all levels, from design to use, through the development of
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
s, software layers, and downloadable apps.


Portable computing devices

Several categories of portable computing devices can run on batteries but are not usually classified as laptops: portable computers,
PDA PDA may refer to: Science and technology * Patron-driven acquisition, a mechanism for libraries to purchase books *Personal digital assistant, a mobile device * Photodiode array, a type of detector * Polydiacetylenes, a family of conducting polym ...
s, ultra mobile PCs (UMPCs), tablets, and smartphones. * A
portable computer , one of the first portable IBM PC compatible systems Image:MIT Suitcase Computer 1975.jpg, The MIT Suitcase Computer, MIT Digital Systems Laboratory, 1975 A portable computer is a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another ...
(discontinued) is a general-purpose computer that can be easily moved from place to place, but cannot be used while in transit, usually because it requires some "setting-up" and an AC power source. The most famous example is
Osborne 1 The Osborne 1 is the first commercially successful portable computer, released on April 3, 1981 by Osborne Computer Corporation. It weighs , cost US$1,795, and runs the CP/M 2.2 operating system. It is powered from a AC power plugs and sockets, wa ...
. Portable computers are also called a "transportable" or a "luggable" PC. * A
personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widesprea ...
(PDA) (discontinued) is a small, usually pocket-sized, computer with limited functionality. It is intended to supplement and to synchronize with a desktop computer, giving access to contacts, address book, notes, e-mail, and other features. * An ultra mobile PC (discontinued) is a full-featured, PDA-sized computer running a general-purpose operating system. * Tablets/
phones A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic ...

phones
: a slate tablet is shaped like a paper notebook. Smartphones are the same devices as tablets, however, the only difference with smartphones is that they are much smaller and pocketable. Instead of a physical keyboard, these devices have a
touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an Information processor, information processing system ...

touchscreen
including a combination of a
virtual keyboard A virtual keyboard is a software component that allows the input of characters without the need for physical keys. The interaction with the virtual keyboard happens mostly via a touchscreen interface, but can also take place in a different form ...

virtual keyboard
but can also link to a physical keyboard via wireless
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
or USB. These devices include features other computer systems would not be able to incorporate, such as built-in cameras, because of their portability - although some laptops possess camera integration, and desktops and laptops can connect to a
webcam A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

webcam
by way of USB. * A
carputerA carputer is a computer with specializations to run in a car, such as compact size, low power requirement, and some customized components. The computing hardware is typically based on standard PCs or mobile devices. They normally have standard inter ...

carputer
is installed in an automobile. It operates as a wireless computer, sound system, GPS, and DVD player. It also contains word processing software and is Bluetooth compatible. * A Pentop (discontinued) is a computing device the size and shape of a pen. It functions as a writing utensil, MP3 player, language translator, digital storage device, and calculator. * An application-specific computer is one that is tailored to a particular application. For example,
Ferranti Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993. The company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. The firm was known f ...

Ferranti
introduced a handheld application-specific mobile computer (the MRT-100) in the form of a
clipboard A clipboard is a thin, rigid board with a clip at the top for holding paper in place. A clipboard is typically used to support paper with one hand while writing on it with the other, especially when other writing surfaces are not available. The ...

clipboard
for conducting opinion polls. Boundaries that separate these categories are blurry at times. For example, the OQO UMPC is also a PDA-sized tablet PC; the Apple eMate had the clamshell form factor of a laptop but ran PDA software. The HP Omnibook line of laptops included some devices small enough to be called ultra mobile PCs. The hardware of the
Nokia 770 The Nokia 770 Internet Tablet is a wireless Internet appliance An Internet appliance is a consumer device whose main function is easy access to Internet services such as World Wide Web, WWW or e-mail. The term was popularized in the 1990s, when ...
internet tablet is essentially the same as that of a PDA such as the
Zaurus The Sharp Zaurus is the name of a series of personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a per ...

Zaurus
6000; the only reason it's not called a PDA is that it does not have PIM software. On the other hand, both the 770 and the Zaurus can run some desktop Linux software, usually with modifications.


Mobile data communication

Wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, it ...

Wireless
data connections used in mobile computing take three general forms. Cellular data service uses technologies
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
,
CDMA Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. CDMA is an example of channel access method, multiple access, where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over ...
or
GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented Statistical multiplexing is a type of communication link sharing, very similar to dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). In statistical multiplexing, a communication channel is divided into ...
,
3G
3G
networks such as
W-CDMA The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Edu ...
,
EDGE Edge or EDGE may refer to: Technology Computing * Edge computing Edge computing is a distributed computing paradigm that brings computation and data storage closer to the sources of data. This is expected to improve response times and save bandw ...
or
CDMA2000 CDMA2000 (also known as C2K or IMT Multi‑Carrier (IMT‑MC)) is a family of 3G mobile technology standards for sending voice, data, and signaling In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focu ...
. and more recently 4G and 5G networks. These networks are usually available within range of commercial cell towers.
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installa ...

Wi-Fi
connections offer higher performance, may be either on a private business network or accessed through public hotspots, and have a typical range of 100 feet indoors and up to 1000 feet outdoors.
Satellite Internet access Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communication satellites. Modern consumer grade satellite Internet service is typically provided to individual users through geostationary satellites that can offer relatively high da ...
covers areas where cellular and Wi-Fi are not available and may be set up anywhere the user has a
line of sight Line of sight (adjectival form line-of-sight) may refer to: Common meanings * Sightline, an unobstructed line-of-sight between a subject and object * Line of sight (gaming), visibility on a gaming field, ''i.e.'' who can see what Arts and enterta ...
to the satellite's location, which for satellites in
geostationary A geostationary orbit, also referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit''Geostationary orbit'' and ''Geosynchronous (equatorial) orbit'' are used somewhat interchangeably in sources. (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit A geos ...

geostationary
orbit means having an unobstructed view of the southern sky. Some enterprise deployments combine networks from multiple cellular networks or use a mix of cellular, Wi-Fi and satellite. When using a mix of networks, a mobile virtual private network ( mobile VPN) not only handles the
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...
concerns, but also performs the multiple network
login In computer security Computer security, cybersecurity, or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arith ...

login
s automatically and keeps the
application Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application software, computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks ** Application layer, an abstraction layer that specifies protocols and interface methods used in a co ...
connections alive to prevent crashes or data loss during network transitions or coverage loss.Phifer, Lisa
"Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap"
''SearchMobileComputing.com'', July 16, 2006.
Cheng, Roger
"Lost Connections"
''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'', December 11, 2007.


See also

* Lists of mobile computers *
Enterprise digital assistant Typical PDT A portable data terminal, or shortly PDT, is an electronic device Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses ...
* Location-based service * Mobile cloud computing * Mobile Computing and Communications Review * Mobile development * Mobile device management * Mobile identity management * Mobile interaction * Mobile software * Mobileers (users of mobile rigs) * Smart device * Ubiquitous computing


References


Footnotes


Bibliography

* GH Forman, J Zahorjan - Computer, 1994 - doi.ieeecomputersociety.org * David P. Helmbold, "A dynamic disk spin-down technique for mobile computing", citeseer.ist.psu.edu, 1996 * Michael Repacholi, MH Repacholi, "health risks from the use of mobile phones", Toxicology Letters, 2001 - Elsevier * Landay, J.A. Kaufmann, T.R., "user interface issues in mobile computing", Workstation Operating Systems, 1993. * * * * * Roth, J. "Mobile Computing - Grundlagen, Technik, Konzepte", 2005, dpunkt.verlag, Germany * Pullela, Srikanth. "Security Issues in Mobile Computing" http://crystal.uta.edu/~kumar/cse6392/termpapers/Srikanth_paper.pdf *Zimmerman, James B. "Mobile Computing: Characteristics, Business Benefits, and Mobile Framework" April 2, 1999. https://web.archive.org/web/20111126105426/http://ac-support.europe.umuc.edu/~meinkej/inss690/zimmerman/INSS%20690%20CC%20-%20Mobile%20Computing.htm * Koudounas, Vasilis. Iqbal, Omar. "Mobile Computing: Past, Present, and Future" https://web.archive.org/web/20181110210750/http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol4/vk5/report.html


Further reading

* * * * {{Authority control Mobile computers, Automatic identification and data capture Mobile phones