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''Micromonospora'' is a genus of
bacteria Bacteria (; singular: bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria were amon ...
of the family Micromonosporaceae. They are
gram-positive In bacteriology, gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their type of cell wall. Gram-positive bact ...
,
spore In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, ...
-forming, generally
aerobic Aerobic means "requiring air," in which "air" usually means oxygen. Aerobic may also refer to * Aerobic exercise, prolonged exercise of moderate intensity * Aerobics, a form of aerobic exercise * Aerobic respiration, the aerobic process of cellu ...
, and form a branched mycelium; they occur as
saprotrophic Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter. It occurs in saprotrophs, and is most often associated with fungi ...
forms in soil and water. Various species are sources of
aminoglycoside Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial medications that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar). The term can also refer ...
antibiotics An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections, and antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention ...
with spellings that end with ''-micin'', such as
gentamicin Gentamicin is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections. This may include bone infections, endocarditis, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis among others. It is not ...
, mutamicin, netilmicin, retymicin, sisomicin, verdamicin,
calicheamicin The calicheamicins are a class of enediyne antitumor antibiotics derived from the bacterium '' Micromonospora echinospora'', with calicheamicin ╬│1 being the most notable. It was isolated originally in the mid-1980s from the chalky soil, or "cal ...
, and the recently found '' turbinmicin''.Fan Zhang ''et al.''
A marine microbiome antifungal targets urgent-threat drug-resistant fungi
In: Science Vol. 370, Issue 6519, 20 Nov 2020, pp. 974-978. doi:10.1126/science.abd6919. See also: * Donna Lu
Potent new antifungal discovered in the microbiome of marine animals
On: NewScientist, 19 November 2020
Potent new antifungal discovered in the microbiome of marine animals, unlike most other aminoglycoside names that end with ''-mycin'' (e.g. neo''mycin'' and strepto''mycin'' and are produced by ''Streptomyces'' spp.).


Species

''Micromonospora'' comprises the following species: * '' M. acroterricola'' Carro et al. 2019 * '' M. andamanensis'' (Supong et al. 2013) Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. arida'' Carro et al. 2019 * '' M. aurantiaca'' Sveshnikova et al. 1969 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. auratinigra'' corrig. Thawai et al. 2004 * '' M. avicenniae'' Li et al. 2013 * '' M. azadirachtae'' Kuncharoen et al. 2019 * '' M. caldifontis'' Thawai et al. 2019 * '' M. carbonacea'' Luedemann and Brodsky 1965 (Approved Lists 1980) * "'' M. cellulolyticum''" Lin et al. 1994 * '' M. chaiyaphumensis'' Jongrungruangchok et al. 2008 * '' M. chalcea'' (Foulerton 1905) ├śrskov 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. chersina'' Tomita et al. 1992 * '' M. chokoriensis'' Ara and Kudo 2007 * '' M. citrea'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * '' M. coerulea'' Jensen 1932 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. coriariae'' Trujillo et al. 2006 * '' M. costi'' Thawai 2015 * '' M. coxensis'' Ara and Kudo 2007 * '' M. craniellae'' Li et al. 2019 * '' M. craterilacus'' Ay et al. 2020 * '' M. cremea'' Carro et al. 2012 * '' M. deserti'' Saygin et al. 2020 * '' M. eburnea'' Thawai et al. 2005 * '' M. echinaurantiaca'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * '' M. echinofusca'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * '' M. echinospora'' Luedemann and Brodsky 1964 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. endolithica'' Hirsch et al. 2004 * "''M. endophytica''" Thanaboripat et al. 2015 * '' M. endophytica'' (Xie et al. 2011) Li et al. 2019 * '' M. equina'' Everest and Meyers 2013 * '' M. ferruginea'' Back et al. 2021 * '' M. fiedleri'' (Goodfellow et al. 2013) Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. fluminis'' Camacho Pozo et al. 2020 * '' M. fluostatini'' Phongsopitanun et al. 2015 * '' M. fulva'' Lee and Whang 2017 * '' M. fulviviridis'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * '' M. gallica'' (Erikson 1935) Waksman 1961 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. gifhornensis'' (Rheims et al. 1998) Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. globbae'' Kuncharoen et al. 2018 * '' M. globispora'' Carro et al. 2019 * '' M. haikouensis'' corrig. Xie et al. 2012 * '' M. halophytica'' Weinstein et al. 1968 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. halotolerans'' Carro et al. 2013 * '' M. harpali'' Fang et al. 2015 * '' M. humi'' Songsumanus et al. 2011 * '' M. humida'' Ra et al. 2021 * '' M. inaquosa'' Carro et al. 2019 * '' M. inositola'' Kawamoto et al. 1974 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. inyonensis'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * "'' M. jinlongensis''" Gao et al. 2014 * '' M. kangleipakensis'' Nimaichand et al. 2013 * '' M. krabiensis'' Jongrungruangchok et al. 2008 * '' M. lupini'' Trujillo et al. 2007 * '' M. lutea'' (Liao et al. 2009) Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. luteifusca'' Carro et al. 2017 * '' M. luteiviridis'' Carro et al. 2018 * "'' M. lycii''" Zhao et al. 2016 * '' M. mangrovi'' Xie et al. 2016 * "'' M. maoerensis''" Li et al. 2014 * '' M. marina'' Tanasupawat et al. 2010 * '' M. maris'' (Goodfellow et al. 2012) Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. maritima'' Songsumanus et al. 2013 * '' M. matsumotoense'' (Asano et al. 1989) Lee et al. 2000 * '' M. mirobrigensis'' Trujillo et al. 2005 * "'' M. miyakonensis''" Kawamura et al. 1981 * '' M. musae'' Kuncharoen et al. 2021 * '' M. narathiwatensis'' Thawai et al. 2008 * "'' M. neihuensis''" Wu et al. 1988 * '' M. nickelidurans'' Lin et al. 2015 * '' M. nigra'' (Weinstein et al. 1968) Kasai et al. 2000 * '' M. noduli'' Carro et al. 2016 * '' M. olivasterospora'' Kawamoto et al. 1983 * '' M. orduensis'' Veyisoglu et al. 2020 * '' M. oryzae'' Kittiwongwattana et al. 2015 * '' M. ovatispora'' Li and Hong 2016 * '' M. pallida'' (Luedemann and Brodsky 1964) Kasai et al. 2000 * '' M. palomenae'' Fang et al. 2015 * '' M. parathelypteridis'' Zhao et al. 2017 * '' M. pattaloongensis'' Thawai et al. 2008 * '' M. pelagivivens'' Intra et al. 2020 * '' M. peucetia'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * '' M. phaseoli'' (Wang et al. 2013) Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. phytophila'' Carro et al. 2018 * '' M. pisi'' Garcia et al. 2010 * '' M. polyrhachis'' Xiang et al. 2014 * '' M. profundi'' Veyisoglu et al. 2016 * "'' M. provocatoris''" Abdel-Mageed et al. 2021 * '' M. purpureochromogenes'' (Waksman and Curtis 1916) Luedemann 1971 (Approved Lists 1980) * '' M. qiuiae'' (Xi et al. 2012) Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. radicis'' Kuncharoen et al. 2019 * '' M. rhizosphaerae'' Wang et al. 2011 * '' M. rifamycinica'' Huang et al. 2008 * '' M. rosaria'' (ex Wagman et al. 1972) Horan and Brodsky 1986 * "'' M. rosea''" Gado et al. 1985 * "'' M. rubida''" Sun et al. 2021 * '' M. saelicesensis'' Trujillo et al. 2007 * '' M. sagamiensis'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * '' M. schwarzwaldensis'' Vela Gurovic et al. 2013 * '' M. sediminicola'' Supong et al. 2013 * '' M. sediminimaris'' Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. sediminis'' Phongsopitanun et al. 2016 * '' M. siamensis'' Thawai et al. 2006 * '' M. soli'' Thawai et al. 2016 * '' M. sonneratiae'' Li et al. 2013 * "'' M. spongicola''" Supong et al. 2013 * '' M. tarapacensis'' Villalobos et al. 2021 * '' M. taraxaci'' Zhao et al. 2015 * '' M. terminaliae'' Kaewkla et al. 2017 * '' M. trujilloniae'' Nouioui et al. 2018 * '' M. tulbaghiae'' Kirby and Meyers 2010 * '' M. ureilytica'' Carro et al. 2016 * '' M. veneta'' Kaewkla et al. 2022 * "'' M. verruculosa''" Tani et al. 1982 * '' M. vinacea'' Carro et al. 2016 * '' M. violae'' Zhang et al. 2014 * '' M. viridifaciens'' Kroppenstedt et al. 2005 * '' M. vulcania'' Jia et al. 2016 * '' M. wenchangensis'' Ren et al. 2013 * '' M. yangpuensis'' Zhang et al. 2012 * '' M. yasonensis'' Veyisoglu et al. 2017 * '' M. zamorensis'' Carro et al. 2012 * "'' M. zeae''" Shen et al. 2014 * "'' M. zhangzhouensis''" Fu et al. 2020 * '' M. zhanjiangensis'' Zhang et al. 2015 * '' M. zingiberis'' (Thawai et al. 2018) Kuncharoen et al. 2019


References

Micromonosporaceae Bacteria genera {{actinobacteria-stub