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Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is mainly focused on
theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, G ...
, method, and practice of producing
military capabilityMilitary capability is defined by the Australian Defence Force Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local ju ...
in a manner consistent with national defense policy. Military science serves to identify the
strategic Strategy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...
,
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

political
,
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economic
,
psychological Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...

psychological
,
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
,
operational An operational definition specifies concrete, replicable procedures that reliably produce a differentiated, measurable outcome. For example, an operational definition of fear often includes measurable physiologic responses such as tachycardia, galva ...
,
technological Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, methods, and Business proc ...
, and tactical elements necessary to sustain relative advantage of
military force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Li ...
; and to increase the likelihood and favorable outcomes of
victory The term victory (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...

victory
in peace or during a war. Military scientists include theorists, researchers, experimental scientists, applied scientists, designers, engineers, test technicians, and other
military personnel Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovere ...
. Military personnel obtain
weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement, self-defe ...
s,
equipmentEquipment most commonly refers to a set of tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tool ...
, and
training Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any s and or that relate to specific . Training has specific goals of improving one's , capacity, and . It forms the core of s and provides the backbone of content at (also known as ...
to achieve specific strategic goals. Military science is also used to establish enemy capability as part of
technical intelligence Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) is intelligence about weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations. The related term, scientific and technical intelligence, addresses information collected or analyzed about the broad range ...
. In military history, military science had been used during the period of
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
as a general term to refer to all matters of military theory and technology application as a single
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...

academic discipline
, including that of the deployment and employment of troops in peacetime or in battle. In
military education Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is ...
, military science is often the name of the
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
in the education institution that administers
officer candidate education
officer candidate education
. However, this education usually focuses on the officer leadership training and basic information about employment of military theories, concepts, methods and systems, and
graduates Graduation is the award of academic degree, or the ceremony that is sometimes associated with it. The date of the graduation ceremony is often called graduation day. The graduation ceremony is also sometimes called: commencement, convocation o ...
are not military scientists on completion of studies, but rather junior military officers.


History

Even until the Second World War, military science was written in English starting with capital letters, and was thought of as an academic discipline alongside Physics, Philosophy and the Medical Science. In part this was due to the general mystique that accompanied education in a World where as late as the 1880s 75% of the European population was illiterate. The ability by the officers to make complex calculations required for the equally complex "evolutions" of the troop movements in linear warfare that increasingly dominated the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
and later history, and the introduction of the gunpowder weapons into the equation of warfare only added to the veritable arcana of building fortifications as it seemed to the average individual. Until the early 19th century, one observer, a British veteran of the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, Major John Mitchell thought that it seemed nothing much had changed from the application of force on a battlefield since the days of the Greeks. He suggested that this was primarily so because as
Clausewitz Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (; – ) was a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology incl ...
suggested, "unlike in any other science or art, in war the object reacts". Until this time, and even after the
Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire (later the Third French Republic) and the North German Confeder ...
, military science continued to be divided between the formal thinking of officers brought up in the "shadow" of Napoleonic Wars and younger officers like
Ardant du Picq Charles Jean Jacques Joseph Ardant du Picq (19 October 1821 – 18 August 1870) was a French Army officer and military theorist of the mid-nineteenth century whose writings, as they were later interpreted by other theorists, had a great effect ...
who tended to view fighting performance as rooted in the individual's and
group psychology Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (''intra''group dynamics), or between social groups (Intergroup relations, ''inter''group dynamics). The study of group dynamics can be useful in un ...
and suggested detailed analysis of this. This set in motion the eventual fascination of the military organisations with application of quantitative and qualitative research to their theories of combat; the attempt to translate military thinking as philosophic concepts into concrete methods of combat. Military implements, the supply of an army, its organization, tactics, and discipline, have constituted the elements of military science in all ages; but improvement in weapons and accoutrements appears to lead and control all the rest. The breakthrough of sorts made by Clausewitz in suggesting eight principles on which such methods can be based, in Europe, for the first time presented an opportunity to largely remove the element of chance and error from command decision making process. At this time emphasis was made on the
Topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an ...
(including
Trigonometry Trigonometry (from ', "triangle" and ', "measure") is a branch of that studies relationships between side lengths and s of s. The field emerged in the during the 3rd century BC from applications of to . The Greeks focused on the , while ...

Trigonometry
), Military art (Military science),
Military history Military history is a humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and r ...
, Organisation of the Army in the field,
Artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

Artillery
and Science of
Projectile A projectile is a missile propelled by the exertion of a which is allowed to move free under the influence of and . Although any objects in motion through space are projectiles, they are commonly found in and s (for example, a thrown , kicked ...

Projectile
s, Field fortifications and Permanent fortifications, Military legislation,
Military administration Military administration identifies both the techniques and systems used by military departments, agencies, and armed services involved in managing the armed forces. It describes the processes that take place within military organisations outside ...
and Manoeuvres. The military science on which the model of German combat operations was built for the First World War remained largely unaltered from the Napoleonic model, but took into the consideration the vast improvements in the
firepower Firepower is the military capability to direct force at an enemy. (It is not to be confused with the concept of rate of fire Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device th ...
and the ability to conduct "great battles of annihilation" through rapid concentration of force, strategic mobility, and the maintenance of the
strategic offensive An offensive is a military operation that seeks through an aggressive projection of armed forces to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational, or tactical goal A goal is an idea of the future or de ...
better known as the Cult of the offensive. The key to this, and other modes of thinking about war remained analysis of
military history Military history is a humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and r ...
and attempts to derive tangible lessons that could be replicated again with equal success on another battlefield as a sort of bloody laboratory of military science. Few were bloodier than the fields of the
Western FrontWestern Front or West Front may refer to: Military frontiers *Western Front (World War I), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (World War II), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (Russian Empire), a major ...

Western Front
between 1914 and 1918. Fascinatingly the man who probably understood Clausewitz better than most,
Marshal Foch Ferdinand Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Generalissimo, Supreme Allied Commander during the World War I, First World War. An aggressive, even reckless commander at the First Fi ...

Marshal Foch
would initially participate in events that nearly destroyed the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
. It is not however true to say that military theorists and commanders were suffering from some collective case of stupidity; quite the opposite is true. Their analysis of military history convinced them that decisive and aggressive strategic offensive was the only doctrine of victory, and feared that overemphasis of firepower, and the resultant dependence on would make this all but impossible, and leading to the battlefield stagnant in advantages of the defensive position, destroying troop
morale Morale, also known as esprit de corps (), is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship. Morale is often referenced by authority figures as a generic value ...
and willingness to fight. Because only the offensive could bring victory, lack of it, and not the firepower, was blamed for the defeat of the
Imperial Russian Army The Imperial Russian Army (russian: Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия, tr. ) was the land armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily in ...

Imperial Russian Army
in the
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical natio ...
. Foch thought that "In strategy as well as in tactics one attacks". In many ways military science was born as a result of the experiences of the Great War. "Military implements" had changed armies beyond recognition with
cavalry Historically, cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via O ...

cavalry
to virtually disappear in the next 20 years. The "supply of an army" would become a science of
logistics Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption to meet the requ ...

logistics
in the wake of massive armies, operations and troops that could fire ammunition faster than it could be produced, for the first time using vehicles that used the , a watershed of change. Military "organisation" would no longer be that of the linear warfare, but assault teams, and battalions that were becoming multi-skilled with introduction of
machine gun A machine gun is an auto-firing, rifling, rifled long gun, long-barrel action (firearms)#Autoloading operation, autoloading firearm designed for sustained direct fire with fully powered cartridges. Other automatic firearms such as assault ri ...

machine gun
and
mortar Mortar may refer to: * Mortar (weapon), an indirect-fire infantry weapon * Mortar (masonry), a material used to fill the gaps between blocks and bind them together * Mortar and pestle, a tool pair used to crush or grind * Mortar, Bihar, a village in ...
, and for the first time forcing military commanders to think not only in terms of rank and file, but
force structureA force structure is the combat-capable part of a military organisation which describes how military personnel, and their weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict damage or harm. W ...
. Tactics changed too, with infantry for the first time segregated from the horse-mounted troops, and required to cooperate with
tank A tank is an armored fighting vehicle An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be wheeled or tr ...

tank
s,
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the Lift (force), dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in ...

aircraft
and new
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
tactics. Perception of
military discipline Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces. Many nation-states have separate and distinct bodies of law that govern the conduct of members of their armed forces. Some states u ...
too had changed. Morale, despite strict disciplinarian attitudes, had cracked in all armies during the war, but best performing troops were found to be those where emphasis on discipline had been replaced with display of personal initiative and group cohesiveness such as that found in the
Australian Corps The Australian Corps was a World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as th ...
during the
Hundred Days Offensive The Hundred Days Offensive (8 August to 11 November 1918) often considered one of the deadliest battles of WW1 was a series of massive Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined to ...
. The military sciences' analysis of military history that had failed European commanders was about to give way to a new military science, less conspicuous in appearance, but more aligned to the processes of
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
of testing and experimentation, the
scientific method The scientific method is an empirical Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidence ...

scientific method
, and forever "wed" to the idea of the superiority of technology on the battlefield. Currently military science still means many things to different organisations. In the United Kingdom and much of the European Union the approach is to relate it closely to the civilian application and understanding., for example Belgium's
Royal Military AcademyRoyal Military Academy may refer to: * Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, a British Army academy established in 1741 and closed in 1939 * Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, a British Army academy established in 1947 * Royal Military Academy (Belgium) ...
, military science remains an academic discipline, and is studied alongside Social Sciences, including such subjects as
Humanitarian law International humanitarian law (IHL), also referred to as the laws of armed conflict, is the law that regulates the conduct of war ('' jus in bello''). It is a branch of international law International law, also known as public international la ...
. The United States Department of Defense defines military science in terms of specific systems and operational requirements, and include among other areas
civil defense Civil defense ( en, region=gb, civil defence) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally s) from s. It uses the principles of s: , , preparation, response, or and recovery. Programs of this sort were initiall ...
and force structure.


Employment of military skills

In the first instance military science is concerned with who will participate in military operations, and what sets of skills and knowledge they will require to do so effectively and somewhat ingeniously.


Military organization

Develops optimal methods for the administration and organization of military units, as well as the military as a whole. In addition, this area studies other associated aspects as mobilization/demobilization, and military government for areas recently conquered (or liberated) from enemy control.


Force structuring

Force structuring is the method by which personnel and the weapons and equipment they use are organized and trained for military operations, including combat. Development of force structure in any country is based on strategic, operational, and tactical needs of the national defense policy, the identified threats to the country, and the technological capabilities of the threats and the armed forces. Force structure development is guided by doctrinal considerations of strategic, operational and tactical deployment and employment of formations and units to territories, areas and zones where they are expected to perform their missions and tasks. Force structuring applies to all
Armed Services A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or gro ...
, but not to their supporting organisations such as those used for defense science research activities. In the United States force structure is guided by the
table of organization and equipment #REDIRECT Table of organization and equipment A table of organization and equipment (TOE or TO&E) is the specified organization, staffing, and equipment of units Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertai ...
(TOE or TO&E). The TOE is a document published by the U.S. Department of Defense which prescribes the organization, manning, and equipage of units from divisional size and down, but also including the headquarters of Corps and Armies. Force structuring also provides information on the mission and capabilities of specific units, as well as the unit's current status in terms of posture and readiness. A general TOE is applicable to a type of unit (for instance, infantry) rather than a specific unit (the 3rd Infantry Division). In this way, all units of the same branch (such as Infantry) follow the same structural guidelines which allows for more efficient financing, training, and employment of like units operationally.


Military education and training

Studies the methodology and practices involved in training soldiers, NCOs (non-commissioned officers, i.e. sergeants and corporals), and officers. It also extends this to training small and large units, both individually and in concert with one another for both the regular and reserve organizations. Military training, especially for officers, also concerns itself with general education and political indoctrination of the armed forces.


Military concepts and methods

Much of capability development depends on the concepts which guide use of the armed forces and their weapons and equipment, and the methods employed in any given
theatre of war In war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative def ...
or combat environment.


Military history

Military activity has been a constant process over thousands of years, and the essential tactics, strategy, and goals of military operations have been unchanging throughout history. As an example, one notable maneuver is the
double envelopment The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a maneuver warfare, military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanking maneuver, flanks (sides) of an enemy formation. The pincer movement typically occurs when opposing forces ...
, considered to be the consummate military maneuver, first executed by
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern ...

Hannibal
at the
Battle of Cannae A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...
in 216 BCE, and later by
Khalid ibn al-Walid , other_name = ('the Sword of God')Abu Sulayman , image = , alt = , caption = , birth_date = , death_date = 642 , birth_place = Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly s ...
at the
Battle of Walaja The Battle of Walaja ( ar, معركة الولجة) was a battle fought in Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Syriac language, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārā ...
in 633 CE. Via the study of history, the military seeks to avoid past mistakes, and improve upon its current performance by instilling an ability in commanders to perceive historical parallels during battle, so as to capitalize on the lessons learned. The main areas military history includes are the history of wars, battles, and combats, history of the military art, and history of each specific military service.


Military strategy and doctrines

Military strategy is in many ways the centerpiece of military science. It studies the specifics of planning for, and engaging in combat, and attempts to reduce the many factors to a set of principles that govern all interactions of the field of battle. In Europe these principles were first defined by Clausewitz in his
Principles of War Principles of war are rules and guidelines that represent truths in the practice of war and military operations. The earliest known principles of war were documented by Sun Tzu Sun Tzu ( ; zh, t=孫子, p=Sūnzǐ) was a Chinese general, ...
. As such, it directs the planning and execution of battles, operations, and wars as a whole. Two major systems prevail on the planet today. Broadly speaking, these may be described as the "Western" system, and the "Russian" system. Each system reflects and supports strengths and weakness in the underlying society. Modern Western military art is composed primarily of an amalgam of French, German, British, and American systems. The Russian system borrows from these systems as well, either through study, or personal observation in the form of invasion ( Napoleon's War of 1812, and
The Great Patriotic War The Great Patriotic War (russian: Вели́кая Оте́чественная война́, translit=Velikaya Otechestvennaya voyna; uk, Велика Вітчизняна війна, translit=Velyka Vitchyzniana viyna; be, Вялікая А ...
), and form a unique product suited for the conditions practitioners of this system will encounter. The system that is produced by the analysis provided by Military Art is known as doctrine. Western military doctrine relies heavily on technology, the use of a well-trained and empowered NCO cadre, and superior information processing and dissemination to provide a level of battlefield awareness that opponents cannot match. Its advantages are extreme flexibility, extreme lethality, and a focus on removing an opponent's C3I (command, communications, control, and intelligence) to paralyze and incapacitate rather than destroying their combat power directly (hopefully saving lives in the process). Its drawbacks are high expense, a reliance on difficult-to-replace personnel, an enormous logistic train, and a difficulty in operating without high technology assets if depleted or destroyed. Soviet military doctrine (and its descendants, in
CIS Cis or cis- may refer to: Places * Cis, Trentino, in Italy * In Poland: ** Cis, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central ** Cis, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, north Math, science and biology * cis (mathematics) is a mathematical not ...

CIS
countries) relies heavily on masses of machinery and troops, a highly educated (albeit very small) officer corps, and pre-planned missions. Its advantages are that it does not require well educated troops, does not require a large logistic train, is under tight central control, and does not rely on a sophisticated C3I system after the initiation of a course of action. Its disadvantages are inflexibility, a reliance on the shock effect of mass (with a resulting high cost in lives and material), and overall inability to exploit unexpected success or respond to unexpected loss. Chinese military doctrine is currently in a state of flux as the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
is evaluating military trends of relevance to China. Chinese military doctrine is influenced by a number of sources including an indigenous classical military tradition characterized by strategists such as
Sun Tzu Sun Tzu ( ; zh, t=孫子, p=Sūnzǐ) was a Chinese general, military strategist A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense a ...
, Western and Soviet influences, as well as indigenous modern strategists such as
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong pronounced ; also Romanization of Chinese, romanised traditionally as Mao Tse-tung. (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the Proclamation of the ...

Mao Zedong
. One distinctive characteristic of Chinese military science is that it places emphasis on the relationship between the military and society as well as viewing military force as merely one part of an overarching
grand strategy Grand strategy or high strategy is the long-term strategy pursued at the highest levels by a nation to further its interests. Issues of grand strategy typically include the choice of primary versus secondary theaters Theatre or theater is ...
. Each system trains its officer corps in its philosophy regarding military art. The differences in content and emphasis are illustrative. The
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
principles of war are defined in the U.S. Army Field Manual FM 100–5. The
Canadian Forces The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is the unified military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
principles of war/military science are defined by Land Forces Doctrine and Training System (LFDTS) to focus on ''principles of command'', ''principles of war'', ''operational art and campaign planning'', and ''scientific principles''. Russian Federation armed forces derive their
principles of war Principles of war are rules and guidelines that represent truths in the practice of war and military operations. The earliest known principles of war were documented by Sun Tzu Sun Tzu ( ; zh, t=孫子, p=Sūnzǐ) was a Chinese general, ...
predominantly from those developed during the existence of the Soviet Union. These, although based significantly on the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
experience in conventional war fighting, have been substantially modified since the introduction of the nuclear arms into strategic considerations. The
Soviet–Afghan War The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the Mujahideen ''Mujahideen'', or ''Mujahidin'' ( ar, مُجَاهِدِين, mujāhidīn), is the plural form of ''mujahid'' ( ar, مجاهد, mujā ...
and the
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and
Second Chechen War The Second Chechen War (russian: Втора́я чече́нская война́, ) was an armed conflict in Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russia, Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, ...
s further modified the principles that Soviet theorists had divided into the operational art and tactics. The very scientific approach to military science thinking in the Soviet union had been perceived as overly rigid at the
tactical level Military tactics encompasses the art of organizing and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield. They involve the application of four battlefield functions which are closely related – kinetic or firepower, Mobility (military), mobili ...
, and had affected the training in the Russian Federation's much reduced forces to instil greater professionalism and initiative in the forces. The military
principles of war Principles of war are rules and guidelines that represent truths in the practice of war and military operations. The earliest known principles of war were documented by Sun Tzu Sun Tzu ( ; zh, t=孫子, p=Sūnzǐ) was a Chinese general, ...
of the People's Liberation Army were loosely based on those of the Soviet Union until the 1980s when a significant shift begun to be seen in a more regionally-aware, and geographically-specific strategic, operational and tactical thinking in all services. The PLA is currently influenced by three doctrinal schools which both conflict and complement each other: the People's war, the Regional war, and the Revolution in military affairs that led to substantial increase in the defense spending and rate of technological modernisation of the forces. The differences in the specifics of Military art notwithstanding, Military science strives to provide an integrated picture of the chaos of battle, and illuminate basic insights that apply to all combatants, not just those who agree with your formulation of the principles.


Military geography

Military geography encompasses much more than simple protestations to take the high ground. Military geography studies the obvious, the geography of theatres of war, but also the additional characteristics of politics, economics, and other natural features of locations of likely conflict (the political "landscape", for example). As an example, the
Soviet–Afghan War The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the Mujahideen ''Mujahideen'', or ''Mujahidin'' ( ar, مُجَاهِدِين, mujāhidīn), is the plural form of ''mujahid'' ( ar, مجاهد, mujā ...
was predicated on the ability of the Soviet Union to not only successfully invade Afghanistan, but also to militarily and politically flank the
Islamic Republic of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tur ...
simultaneously.


Military systems

How effectively and efficiently militaries accomplish their operations, missions and tasks is closely related not only to the methods they use, but the equipment and weapons they use.


Military intelligence

Military intelligence supports the
combat Combat (French language, French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violence, violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapons) or unarmed (Hand-to-hand combat, not using weapons). Combat is sometim ...
commanders'
decision making process In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several possible alternative options, it could be ...
by providing
intelligence analysis Intelligence analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The descriptions are drawn from what may only be available in the form of deliberate ...
of available data from a wide range of sources. To provide that informed analysis the commanders information requirements are identified and input to a process of gathering, analysis, protection, and dissemination of information about the operational environment, hostile, friendly and neutral forces and the civilian population in an area of combat operations, and broader area of interest. Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, and during the war. Most militaries maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services. Personnel selected for intelligence duties, whether specialist
intelligence officerAn intelligence officer is a person employed by an organization to collect, compile or analyze information (known as intelligence) which is of use to that organization. The word of ''officer'' is a working title, not a rank, used in the same way a ...
s and enlisted soldiers or non-specialist assigned to intelligence may be selected for their analytical abilities and intelligence before receiving formal training. Military intelligence serves to identify the threat, and provide information on understanding best methods and weapons to use in deterring or defeating it.


Military logistics

The art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects or military operations that deal with the design, development, acquisition, storage, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of material; the movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel; the acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities; and the acquisition or furnishing of services.


Military technology and equipment

Military technology is not just the study of various technologies and applicable physical sciences used to increase military power. It may also extend to the study of production methods of military equipment, and ways to improve performance and reduce material and/or technological requirements for its production. An example is the effort expended by
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazi
Germany to produce artificial rubbers and fuels to reduce or eliminate their dependence on imported POL (petroleum, oil, and lubricants) and rubber supplies. Military technology is unique only in its application, not in its use of basic scientific and technological achievements. Because of the uniqueness of use, military technological studies strive to incorporate evolutionary, as well as the rare revolutionary technologies, into their proper place of military application.


Military and Society

This speciality examines the ways that military and society interact and shape each other. The dynamic intersection where military and society meet is influenced by trends in society and the security environment.Shields P.M. (2020) Dynamic Intersection of Military and Society. In: Sookermany A. (eds) ''Handbook of Military Sciences''. Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-030-02866-4_31-1 This field of study can be linked to works by Clausewitz ("War is the continuation of politics by other means") and Sun Tzu ("If not in the interest of the state, do not act" ). The contemporary multi and interdisciplinary field traces its origin to World War II and works by sociologists and political scientists. This field of study includes "all aspects of relations between armed forces, as a political, social and economic institution, and the society, state or political ethnic movement of which they are a part". Topics often included within the purview of military and society include: veterans, women in the military, military families, enlistment and retention, reserve forces, military and religion, military privatization, Civil-military relations, civil-military cooperation, military and popular culture, military and the media, military and disaster assistance, military and the environment and the blurring of military and police functions.


Recruitment and Retention

In an all volunteer military, the armed forces relies on market forces and careful recruiting to fill its ranks. It is thus, very important to understand factors that motivate enlistment and reenlistment. Service members must have the mental and physical ability to meet the challenges of military service and adapt to the military's values and culture. Studies show that enlistment motivation generally incorporates both self-interest (pay) and non-market values like adventure, patriotism, and comradeship.


Veterans

The study veterans or members of the military who leave and return to the society is one of the most important subfields of the military and society field of study. Veterans and their issues represent a microcosm of the field. Military recruits represent inputs that flow from the community into the armed forces, veterans are outputs that leave the military and reenter society changed by their time as soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen. Both society and veteran face multiple layers of adaptation and adjustment upon their reentry. The definition of veteran is surprisingly fluid across countries. In the US veteran’s status is established after a service member has completed a minimum period of service. Australia requires deployment to a combat zone. In the UK “Everyone who has performed military service for at least one day and drawn a day’s pay is termed a veteran.” The study of veterans focuses much attention on their, sometimes, uneasy transition back to civilian society. “Veterans must navigate a complex cultural transition when moving between environments,” and they can expect positive and negative transition outcomes. Finding a good job and reestablishing a fulfilling family life is high on their resettlement agenda. Military life is often violent and dangerous. The trauma of combat often results in post-traumatic stress disorder as well as painful physical health challenges which often lead to
homelessness Homelessness is the condition of lacking stable, safe, and adequate housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, o ...

homelessness
,
suicide Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition t ...

suicide
,
substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and takes up space * Substance th ...
, and excessive alcohol use, and family dysfunction. Society recognizes its responsibilities to veterans by offering programs and policies designed to redress these problems. Veterans also exert an influence on society often through the political process. For example, how do veterans vote and establish party affiliation? During the 2004 presidential election veterans were basically bipartisan. Veterans who fought in Croatia’s war of independence voted for the nationalist parties in greater numbers.


Reserve Forces

Reserve Forces are service members who serve the armed forces on a part-time basis. These men and women constitute a “reserve” force that countries rely on for their defense, disaster support, and some day-to-day operations etc. In the United States an active reservist spends a weekend a month and two weeks a year in training. The size of a county’s reserve force often depends on the type of recruitment method. Nations with a volunteer force tend to have a lower reserve percentage. Recently the role of the reserves has changed. In many countries it gone from a strategic force, largely static, to an operational force, largely dynamic. After WWII, relatively large standing forces took care of most operational needs. Reserves were held back strategically and deployed in times of emergency for example during the Cuban missile crisis. Subsequently, the strategic and budget situation changed and as a result the active duty military began to rely on reserve force, particularly for combat support and combat service support. Further large-scale military operation, routinely mobilize and deploy reservists Lomsky-Feder et al (2008p. 594) introduced the metaphor of reserve forces as ''Transmigrants'' who live “betwixt and between the civilian and military worlds”. This metaphor captures “their structural duality” and suggests dynamic nature of reservist experience as they navigate commitments to their often conflicting civilian and military worlds. Given their greater likelihood of lengthy deployment, reservists face many of the same stresses as active duty but often with fewer support services.


University studies

Universities (or colleges) around the world also offer a degree(s) in military science: *Belgium:
Royal Military Academy (Belgium) The Royal Military Academy (french: École royale militaire, nl, Koninklijke Militaire School) is the military university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Ter ...
- BA Social and Military Science; MA Social and Military Science * Israel: **
Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv University (TAU) ( he, אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל אָבִיב, ''Universitat Tel Aviv'') is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educatio ...
– MA in Security. **
Bar-Ilan University Bar-Ilan University (BIU, he, אוניברסיטת בר-אילן, ''Universitat Bar-Ilan'') is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, in ...
– MA in Military, Security and Intelligence. * Finland: ** National Defence University – Bachelor, Master, and PhD in Military science *France: **
Sciences Po The Paris Institute of Political Studies (french: Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred to as Sciences Po Paris or just Sciences Po (), is a ''Grandes écoles, grande école'' and ''grands établissements, grand établisseme ...
, Paris School of International Affairs - Master in International Security. * New Zealand: **
Massey University Massey University ( mi, Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa) is a university based in Palmerston North, New Zealand Palmerston North (; mi, Te Papa-i-Oea) is a city in the North Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Manawatū-Whanganui region. L ...
, Centre for Defence and Security Studies – BA in Defence Studies. **
Victoria University of Wellington Victoria University of Wellington ( mi, Te Herenga Waka) is a university in Wellington, New Zealand. It was established in 1897 by Act of Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body o ...
– Centre for Strategic Studies – Master of Strategic Studies (MSS). * Slovenia: **
University of Ljubljana The University of Ljubljana ( sl, Univerza v Ljubljani, , la, Universitas Labacensis), often referred to as UL, is the oldest and largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of high ...
, Faculty of Social Studies – BA, MA and PhD in Defence studies; PhD in Military-Social Sciences * United Kingdom: **
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
– MA in International Security and Strategy; MA, MPhil/PhD in Defence Studies **
University of Hull The University of Hull is a public research university in Kingston upon Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It was founded in 1927 as University College Hull. The main university campus is located in Hull and is home to the Hull ...
– MA in Strategy and International Security **
University of St Andrews (Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to ExcelorEver to be the Best , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indi ...
- MLitt in Strategic Studies *Sri Lanka **
Sri Lanka Military Academy The Sri Lanka Military Academy () (SLMA or SLMA Diyatalawa), commonly known simply as Diyatalawa, is one of several military academies in Sri Lanka and is the Sri Lanka Army's initial Commissioned officer, officer training centre. It is locate ...
- (Bachelor and Masters degree in Military Studies) Military training school
Diyatalawa Diyatalawa (දියතලාව, meaning “the watered plain”) is a former garrison Garrison (various spellings) (from the French ''garnison'', itself from the verb ''garnir'', "to equip") is the collective term for any body of troo ...

Diyatalawa
,
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
*South Africa **
South African Military Academy The South African Military Academy is based on similar principles to that of the military academy system of the United States (United States Military Academy United States Naval Academy United States Air Force Academy). The academy is a military ...
/
University of Stellenbosch Stellenbosch University ( af, Universiteit Stellenbosch) is a public university, public research university situated in Stellenbosch, a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Stellenbosch is the oldest university in South Africa and ...
- Bachelor of Military Science (BMil), Master of Military Science (MMil), MPhil in Security Management * United States: **
United States Air Force Academy The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is a military academy A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a milita ...
– Major in Military and Strategic Studies; Minor in Nuclear Weapons and Strategy **
United States Military Academy The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point or simply Army is a four-year United States service academy in West Point, New York West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in the United Stat ...
– Major in Defense and Strategic Studies **
Hawaii Pacific University Hawaii Pacific University (HPU) is a private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grant (money), grants. Depending on their ...
– Major in Diplomacy and Military Studies **
Missouri State University Missouri State University (MSU or MO State), formerly Southwest Missouri State University, is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a un ...
– Minor in Military Studies


International Military Sciences or Studies Associations

There are many international associations with the core purpose of bringing scholars in the field of Military Science together. Some are inter-disciplinary and have a broad scope, whilst others are confined and specialized focusing on more specific disciplines or subjects. Some are integrated in larger scientific communities like the
International Sociological Association The International Sociological Association (ISA) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated fo ...
(ISA) and the
American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologist A psychologist is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a speci ...
(APA) where others have grown out of military institutions or individuals who have had a particular interest in areas of military science and are military, defense or armed forces oriented. Some of these associations are: *
American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologist A psychologist is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a speci ...
; Division 19: Society for Military Psychology (APA-Div19) * European Research Group on Military and Society (ERGOMAS) * Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society (IUS) * International Congress on Soldiers Physical Performance (ICSPP) * International Military Testing Association (IMTA) * International Society of Military Sciences (ISMS) *
International Sociological Association The International Sociological Association (ISA) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated fo ...
; RC01 Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution


Military studies journals

The following are notable journals in the field: * ''Armed Forces & Society'' * ''European Security'' * ''International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence'' * ''International Peacekeeping'' * ''International Security'' * ''Joint Forces Quarterly'' * ''Journal of Strategic Studies'' * ''Military Psychology'' * ''Military Review'' * ''Orbis (journal)'' * ''Parameters (journal)'' Quarterly Journal of the US Army War College * ''Security Dialogue'' * ''Security Studies (journal)'' * ''Survival (journal)'' * ''The RUSI Journal'' * ''The Washington Quarterly''


See also

* Military doctrine * Military theory * War * List of basic military science and technology topics * List of military inventions * List of military writers


References

Notes Bibliography * Barnard, Henry, ''Military Schools and Courses of Instruction in the Science and Art of War in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Sardinia, England, and the United States, Part I – France and Prussia,'' J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1862 * Dupuy, Trevor N., ''Understanding War: History and Theory of Combat'', Leo Cooper, London, 1992 * * Jordan, Kelly C., "Military Science", in G. Kurt Piehler, ed. ''Encyclopedia of Military Science'', SAGE Reference, Volume, 2. pp. 880–885. * Lodge, Henry Cabot, (ed.), ''The North American Review'', Making of America Project, University of Northern Iowa, 1878 *Muehlbauer, Matthew S., and David J. Ulbrich, eds. ''The Routledge History of Global War and Society'' (2018)

*Muehlbauer, Matthew S., and David J. Ulbrich. ''Ways of War: American Military History from the Colonial Era to the Twenty-First Century'' (2018)

* Shields Patricia M. (2020) Dynamic Intersection of Military and Society. In: Sookermany A. (eds) ''Handbook of Military Sciences''. Springer, Cham. * Soeters, Joseph; Shields, Patricia and Rietjens, Sebastiaan
Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies
New York: Routledge, 2014. * Sookermany A. (ed.) 2020 ''Handbook of Military Sciences''. Springer, Cham. * Thompson, Julian, ''Lifeblood of war: Logistics in armed conflict'', Brassey's classics, London, 1991


External links


Military Technology
US Military/Government Texts
The Logic of Warfighting Experiments
by Kass (CCRP, 2006)
Complexity, Networking, and Effects Based Approaches to Operations
by Smith (CCRP, 2006)
Understanding Command and Control
by Alberts and Hayes (CCRP, 2006)
The Agile Organization
by Atkinson and Moffat (CCRP, 2005)
Power to the Edge
by Alberts and Hayes (CCRP, 2003)
Network Centric Warfare
by Alberts et al. (CCRP, 1999) {{DEFAULTSORT:Military Science Military science,