HOME

TheInfoList




A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an
educational stage Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) r ...
which exists in some countries, providing education between
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
and
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between and sometimes within countries.


Afghanistan

In
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, middle school includes grades 6, 7, and 8, consisting of students from ages 11 to 14.


Algeria

In
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...

Algeria
, a middle school includes 4 grades: 6, 7, 8, and 9, consisting of students from ages 11–15.


Argentina

The of secondary education (ages 11–14) is roughly equivalent to middle school.


Australia

No regions of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
have segregated middle schools, as students go directly from
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
(for years K/preparatory–6) to
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
(years 7–12, usually referred to as
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
). As an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools classify their grades as "middle school" (years 5,6,7,8 where primary and secondary campuses share facilities or 7,8,9 in a secondary campus) or "junior high school" (years 7, 8, 9, and 10) and "senior high school" (years 11 and 12). Some have three levels, "junior" (years 7 and 8), "intermediate" (years 9 and 10), and "senior" (years 11 and 12). Some schools run a specialised year 9 program segregated from the other secondary year levels. In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of * early adolescent needs * guiding principles for educators * appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning. The first middle school established in Australia was
The Armidale School , motto_translation = Without God, Nothing , location = Armidale, New England Tablelands, New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast o ...

The Armidale School
, in Armidale (approximately north of
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
, SSW of
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
and approximately due west of Coffs Harbour on the coast). Other schools have since followed this trend. The
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 (approximate age 13–15) and high school year 10–12 (approximate age 16–18). Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools. The middle schools cover years 5 to 8.


Bangladesh

In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, middle school is not separated as in other countries. Generally, schools are from class 1 to class 10. It means lower primary (1–5), upper primary (6–10). Class 6–8 is thought of as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 10 are considered high school (as middle school and high school are not considered separate) while 11–12 (inclusive) is called college. * 1-5 is known as primary (Part of Primary School) * 6-8 is known as lower secondary (Part of High School) * 9-10 is known as secondary (part of High School) * 11-12 is known as higher secondary also known as college.


Bolivia

Middle schools in
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of g ...

Bolivia
have been abolished since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

In
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
"middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "
Gymnasiums A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for Athletics (physical culture), athletics. The word is derived from the ancient Greek Gymnasium (ancient Greece), ''gymnasium''. They are commonly found in athletic and Physical fitness, ...
" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.


Brazil

In
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes
High School A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

High School
() called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14.


Canada

In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, and sometimes 9 (some older schools with the name 'carved in concrete' still use "Junior High" as part of their name, although grade nine is now missing), whereas middle schools are usually grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7 (i.e. around ages 11–14), varying from area to area and also according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8.
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Alberta
,
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
,
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...

Newfoundland
, and
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
junior high schools typically include grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of grade 8. In
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" (sometimes just grades 7 and 8) are used, with the latter being used particularly in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
plus in Mississauga, Brampton, and Kitchener-Waterloo. In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities (such as Hamilton) specific schools do serve the intermediate grades (i.e. Grades 6–8 or Grades 7–8) but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name.
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
uses a grade system that is different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec, there is no Middle school section. The Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V.


Chile

Chile does not have middle schools, they instead have educacion basica that teaches basic education like elementary school, and educacion media, which is middle education like middle school or high school. Educacion basica is from 1st grade to 6th grade, and educacion media from 7th grade to 12th grade. Communities do not consider the 7th and 8th grades being part of educacion media despite the government rendering it, communities treat the grades as middle school.


China

In the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
,
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
covers grades 1-6 and secondary school covers grades 7-12. Secondary schools are further divided into two stages, junior high school ( or , grades 7–9) and senior high school ( or ), grades 10–12). The Chinese junior high school is roughly equivalent to an American middle school, and provides the last 3 years of the
nine-year compulsory education
nine-year compulsory education
required for all Chinese citizens. The senior high school is optional but considered as critical preparation for tertiary education. The admissions for most students to enrol in senior secondary schools from the junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in " Senior High School Entrance Exam",Commonly referred as the "Middle Exam" (
Simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by ...
: ).
which are held by local governments. Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, leadership merits or excellent
coursework Coursework is work performed by students A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pup ...
performance in junior stage.


Colombia

Secondary education is divided into basic secondary (grades 6 to 9) and mid-secondary (grades 10 and 11). The students in basic secondary, roughly equivalent to middle school, are 11 or 12 to 15 or 16 years old.


Croatia

In
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
"middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–5 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 years). "
Gymnasiums A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for Athletics (physical culture), athletics. The word is derived from the ancient Greek Gymnasium (ancient Greece), ''gymnasium''. They are commonly found in athletic and Physical fitness, ...
" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.


Cuba

(basic secondary, seventh through ninth grades) is the approximate equivalent of middle school in
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
.


Czech Republic

In the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
after completing the nine-year elementary school (
compulsory school attendance Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by the government. This education may take place at a registered school or Homeschooling, at other places. Compulsory school attendance or compulso ...
) a student may apply for high school or grammar school.Czech Act No. 561/2004 Collection of Law, on Pre-school, Basic, Secondary, Tertiary Professional and Other Education
(the Education Act)
Students have the opportunity to enroll in high school from Grade 6 or (less commonly) Grade 8 of elementary school, spending eight or six years respectively at high school that otherwise takes four years. Thus they can spend five years in elementary school, followed by eight in high school. The first four years of the eight-year study program at high school are comparable with junior high school. Gymnasium focuses on a more advanced academic approach to education. All other types of high schools except gymnasiums and conservatories (e.g.
lyceum The lyceum is a category of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. ...

lyceum
s) accept only students that finished Grade 9.


Ecuador

The 4th and last level of (ages 12–14) is roughly equivalent to middle school.


Egypt

In
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
, middle school precedes high school. It is called the preparatory stage and consists of three phases: first preparatory in which students study more subjects than primary with different branches. For instance,
algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. In its most ge ...

algebra
and
geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mat ...

geometry
are taught instead of "mathematics." In the second preparatory phase, students study science, geography, the history of Egypt starting with pharaonic history, including
Coptic history Coptic history is part of history of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teaching ...
,
Islamic history The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. Most historians accept that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Muslims regard Is ...
, and concluding with
modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, advent of writing, from primary source, primary an ...
. The students are taught two languages,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
. Middle school (preparatory stage) lasts for three years.


France

(2006)In France, the equivalent period to middle school is collège, which lasts four years from the ("sixth," the equivalent of the Canadian and American
Grade 6 Sixth grade (or grade six in some regions, equivalent to Year 7 in England and Wales) is the sixth year of schooling and the first or second year of middle school or the last year of Primary school, elementary school for students in some countries a ...
) to the ("third," the equivalent of the Canadian and American
Grade 9 Ninth grade, freshman year, or grade 9 is the ninth year of school education State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English and North American English) are generally primary or secondary educational ins ...
), accommodating pupils aged between 11 and 14. Upon completion of the latter, students are awarded a if they obtain a certain number of points on a series of tests in various subjects (French, history/ geography, mathematics, science/physics/chemistry), but also on a series of skills completed during the last year and on oral examinations (e.g. about cross-subjects themes they work on the latest years, the fourth year of collège). They can then enter high school (called ), which lasts three years from the to the until the , and during which they can choose a general or a professional field of study.


Georgia

In
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
, the equivalent period to middle school covers ages 12 to 15, from the 7th grade to the 10th and guarantees basic educational degree certificate.


Gibraltar

There are four middle schools in Gibraltar, following the English model of middle-deemed-primary schools accommodating pupils aged between 9 and 12 (National Curriculum Years 4 to 7). The schools were opened in 1972 when the government introduced comprehensive education in the territory.


Greece

In Greece, the equivalent period to middle school is called (), which caters to children between the ages 12 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th, and 9th grade.


India

In India, Middle School is classified as Upper Primary (Class 6-8). Each state has its own State Board. Each has its own standards, which might be different from the Central Boards. In some institutions, providing education for 5th to 10th is known as a secondary school. The levels of education in India are: * Pre-Primary – Nursery to KG * Primary (Lower Primary) – Classes I to V * Middle School (Upper Primary) – Classes VI to VIII * High school – Classes IX to X * Higher Secondary (PUC or Plus Two) - Classes XI to XII


Indonesia

In Indonesia, middle school ( id, Sekolah Menengah Pertama, SMP) covers ages 12 to 15 or grade 7 to grade 9. Although compulsory education ends at junior high, most pursue higher education. There are around 22,000 middle schools in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
with a balanced ownership between public and private sector.Middle school statistics between 2004–2005


Iran

Iran calls Middle School Guidance School, which caters to children between the ages 12 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th and 9th grade.


Israel

In most of the cities in Israel, middle school (
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
: ) covers ages 12 to 15. From the 7th grade to the 9th.


Italy

In Italy the equivalent is the formerly and commonly called lower middle school (), often shortened to middle school (). When the , the equivalent of high school, was formerly called higher middle school (), commonly called Superiori. The Middle School lasts three years from the student age of 11 to age 14. Since 2009, after
Gelmini reform The Gelmini reform (Italian: ''riforma Gelmini'') refers to the set of act (document), acts of the Italy, Italian Republic – issued during the Berlusconi IV Cabinet – concerning the education in Italy, education sector in Italy. Entering into ...
, the middle school was renamed (junior secondary school).


Jamaica

Middle school in Jamaica is called "Junior High School." It is from grade 7–9 but this idea is becoming rare now so these grades are considered lower secondary. (They also have a primary school (grades 1–6)


Japan

Junior high schools () are for children aged twelve through fifteen years old.


Kosovo

In
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
"middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "
Gymnasiums A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for Athletics (physical culture), athletics. The word is derived from the ancient Greek Gymnasium (ancient Greece), ''gymnasium''. They are commonly found in athletic and Physical fitness, ...
" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.


Kuwait

In
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
, middle school is from grade 6–9 and from age 11–14.


Lebanon

In
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
, middle school or intermediate school consists of grades 7, 8, and 9. At the end of 9th grade, the student is given the
National diplomaA National Diploma is a title that is used to represent a standard of academic or vocational education. The title was first used in the United Kingdom, but has now been adopted by educational systems worldwide. * National Diploma (Ireland), a three ...
examination.


North Macedonia

In
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A sub ...
middle school refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "
Gymnasiums A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for Athletics (physical culture), athletics. The word is derived from the ancient Greek Gymnasium (ancient Greece), ''gymnasium''. They are commonly found in athletic and Physical fitness, ...
" are the most prestigious type of middle school.


Malaysia

In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, the middle school equivalent is called lower secondary school which consists of students from age 13 to 15 (Form 1-3).Pelajar Menengah Rendah Usually, these lower secondary schools are combined with upper secondary schools to form a single secondary school which is also known as high school. Students at the end of their lower secondary studies are required to sit for an examination called PT3 ( Form 3. 7 subjects for non-Muslim students and 8 subjects for Muslim students) in order to determine their field of studies for upper secondary (Form 4-5).


Mexico

In
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
, the middle school system is called and usually comprises three years, grades 7–9 (ages: 7 12–13, 8 13–14, 9: 14–15). It is completed after (Elementary School, up to grade 6: ages 6–12) and before (High School, grades 10–12 ages 15–18).


Montenegro

In
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
middle school refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "
Gymnasiums A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for Athletics (physical culture), athletics. The word is derived from the ancient Greek Gymnasium (ancient Greece), ''gymnasium''. They are commonly found in athletic and Physical fitness, ...
" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.


New Zealand

In
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
middle schools are known as "intermediate schools." They generally cover years 7 and 8 (formerly known as Forms 1 to 2). Students are generally aged between 10 and 13. There are full primary schools which also contain year 7 and 8 with students continuing to high school at year 9 (formerly known as Form 3). Some high schools also include years 7 and 8. After 2000 there was an increased interest in middle schooling (for years 7–10) with at least seven schools offering education to this age group opening around the country in Auckland, Cambridge, Hamilton, Christchurch and Upper Hutt.


Pakistan

In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
, middle school is called Secondary School and is from Grade 6- 10. This covers both the traditional middle and high school. Although for private schools it may be different


Peru

There aren't middle schools in Peru. Students aged 12 to 16 attend the five years of (secondary school.)


Philippines

Since the implementation of the
K–12 K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), from kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of t ...
education system, middle school education in the Philippines is called "Junior High School." It lasts for 4 years from Grades 7 to 10 for students age 12 to 16. Some schools, such as Miriam College in Loyola Heights as well as Lourdes School of Quezon City in Sta. Mesa Heights, have their Middle Schools from Grades 6 to 8. It is preceded by a 6-year elementary school and followed by a 2-year "senior high school" program. Before that, there were no official middle school programs implemented and the equivalent years was simply called "High School" which ranged from First Year to Fourth Year.


Poland

Middle school in
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
, called , was first introduced in 1932. The education was intended for pupils of at least 12 years of age and lasted four years. Middle schools were part of the educational system until the reform of 1947, except during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. The middle schools were reinstated in Poland in 1999 now lasting three years after six years of
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
. Pupils entering are usually 13 years old. Middle school is compulsory for all students, and it is also the final stage of mandatory education. In the final year students take a
standardized test A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 fi ...
to evaluate their academic skills. Higher scorers in the test are allowed first pick of school if they want to continue their education, which is encouraged. Starting with the school year 2017/18, middle schools are scheduled to be disbanded and primary schools to be extended to lasting eight years, as it was before 1999.


Portugal

In
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, the middle school is known as 2nd and 3rd cycles of basic education (). It comprises the 5th till 9th year of compulsory education, for children between ten and fifteen years old. After the education reform of 1986, the former preparatory school * 1st cycle () – former primary education * "1st year" (6–7 years old) * "2nd year" (7–8 years old) * "3rd year" (8–9 years old) * "4th year" (9–10 years old) * 2nd cycle () – former preparatory education * "5th year" (10–11 years old) * "6th year" (11–12 years old) * 3rd cycle () * "7th year" (12–13 years old) * "8th year" (13–14 years old) * "9th year" (14–15 years old) * High School () * "10th year" (15–16 years old) * "11th year" (16–17 years old) * "12th year" (17–18 years old)


Romania

Middle school in Romania, or
gymnasium Gymnasium may refer to: *Gymnasium (ancient Greece), educational and sporting institution *Gymnasium (school), type of secondary school that prepares students for higher education **Gymnasium (Denmark) **Gymnasium (Germany) **Gymnasium UNT, high ...
(), includes grades 5 to 8 and the students usually share the building with the students of primary school but in different wings/floors. Primary school lessons are taught by a handful of teachers: most are covered by one of them, and more specific areas such as foreign languages, religion or gym may have dedicated teachers. The transition to middle school changes that to a one teacher per course model where the students usually remain in the same classroom while the teachers rotate between courses. At the end of the eighth grade (usually corresponding to age 14 or 15), students take a written exam that counts for 80% (before, it used to be 50%) of the average needed to enroll in high school. Students then go to
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
or
vocational school A vocational school is a type of educational institution, which, depending on the country, may refer to either secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in org ...
, depending on their final grade. Schooling is compulsory until the tenth grade (which corresponds with the age of 16 or 17).The education process is done in numbered semesters, the first semester lasting 15 weeks between September and December and the second semester lasting 20 weeks between January and June.


Russia

Middle school in Russia covers grades 5 to 9, and is a natural continuation of primary school activities (almost always they are in the same building with both primary and high school, usually located in different wings/floors). Primary school lessons are taught by a handful of teachers: most are covered by one of them, and more specific areas such as English or gym may have dedicated teachers. The transition to middle school changes that to a one teacher per course model, where teachers stay in their classrooms and pupils change rooms during breaks. Examples of courses include
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
(split from grade 7 into
algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. In its most ge ...

algebra
,
geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mat ...

geometry
and
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
),
visual arts The visual arts are Art#Forms, genres, media, and styles, art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics (art), ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as p ...

visual arts
,
Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European lang ...
, foreign language,
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...

literature
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
,
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of computation, automation, a ...
,
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
(from grade 8),
social theory Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigm In science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fa ...
(in grade 9). The education process is done in numbered quarters, with the first quarter covering September and October, second quarter November and December, third quarter going from mid January to mid March, fourth quarter covering April and May. There are one week long holidays between quarters 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4, somewhat longer holidays between quarters 2 and 3 to allow for New Year festivities, and a three-month break between the years. At the end of middle school most people stay in school for two more years and get a certificate allowing them to pursue university, but some switch to
vocational-technical school A vocational-technical school, often called a vo-tech school, is a high school in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, pri ...
s.


Saudi Arabia

In
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
, middle school includes grade 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15.


Serbia

In
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
middle school refers to the second half of primary (elementary) education for ages between 11 and 15 and lasts 4 years (grades 5 through 8), following the first half of
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
(grades 1 through 5, ages 7 to 11). Middle schools are not considered separate from elementary school in Serbia but rather an extension of it and are usually held in the same school building, but in opposite shifts or in a different part of the school building. Middle school is the transitional period from primary education to
secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Education i ...
(high school) where children are transitioned from having very generalized subjects and a main teacher for most of them with only a handful of other teachers for specialized subjects like
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
,
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
and
gym A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for . The word is derived from the . They are commonly found in athletic and centres, and as activity and s in educational institutions. "Gym" is also slang for "", which is often an are ...

gym
to a more serious
curriculum In education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educat ...
with a course load that better mirrors high school. Middle school is the first time children have separate teachers for each subject and are introduced to courses like
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
and a second foreign language, and later
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
and
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
. Both elementary and middle school are compulsory in Serbia, after which almost all students take the state-issued universal
entrance exam An entrance examination is an examination Examination may refer to: * Physical examination, a medical procedure * Questioning and more specific forms thereof, for example in law: ** Cross-examination ** Direct examination * Test (assessment), info ...
to qualify for high school, be it a
Gymnasium Gymnasium may refer to: *Gymnasium (ancient Greece), educational and sporting institution *Gymnasium (school), type of secondary school that prepares students for higher education **Gymnasium (Denmark) **Gymnasium (Germany) **Gymnasium UNT, high ...
, a specialized high school for fields like Economics or Medicine, or a
Vocational school A vocational school is a type of educational institution, which, depending on the country, may refer to either secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in org ...
(trade school).


Singapore

In Singapore, middle school is usually referred to as
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
. Students start secondary school after completing
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
at the age of 13, and to 16 (four years if they are taking the Special, Express or Normal Technical courses), or 17 (five years if they are taking the Normal Academic courses). Students from the Special and Express courses take the GCE 'O' Levels after four years at the end of secondary education, and students from the Normal (Academic and Technical) courses take the GCE 'N' Level examinations after four years, and the Normal Academic students has the option to continue for the O Levels. Selected excelling students also have the option to change classes which then affect the years they study. After completing secondary school, students move on to pre-tertiary education (i.e. in institutes such as
junior colleges A junior college (sometimes referred to colloquially as a juco or JuCo) is a post-secondary educational institution offering vocational training designed to prepare students for either skilled trade A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refe ...
, Institute of technology, polytechnics, Institute of Technical Education, ITE).


Slovenia

In Slovenia "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "
Gymnasiums A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for Athletics (physical culture), athletics. The word is derived from the ancient Greek Gymnasium (ancient Greece), ''gymnasium''. They are commonly found in athletic and Physical fitness, ...
" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.


Somalia

In Somalia, middle school identified as intermediate school is the four years between secondary school and primary school. Pupils start middle school from form as referred to in Somalia or year 5 and finish it at year 8. Students start middle school from the age of 11 and finish it when they are 14–15. Subjects, which middle school pupils take are: Somali language, Somali,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
,
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, Religion & Education, Religion, Science, Geography, History, Mathematics, Math, Textiles, Art and Design, Physical education, Physical Education (PE) (Football) and sometimes Music. In some middle schools, it is obligatory to study Italian language, Italian.


South Korea

In South Korea, a middle school is called a (Hangul: ; Hanja: ) which includes grades 7 through 9 (referred to as: middle school 1st–3rd grades; approx. age 13–15).


Spain

In Spain, education is compulsory for children and teenagers between 6 and 16 years. Basic education is divided into (first grade through sixth grade), which is the Spanish equivalent of elementary school; and or ESO (seventh through tenth grade), roughly the Spanish equivalent of middle school and (partially) high school. The usual ages in ESO are 12 to 15 years old, but they can range between 11 and 16 depending on the birth date (a student who was born late in the year may start ESO at 11 if he or she will turn 12 before January 1, and a student who was born early in the year may finish ESO after turning 16). After ESO, students can continue their pre-university education attending to (eleventh and twelfth grade) or choose a (an improved type of vocational school).


Taiwan

Junior high schools (three years from 7th to 9th grade) in Taiwan were originally called primary middle school."''chuzhong''" (初級中學, 初中 However, in August 1968, they were renamed nationals' middle school "''guozhong''" (國民中學, 國中 often translated junior high) when they became free of charge and compulsory. Private middle school nowadays are still called primary middle school. Taiwanese students older than twelve normally attend junior high school. Accompanied with the switch from junior high to middle school was the cancellation of entrance examination needed to enter middle school.


Tunisia and Morocco

In Tunisia and Morocco, a middle school includes grades 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15.


United Kingdom


England and Wales

In England and Wales, local education authority, local education authorities introduced middle schools in the 1960s and 1970s. The notion of Middle Schools was mooted by the Plowden Report of 1967 which proposed a change to a Three-tier education, three-tier model including First schools for children aged between 4 and 7, Middle Schools for 7–11 year-olds, and then upper or high schools for 11–16 year-olds. Some authorities introduced Middle Schools for ideological reasons, in line with the report, while others did so for more pragmatic reasons relating to the Raising Of School Leaving Age, raising of the school leaving age in compulsory education to 16, or to introduce a Comprehensive school, comprehensive system. Different authorities introduced different age-range schools, although in the main, three models were used: * 4–6 First schools, followed by 7–11 "middle schools," as suggested by Plowden * 5–9 First schools, followed by 9–13 "middle schools" * 5–10 First schools followed by 10–13 "middle schools," or intermediate schools In many areas "primary school" rather than first school was used to denote the first tier. In addition, some schools were provided as combined schools catering for pupils in the 5–12 age range as a combined first and middle school. Around 2000 middle and combined schools were in place in the early 1980s. However, that number began to fall in the later 1980s with the introduction of the National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), National Curriculum. The new curriculum's splits in Key Stages at age 11 encouraged the majority of local education authority, local education authorities to return to a two-tier system of Primary school, Primary (sometimes split into Infant schools and Junior schools) and Secondary schools. There are now fewer than 150 middle schools still operational in the United Kingdom, meaning that approximately 90% of middle schools have closed or reverted to primary school status since 1980. The system of 8–12 middle schools has fallen into complete disuse. Under current legislation, all middle schools must be deemed either primary or secondary. Thus, schools which have more primary year groups than KS3 or KS4 are termed "deemed primaries" or "middles-deemed-primaries," while those with more secondary-aged pupils, or with pupils in Y11 are termed "deemed secondaries" or "middles-deemed-secondaries." For statistical purposes, such schools are often included under primary and secondary categories "as deemed". Notably, most schools also follow teaching patterns in line with their deemed status, with most deemed-primary schools offering a primary-style curriculum taught by one class teacher, and most deemed-secondary schools adopting a more specialist-centred approach. Legally all-through schools are also considered middle schools (deemed secondary), although they are rarely referred to as such. Some middle schools still exist in various areas of England. They are supported by the National Middle Schools' Forum. See List of middle schools in England.


Scotland

In Scotland, a similar system to the English one was trialled in Grangemouth middle schools, Falkirk (council area), Falkirk between 1975 and 1987. The label of "junior high school" is used for some through schools in Orkney and Shetland which cater for pupils from 5 up to the age of 14, at which point they transfer to a nearby secondary school.


Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, in the Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon District Council area in County Armagh, the Dickson Plan operates, whereby pupils attend a primary school from ages 4–10, a junior high school from 11–14, and a senior high school or grammar school from 14–19.


United States

In the United States, middle schools and junior high schools are schools that span varying combinations of grades 5 to 8, such as 5-8, 6-8 (most commonly), and 7-8, and sometimes 7-9. Historically, local public control (and private alternatives) over education has allowed for some variation in the organisation of schools. Elementary school (United States), Elementary school often includes kindergarten through fourth, fifth, or sixth grade, but some elementary schools have four or eight grades - up to ages 10 or 14
p. 7, fig. 1
(also known as the intermediate grades). Basic subjects are taught and pupils often remain in one or two classrooms throughout the school day, except for physical education, library,
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
, art, and computer classes. In 2003, there were about 3.6 million children in each grade in the United States. The range defined by either is often based on demographic factors, such as an increase or decrease in the relative numbers of younger or older students, with the aim of maintaining stable school populations. At this time, pupils are given more independence, moving to different classrooms for different subjects, which includes math, social studies, science, and language arts. Also, pupils are able to choose some of their class subjects (electives). Usually, starting in sixth grade, grades become part of a pupil's official transcript. The junior high school concept was introduced in 1909, in Columbus, Ohio. Junior high schools were created for "bridging the gap between the elementary and the high school", an emphasis credited to Charles W. Eliot."Junior high plan outlined", ''The Dallas Morning News'', September 22, 1929, section 1, page 9. In the late 19th century and early 20st century, most American elementary schools had grades 1 through 8, and this organization still exists, where some concepts of middle school organization have been adapted to the intermediate grades. As time passed, the junior high school concept increased quickly as new school districts proliferated, or systems modernized buildings and curricula. This expansion continued through the 1960s. Jon Wiles, author of ''Developing Successful K–8 Schools: A Principal's Guide'', said that "a major problem" for the original model was "the inclusion of the ninth grade", because of the lack of instructional flexibility, due to the requirement of having to earn high school credits in the ninth grade and that "the fully adolescent ninth grader in junior high school did not seem to belong with the students experiencing the onset of puberty". The new middle school model began to appear in the mid-1960s. Wiles said, "At first, it was difficult to determine the difference between a junior high school and a middle school, but as the middle school became established, the differences became more pronounced". Middle school is in between elementary school and high school, and has 6th- to 8th-graders. Junior high schools prepare seventh, eighth, and, in some districts, ninth grade students for high school. The Faculty (academic staff), faculty is organised into academic departments that operate more or less independently of one another. The middle school format has now replaced the junior high format by a ratio of about ten to one in the United States, but some school districts incorporated both systems.


Uruguay

In Uruguay, the public middle school consists of two stages, one mandatory called "Basic Cycle" or "First Cycle". This consists of three years, ages 12–13, 13–14 and 14–15 (equivalent to American 7th, 8th, and 9th grades), and one optional called "Second Cycle", ages 15–16, 16–17 and 17–18 (equivalent to American 10th, 11th, and 12th grades). The Second Cycle is divided into 4 options in the Uruguayan 5th grade: "Human Sciences", "Biology", "Scientific" and "Arts", and 7 options in the 6th and last grade: "Law" or "Economy" (if Human Sciences course taken in 5th), "Medicine" or "Agronomy" (if Biological course taken in 5th), "Architecture" or "Engineering" (if Scientific course taken in 5th) and "Arts" (if Arts course taken in 5th). Both these stages are commonly known as "Liceo" (Spanish for "high school").


Venezuela

In Venezuela, middle schools (, ages 12–15) are from 7th grade to 9th grade. In some institutions called "Technical Schools" there is an extra grade, for those who want to graduate as "Middle technician" in a certain area. This education would allow them to be hired at a higher level, or get introduced more easily into a college career.


Vietnam

Secondary school, or Junior High school, includes grade 6 to 9. After finishing grade 9, students have to take the national graduating test, which includes sections on Mathematics, Literature and English. The maximum score for each test is 10, with the first two subjects (called the Core Subjects) multiplied by two for a total possible score of 50. Reward points from a vocational course could also be added to the final score. Some public schools use graduating exam scores and student transcripts to make their decisions. Many other public and private schools require students who apply for those schools to take their entrance exams. The administration team student transcripts and exam scores to decide whether students are qualified based on their admissions criteria.


See also

* QuickSmart * Virtual reality in primary education


Notes


References

;Specific citations


External links


Canada: Provincial Systems of Education

Association for Middle Level Education
formerly National Middle School Association.
National Middle Schools' Forum (UK)

Australian Middle School Program
{{DEFAULTSORT:Middle school School types Educational stages Pedagogy High schools and secondary schools School terminology Elementary and primary schools, Adolescence Middle schools,