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A military campaign is large-scale long-duration significant
military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organization Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a State (polity), state so as to offer such military capability as a military poli ...
plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as a modal logic, temporal set (mathematics), set of intended actions through whi ...
incorporating a series of interrelated
military operation A military operation is the coordinated military action War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and m ...
s or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
. The term derives from the plain of
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, a place of annual wartime operations by the armies of the
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.


Definition

1. A military campaign denotes the time during which a given
military force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Li ...
conducts combat operations in a given area (often referred to as AO,
area of operationIn U.S. armed forces parlance, an area of operations (AO) is an operational area defined by the force commander for land, air, and naval forces conduct of combat and non-combat activities. Areas of operations do not typically encompass the entire ...
). A military campaign may be executed by either a single Armed Service, or as a combined services campaign conducted by
land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of Earth's crust, crustal components such a ...

land
,
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized a ...

naval
,
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, cyber and space forces. 2. The purpose of a military campaign is to achieve a particular desired resolution of a military conflict as its strategic goal. This is constrained by resources, geography and/or season. A campaign is measured relative to the technology used by the belligerents to achieve goals, and while in the pre-industrial Europe was understood to be that between the planting (late spring) and harvest times (late autumn), it has been shortened during the post-industrial period to a few weeks. However, due to the nature of campaign goals, usually campaigns last several months, or up to a year as defined by
Trevor N. Dupuy Trevor Nevitt Dupuy (May 3, 1916 – June 5, 1995) was a colonel in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed services of ...
.
"A campaign is a phase of a war involving a series of operations related in time and space and aimed towards a single, specific, strategic objective or result in the war. A campaign may include a single battle, but more often it comprises a number of battles over a protracted period of time or a considerable distance, but within a single theatre of operations or delimited area. A campaign may last only a few weeks, but usually lasts several months or even a year".


Conduct

*Planning – the
General Staff A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and ...
defining objectives,
time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...

time
,
scope
scope
and
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cost
of the campaign *Executing – the coordination of forces and resources in logistic and combat operations *Controlling – the monitoring of the progress of the campaign when compared to its baseline plan *Concluding – acceptance or rejection of the campaign outcomes by the directing command structure Many historical campaigns are so named as
misnomer A misnomer is a name that is incorrectly or unsuitably applied. Misnomers often arise because something was named long before its correct nature was known, or because an earlier form of something has been replaced by a later form to which the nam ...
s to increase or reduce the perception of operations for other than military reasons.


Winter season

In premodern times, campaigns were usually interrupted during the winter season, during which the soldiers retreated into the winter quarters (or 'cantonments') to get through the coldest months with warmth and protection. For example, the
ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studi ...
had easily movable ''
castra In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run through res publica, public Representation (politics), representation of the Roman people. Beginning ...

castra
aestiva'' ('summer quarters', with leather tents) but more stationary ''castra hibera'' ('winter quarters', with wooden barracks). In favourable weather and with proper equipment and supplies, however, military campaigns could be extended from the 'campaigning season' into winter in an attempt to catch the enemy off-guard. For example, in the Flanders campaign, French general
Jean-Charles Pichegru Jean-Charles Pichegru (16 February 1761 – 5 April 1804) was a distinguished French general of the Revolutionary Wars. Under his command, French troops overran Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officiall ...
unexpectedly crossed the frozen Great Rivers during the harsh winter of 1794–95, and conquered the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
. But ill-prepared winter campaigns often had disastrous consequences due to high mortality amongst the soldiers; the most notorious example of this is the
French invasion of Russia The French invasion of Russia, also known as the Russian Campaign, the Second Polish War, the Second Polish Campaign, the Patriotic War of 1812 , and the War of 1812, was begun by Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – ...
by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
(24 June – 14 December 1812).Encarta Encyclopaedia Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Napoleon I Bonaparte. §4.2 Veldtocht tegen Rusland". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. Therefore, army commanders sought to take into account the need to return their troops to their winter quarters, or establish new winter quarters in a secure location, well before the winter set in, so as to not leave their soldiers vulnerable to the enemy nor the elements.


Evaluation

The success of a military campaign is evaluated based on the degree of achievement of planned goals and objectives through combat and noncombat operations. That is determined when one of the belligerent military forces defeats the opposing military force within the constraints of the planned resource, time and cost allocations. The manner in which a force terminates its operations often influences the public perception of the campaign's success. A campaign may end in conquest, and be followed by the transition of military authority to a civil authority and the redeployment of forces, or a permanent installation of a military authority in the occupied area. Military campaigns, inside and outside defined wars, may exceed the original or even revised planning parameters of scope, time and cost. Such stalled campaigns, for example the
western frontWestern Front or West Front may refer to: Military frontiers *Western Front (World War I), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (World War II), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (Russian Empire), a major ...

western front
in World War I, were formerly called "
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s" but in the late 20th century the
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of a ''
quagmire
quagmire
'' was often applied. Such a situation may arise of various factors such as: *a small hope for victory *poorly defined objectives *no clear
exit strategy An exit strategy is a means of leaving one's current situation, either after a predetermined objective has been achieved, or as a strategy Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία ''stratēgia'', "art of troop leader; office of general, command, ...


See also

;General *
Military operations other than war Military operations other than war (MOOTW) focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crises. The phrase and acronym were coined by the United States military during the 199 ...
– concept that encompass the use of military capabilities across the range of military operations short of war. * Campaign desk – used by officers and their staffs in rear areas during a military campaign. *
Military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organization Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the s of a so as to offer such as a may require. In some countries forces are included in a nati ...
– collective name for planning the conduct of warfare. * War cycles – the theory that
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
s happen in cycles. ;Military decorations *
Campaign medal A campaign medal is a military decoration which is awarded to a member of an armed force who serves in a Military operation, designated military operation or performs duty in a geographical Theater (warfare), theater. Campaign medals are very simila ...
– a military decoration which is awarded to a member of the military who serves in a designated military operation or performs duty in a geographical theater. *
Campaign clasp Campaign or The Campaign may refer to: Types of campaigns * Campaign, in agriculture, the period during which sugar beets are harvested and processed *Advertising campaign, a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme *Blit ...
– an attachment to a military award consisting of a metal bar which is pinned to the upper cloth portion of an award medal. *
Campaign streamer Campaign streamers are decorations attached to military flag In military organizations, the practice of carrying colours, standards or guidons, both to act as a rallying point for troops and to mark the location of the commander, is ...
– a long streamer attached to the headpiece of a military flag, denoting participation of that military service in a particular campaign. ;Lists and examples *
List of wars The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, gen ...
– contains military campaigns. *
List of battles Lists of battles contain links to sets of articles on battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military ...
– part of larger military campaigns. * List of sieges – part of larger military campaigns.


References


Sources

* Dupuy, T.N., ''Understanding war: History and Theory of Combat'', Leo Cooper, London, 1992 {{authority control
Campaign Campaign or The Campaign may refer to: Types of campaigns * Campaign, in agriculture, the period during which sugar beets are harvested and processed *Advertising campaign, a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme *Blit ...