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Michael Servetus (; es, Miguel Serveto as real name; french: Michel Servet; also known as ''Miguel Servet'', ''Miguel de Villanueva'', ''Revés'', or ''Michel de Villeneuve''; 29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553) was a Spanish
theologian Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
,
physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintainin ...

physician
,
cartographer Cartography (; from Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science Science (from the Latin word ''scienti ...
and
Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may ref ...
. He was the first European to correctly describe the function of
pulmonary circulation The mammalian heart is divided between the systemic and the pulmonary circulation, generally agreed upon as left and right sided circuits. The right circuit is the portion of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the ca ...
, as discussed in ''
Christianismi Restitutio ''Christianismi Restitutio'' (English: The Restoration of Christianity) was a book published in 1553 by Michael Servetus. It rejected the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and the concept of predestination, which had both been considered fundament ...
'' (1553). He was a
polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific pro ...

polymath
versed in many sciences:
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
and
meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
, human
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ...

anatomy
,
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...

medicine
and
pharmacology Pharmacology is a branch of medicine, biology and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action, where a drug may be defined as any artificial, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemica ...
, as well as
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whol ...
,
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

translation
,
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

poetry
and the scholarly study of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
in its original languages. He is renowned in the history of several of these fields, particularly medicine. He participated in the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
, and later rejected the
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian ...

Trinity
doctrine and mainstream Catholic
Christology In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major reli ...
. After being condemned by
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
authorities in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
, he fled to
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the a ...
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...
where he was denounced by Calvin and burned at the stake for
heresy Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
by order of the city's governing council.


Life


Early life and education

For a long time, it was held that Servetus was probably born in 1511 in Villanueva de Sigena in the Kingdom of Aragon, present-day Spain. The day of 29 September has been conventionally proposed for his birth, due to the fact that 29 September is Saint Michael's day according to the Catholic
calendar of saints The calendar of saints is the traditional Christianity, Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this co ...

calendar of saints
, but there is no evidence supporting this date. Some sources give an earlier date based on Servetus' own occasional claim of having been born in 1509. However, in 2002 a paper published by Francisco Javier González Echeverría and María Teresa Ancín suggested that he was born in
TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudela Medieval Jewish traveller ** William of Tudela, Medieval troubadour who wrote the first part of the ''Song of the Albigensian Crusade'' ** Battle ...
,
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
. It has also been held that his true name was ''De Villanueva'' according to the letters of his French naturalization (Chamber des Comptes, Royal Chancellorship and Parlement of Grenoble) and the registry at the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
. The ancestors of his father came from the hamlet of Serveto, in the
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
ese
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
. His father was a notary of Christian ancestors from the lower nobility (''infanzón''), who worked at the nearby Monastery of Santa Maria de Sigena. It was long believed that Servetus had just two brothers: Juan who was a Catholic parish priest, and Pedro, who was a notary. Nevertheless, it has been recently documented that Servetus actually had two more brothers (Antón and Francisco) and at least three sisters (Catalina, Jeronima and Juana). Although Servetus declared during his trial in Geneva that his parents were "Christians of ancient race", and that he never had any communication with Jews, his maternal line actually descended from the Zaportas (or Çaportas), a wealthy and socially relevant family from the
Barbastro Barbastro (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...
and
Monzón Monzón ( ca, Montsó) is a small city and municipality in the autonomous community of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a ...
areas in
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
. This was demonstrated by a notarial protocol published in 1999. Servetus' family used a nickname, "Revés", according to an old tradition in rural Spain of using alternate names for families across generations. The origin of the Revés nickname may have been that a member of a (probably distinguished) family living in Villanueva with the surname Revés established blood ties with the Servet family, thus uniting both family names for the next generations.


Education

Servetus attended the
Grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
Studium in Sariñena, Aragón, near Villanueva de Sijena, under master Domingo Manobel until 1520. From course 1520/1521 to 1522/1523, Michael Servetus was a student of
Liberal Arts Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") is the traditional academic program in Western higher education. ''Liberal arts'' takes the term ''Art (skill), art'' in the sense of a learned skill rather than spec ...
in the primitive University of Zaragoza, a
Studium Generale ''Studium generale'' is the old customary name for a medieval university A medieval university was a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to ...
of Arts. The Studium was ruled by the
Archbishop of Saragossa In many Christian Denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...
, the Rector, the High Master ("Maestro Mayor") and four "Masters of Arts", which resembled Art professors in the Arts Faculties of other primitive universities. Servetus studied under High Master
Gaspar Lax Gaspar Lax (1487 – 23 February 1560) was a Spanish mathematician, logician, and philosopher who spent much of his career in Paris. Biography Lax was born in Sariñena, the son of Leonor de la Cueva and Gaspar Lax, a physician, and had two brothe ...
, and masters Exerich, Ansias and Miranda, and during those years this education center had been significantly influenced by
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
's ideas. Ansias and Miranda died soon, and two new professors were appointed: Juan Lorenzo Carnicer and Villalpando. In 1523 he got his BA and next year his MA. From course 1525/1526 ahead, Servetus became one of the four Masters of Arts in the Studium, and for unknown reasons he traveled to
Salamanca Salamanca ( , ) is a city situated in western Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Salamanca
in Feb 1527. But on 28 March 1527, also due to unknown reasons, master Michael Servetus had a brawl with High Master (and uncle) Gaspard Lax, and this probably was the cause of his expulsion from the Studium, and his exile from Spain for the Studium of
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Toulouse
, trying to avoid the strong influence of Gaspar Lax in any Spanish Studium Generale. Near 1527 Servetus attended the
University of Toulouse The University of Toulouse (french: Université de Toulouse) was a university in France that was established by papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is nam ...
where he studied law. Servetus could have had access to forbidden religious books, some of them maybe
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
, while he was studying in this city.


Career

In 1530 Servetus joined the retinue of Emperor
Charles V Charles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558) * Charles V of Naples (1661–1700), better known as Charles II of Spain * Charles V of France (1338–1380), called the Wise * Charles V, Duke of Lorraine (1643–1690) * Infant ...

Charles V
as page or secretary to the emperor's confessor, Juan de Quintana. Servetus travelled through
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, and attended Charles' coronation as Holy Roman Emperor in
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous ...

Bologna
. He was outraged by the pomp and luxury displayed by the Pope and his retinue, and decided to follow the path of reformation.Bainton, ''Hunted Heretic'', pp. 10–11. It is not known when Servetus left the imperial entourage, but in October 1530 he visited
Johannes Oecolampadius Johannes Oecolampadius (also ''Œcolampadius'', in German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also Ge ...

Johannes Oecolampadius
in
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
, staying there for about ten months, and probably supporting himself as a proofreader for a local printer. By this time he was already spreading his theological beliefs. In May 1531 he met
Martin Bucer Martin Bucer (Early New High German, early German: ''Martin Butzer''; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. Buce ...

Martin Bucer
and
Wolfgang Fabricius Capito Wolfgang Fabricius Capito (also Koepfel) ( – November 1541) was a Germans, German Protestant reformer in the Calvinist tradition. His life and work Capito was born circa 1478 to a smith at Hagenau in Alsace. He attended the famous Latin school ...

Wolfgang Fabricius Capito
in
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, divi ...

Strasbourg
. Two months later, in July 1531, Servetus published ''De Trinitatis Erroribus'' (''On the Errors of the Trinity''). The next year he published the work ''Dialogorum de Trinitate'' (''Dialogues on the Trinity'') and the supplementary work ''De Iustitia Regni Christi'' (''On the Justice of
Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew/Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, the Major religious groups, world's largest ...

Christ
's Reign'') in the same volume. After the persecution of the Inquisition, Servetus assumed the name "Michel de Villeneuve" while he was staying in France. He studied at the
Collège de Calvi
Collège de Calvi
in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
in 1533. Servetus also published the first French edition of
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
's ''Geography''. He dedicated his first edition of Ptolemy and his edition of the Bible to his patron Hugues de la Porte. While in Lyon,
Symphorien Champier Symphorien Champier (1471–1539) was a Lyonnese doctor and writer. Born in Saint-Symphorien-sur-Coise, Saint-Symphorien, France, Champier was a relation of the Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard, Chevalier de Bayard through his wife, Marguerite T ...

Symphorien Champier
, a medical
humanist Humanism is a philosophy, philosophical stance that emphasizes the individual and social potential and Agency (philosophy), agency of Human, human beings. It considers human beings as the starting point for serious moral and philosophical ...

humanist
, had been his patron. Servetus wrote a
pharmacological Pharmacology is a branch of medicine, biology and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action, where a drug may be defined as any artificial, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemica ...
treatise in defence of Champier against
Leonhart Fuchs Leonhart Fuchs (; 17 January 1501 – 10 May 1566), sometimes spelled Leonhard Fuchs, was a German physician and botanist. His chief notability is as the author of a large book about plants and their uses as medicines, a herbal A herbal is a ...

Leonhart Fuchs
''In Leonardum Fucsium Apologia'' (''Apology against Leonard Fuchs''). Working also as a proofreader, he published several more books which dealt with medicine and pharmacology, such as his ''Syruporum universia ratio'' (''Complete Explanation of the
Syrups In cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their re ...
''), for which he gained fame. After an interval, Servetus returned to Paris to study medicine in 1536. In Paris, his teachers included Jacobus Sylvius,
Jean Fernel Jean François Fernel (Onomastic Latinisation, Latinized as Ioannes Fernelius; 1497 – 26 April 1558) was a France, French physician who introduced the term "physiology" to describe the study of the body's function. He was the first person to d ...

Jean Fernel
and
Johann Winter von Andernach Johann Winter von Andernach (born Johann Winter; 1505 – 4 October 1574) was a German Renaissance physician, university professor, Humanism, humanist, translator of ancient, mostly medical works, and writer of his own medical, philological and hu ...

Johann Winter von Andernach
, who hailed him with Andrea
Vesalius Andreas Vesalius (; 31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolizatio ...

Vesalius
as his most able assistant in dissections. During these years he wrote his ''Manuscript of the Complutense'', an unpublished compendium of his medical ideas. Servetus taught mathematics and
astrology Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divination, divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of Celestial objects in astrology, celestial objects. Astrology has be ...
while he studied medicine. He predicted an occultation of
Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury (planet), Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Mars (mythology), Roman god of war and is often referred to ...

Mars
by the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
, and this joined to his teaching generated much envy among the medicine teachers. His teaching classes were suspended by the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine,
Jean Tagault Jean Tagault or Jean Tagaut (in Latin Joannes Tagaultius) (around 1499 in Vimy or more certainly in Cerisy-Buleux – 25 April 1546 in Paris) was a French physician and anatomist known for his surgical work and for having fought against Michel S ...
, and Servetus wrote his ''Apologetic Discourse of Michel de Villeneuve in Favour of Astrology and against a Certain Physician'' against him. Tagault later argued for the death penalty in the judgment of the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
against Servetus. He was accused of teaching ''
De Divinatione ''De Divinatione'' (Latin, "Concerning Divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy') is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occult The occult, in the ...
'' by
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
. Finally, the sentence was reduced to the withdrawal of this edition. As a result of the risks and difficulties of studying medicine at Paris, Servetus decided to go to
Montpellier Montpellier (, , ; oc, Montpelhièr , it, Mompellieri ) is a city in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental coun ...

Montpellier
to finish his medical studies, maybe thanks to his teacher Sylvius who did exactly the same as a student. There he became a Doctor of Medicine in 1539. After that he lived at
Charlieu Charlieu (; frp, Charluè) is a Communes of France, commune in the Loire (department), Loire Departments of France, department at the northern end of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France. It is home to Charlieu Abbey. Population Twin tow ...
. A jealous physician ambushed and tried to kill Servetus, but Servetus defended himself and injured one of the attackers in a sword fight. He was in prison for several days because of this incident.


Working at Vienne

After his studies in medicine, Servetus started a medical practice. He became personal physician to Pierre Palmier,
Archbishop of Vienne The Archbishopric of Vienne, named after its episcopal see Vienne, Isère, Vienne in the Isère département of southern France, was a metropolitan Roman Catholic archdiocese. It is now part of the Archdiocese of Lyon. History The legend accord ...
, and was also physician to Guy de Maugiron, the lieutenant governor of
Dauphiné The Dauphiné (, ; ; oc, Daufinat or ; frp, Dôfenât or ; former English name: Dauphiny) is a former province in Southeastern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of ...

Dauphiné
. Thanks to the printer Jean Frellon II, acquaintance of John Calvin and friend of Michel, Servetus and
Calvin
Calvin
began to correspond. Calvin used the pseudonym "''Charles d'Espeville''." Servetus also became a French citizen, using his "De Villeneuve" ''persona'', by the Royal Process (1548–1549) of French
Naturalization Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn i ...
, issued by
Henri II of France Henry II (french: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a med ...
. In 1553 Michael Servetus published another religious work with further anti-trinitarian views. It was entitled ''
Christianismi Restitutio ''Christianismi Restitutio'' (English: The Restoration of Christianity) was a book published in 1553 by Michael Servetus. It rejected the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and the concept of predestination, which had both been considered fundament ...
'' (''The Restoration of Christianity''), a work that sharply rejected the idea of
predestination Predestination, in Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make compara ...
as the idea that God condemned souls to Hell regardless of worth or merit. God, insisted Servetus, condemns no one who does not condemn himself through thought, word, or deed. This work also includes the first published description of the
pulmonary circulation The mammalian heart is divided between the systemic and the pulmonary circulation, generally agreed upon as left and right sided circuits. The right circuit is the portion of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the ca ...
in Europe, though it's thought to be based on work by 13th century Syrian polymath
ibn al-Nafis Ala-al-Din abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm (/ Abi-Haram) al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East ...

ibn al-Nafis
. To Calvin, who had written his summary of Christian doctrine ''Institutio Christianae Religionis'' (''
Institutes of the Christian Religion #REDIRECT Institutes of the Christian Religion An institute is an organisation An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a ...
''), Servetus' latest book was an attack on historical Nicene Christian doctrine and a misinterpretation of the biblical canon. Calvin sent a copy of his own book as his reply. Servetus promptly returned it, thoroughly annotated with critical observations. Calvin wrote to Servetus, "I neither hate you nor despise you; nor do I wish to persecute you; but I would be as hard as iron when I behold you insulting sound doctrine with so great audacity." In time their correspondence grew more heated until Calvin ended it.Downton
''An Examination of the Nature of Authority''
Chapter 3.
Servetus sent Calvin several more letters, to which Calvin took offense. Thus, Calvin's frustrations with Servetus seem to have been based mainly on Servetus's criticisms of Calvinist doctrine, but also on his tone, which Calvin considered inappropriate. Calvin revealed these frustrations with Servetus when writing to his friend
William Farel William Farel (1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel (), was a French evangelist, Protestant reformer Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformatio ...
on 13 February 1546: ).


Imprisonment and execution

On 16 February 1553, Michael Servetus while in
Vienne Vienne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...
, France, was denounced as a heretic by Guillaume de Trie, a rich merchant who had taken refuge in
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...
, and who was a good friend of Calvin, in a letter sent to a cousin, Antoine Arneys, who was living in Lyon. On behalf of the French
inquisitor An inquisitor was an official (usually with judicial or investigative functions) in an inquisition – an organization or program intended to eliminate heresy and other things contrary to the doctrine or teachings of the Catholicism, Catholic fai ...
Matthieu Ory, Michael Servetus and Balthasard Arnollet, the printer of ''
Christianismi Restitutio ''Christianismi Restitutio'' (English: The Restoration of Christianity) was a book published in 1553 by Michael Servetus. It rejected the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and the concept of predestination, which had both been considered fundament ...
'', were questioned, but they denied all charges and were released for lack of evidence. Ory asked Arneys to write back to De Trie, demanding proof. On 26 March 1553, the letters sent by Michael to Calvin and some manuscript pages of ''Christianismi Restitutio'' were forwarded to Lyon by De Trie. On 4 April 1553 Servetus was arrested by Roman Catholic authorities, and imprisoned in Vienne. He escaped from prison three days later. On 17 June, he was convicted of heresy, "thanks to the 17 letters sent by
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
, preacher in Geneva"''Hunted Heretic'', p. 164. and sentenced to be burned with his books. In his absence, he and his books were burned in effigy (blank paper for the books). Meaning to flee to Italy, Servetus inexplicably stopped in Geneva, where Calvin and his Reformers had denounced him. On 13 August, he attended a sermon by Calvin at Geneva. He was arrested after the service''The Heretics'', p. 326. and again imprisoned. All his property was confiscated. Servetus claimed during this judgment he was arrested at an inn at Geneva. French Inquisitors asked that Servetus be extradited to them for execution. Calvin wanted to show himself as firm in defense of Christian orthodoxy as his usual opponents. "He was forced to push the condemnation of Servetus with all the means at his command." Calvin's delicate health meant he did not personally appear against Servetus. Nicholas de la Fontaine played the more active role in Servetus's prosecution and the listing of points that condemned him. Among the possible reasons which prevented Calvin from appearing personally against Servetus there was one which must have seemed of itself sufficient. The laws regulating criminal actions in Geneva required that in certain grave cases the complainant himself should be incarcerated pending the trial. Calvin's delicate health and his great and constant usefulness in the administration of the state rendered a prolonged absence from the public life of Geneva impracticable. Nevertheless, Calvin is to be regarded as the author of the prosecution. Nicholas de la Fontaine was a refugee in Geneva and entered the service of Calvin, by whom he was employed as secretary.Whitcomb, Merrick. "The Complaint of Nicholas de la Fontaine Against Servetus, 14 August, 1553", ''Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History'', vol. 3 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania History Department, 1898–1912)
/ref> At his trial, Servetus was condemned on two counts, for spreading and preaching
Nontrinitarianism Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose c ...
, specifically,
Modalistic Monarchianism Modalistic Monarchianism, also known as Modalism or Oneness Christology, is a Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help ...
, or
Sabellianism In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social- ...
, and anti-
paedobaptism Infant baptism is the practice of baptism, baptising infants or young children. Infant baptism can be contrasted with what is called "believer's baptism" (or credobaptism, from the Latin word ''credo'' meaning "I believe"), which is the religio ...
(anti-infant baptism).''Hunted Heretic'', p. 141. Of paedobaptism Servetus had said, "It is an invention of the devil, an infernal falsity for the destruction of all Christianity." In the case the ''procureur général'' (chief public prosecutor) added some curious-sounding accusations in the form of inquiries – the most odd-sounding perhaps being, "whether he has married, and if he answers that he has not, he shall be asked why, in consideration of his age, he could refrain so long from marriage." To this oblique imputation about his sexuality, Servetus replied that rupture (
inguinal hernia An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal The inguinal canals are the two passages in the Anatomical terms of location#Anterior and posterior, anterior abdominal wall of humans and animals which ...

inguinal hernia
) had long since made him incapable of that particular sin. Another question was "whether he did not know that his doctrine was pernicious, considering that he favours
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
and Turks, by making excuses for them, and if he has not studied the
Koran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Koran
in order to disprove and controvert the doctrine and religion that the Christian churches hold, together with other profane books, from which people ought to abstain in matters of religion, according to the doctrine of ." Calvin believed Servetus deserved death on account of what he termed as his "execrable blasphemies". Calvin expressed these sentiments in a letter to Farel, written about a week after Servetus’ arrest, in which he also mentioned an exchange with Servetus. Calvin wrote:
...after he ervetushad been recognized, I thought he should be detained. My friend Nicolas summoned him on a capital charge, offering himself as a security according to the ''
lex talionis "An eye for an eye" ( hbo, עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן, ) is a commandment found in Exodus 21:23–27 expressing the principle of reciprocal justice measure for measure. In Roman civilization, the law of retaliation ( la, lex talionis) b ...
''. On the following day he adduced against him forty written charges. He at first sought to evade them. Accordingly we were summoned. He impudently reviled me, just as if he regarded me as obnoxious to him. I answered him as he deserved... of the man’s effrontery I will say nothing; but such was his madness that he did not hesitate to say that devils possessed divinity; yea, that many gods were in individual devils, inasmuch as a deity had been substantially communicated to those equally with wood and stone. I hope that sentence of death will at least be passed on him; but I desired that the severity of the punishment be mitigated.Calvin to
William Farel William Farel (1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel (), was a French evangelist, Protestant reformer Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformatio ...
, August 20, 1553
Bonnet, Jules (1820–1892)
''Letters of John Calvin'', Carlisle, Penn:
Banner of Truth Trust The Banner of Truth Trust is an Evangelicalism, evangelical and Reformed Christianity, Christian non-profit
, 1980, pp. 158–159. .
As Servetus was not a citizen of Geneva, and legally could at worst be banished, the government, in an attempt to find some plausible excuse to disregard this legal reality, had consulted Swiss Reformed cantons (
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
,
Bern ,german: Berner(in),french: Bernois(e), it, Bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corpor ...

Bern
,
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
,
Schaffhausen Schaffhausen (; gsw, Schafuuse; french: Schaffhouse; it, Sciaffusa; rm, Schaffusa; en, Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division ...

Schaffhausen
). They universally favoured his condemnation and suppression of his doctrine, but without saying how that should be accomplished.
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
had condemned his writing in strong terms. Servetus and
Philip Melanchthon Philip Melanchthon. (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Ma ...
had strongly hostile views of each other. The party called the "
Libertine A libertine is a person devoid of most moral principles, a sense of responsibility, or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially someone who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctifi ...
s", who were generally opposed to anything and everything John Calvin supported, were in this case strongly in favour of the execution of Servetus at the stake (while Calvin urged that he be beheaded instead). In fact, the council that condemned Servetus was presided over by
Ami Perrin Ami Perrin (c. 1500 – 1561) was a Genevan Libertine A libertine is a person devoid of most moral principles, a sense of responsibility, or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially someone who ignores or even ...
(a Libertine) who ultimately on 24 October sentenced Servetus to
death by burning Death by burning (also known as immolation) is an execution method involving combustion or exposure to extreme heat. It has a long history as a form of public capital punishment, and many societies have employed it as a punishment for and war ...
for denying the
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian ...

Trinity
and
infant baptism Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants 222x222px, Eight-month-old sororal twin sisters An infant (from the Latin word ''infans'', meaning 'unable to speak' or 'speechless') is the more formal or specialised synonym for t ...
. Calvin and other ministers asked that he be beheaded instead of burnt, knowing that burning at the stake was the only legal recourse. This plea was refused and on 27 October, Servetus was burnt alive – atop a pyre of his own books – at the Plateau of at the edge of Geneva. Historians record his
last words Last words are the final utterances of a person before death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that ...

last words
as: "Jesus, Son of the Eternal God, have mercy on me."


Aftermath

Sebastian Castellio Sebastian Castellio (also Sébastien Châteillon, Châtaillon, Castellión, and Castello; 1515 – 29 December 1563) was a French people, French preacher and theology, theologian; and one of the first Reformed Christian proponents of religious ...

Sebastian Castellio
and countless others denounced this execution and became harsh critics of Calvin because of the whole affair. Some other anti-trinitarian thinkers began to be more cautious in expressing their views:
Martin Cellarius Martin Borrhaus (Latin language, Latin: Martin Cellarius) (1499–11 October 1564) was a German Protestant theologian and reformer. Life Borrhaus was born in Stuttgart and raised as an adopted child of a Simon Keller. He enrolled at the University ...
,
Lelio Sozzini Lelio Francesco Maria Sozzini, or simply Lelio (Latin: ''Laelius Socinus''; 29 January 1525 – 4 May 1562), was an Italian Renaissance humanist and anti-Trinitarian reformer, and uncle of the better known Fausto Sozzini (Latin: ''Faustus Socinus' ...

Lelio Sozzini
and others either ceased writing or wrote only in private. The fact that Servetus was dead meant that his writings could be distributed more widely, though others such as
Giorgio Biandrata Giorgio Biandrata or Blandrata (1515May 5, 1588) was an Italy, Italian-born Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711), Transylvanian physician and polemicist, who came of the De Biandrate family, powerful from the early part of the 13th century. H ...

Giorgio Biandrata
developed them in their own names. The writings of Servetus influenced the beginnings of the Unitarian movement in Poland and
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western ...

Transylvania
.See Stanislas Kot, "L'influence de Servet sur le mouvement atitrinitarien en Pologne et en Transylvanie", in B. Becker (Ed.), ''Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien Castellion'', Haarlem, 1953. Peter Gonesius's advocacy of Servetus' views led to the separation of the
Polish brethren The Polish Brethren (Polish: ''Bracia Polscy'') were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic rel ...
from the Calvinist Reformed Church in Poland, and laid the foundations for the
Socinian Socinianism () is a Nontrinitarianism, Non-trinitarian Christian belief system named after the Italians, Italian Christian theology, theologians Lelio Sozzini (Latin: Laelius Socinus) and Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), uncle and nephew, ...
movement which fostered the early Unitarians in England like John Biddle.


Theology

In his first two books (''De trinitatis erroribus'', and ''Dialogues on the Trinity'' plus the supplementary ''De Iustitia Regni Christi'') Servetus rejected the classical conception of the
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian ...

Trinity
, stating that it was not based on the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
. He argued that it arose from teachings of Greek
philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...
, and he advocated a return to the simplicity of the
Gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words and ...
and the teachings of the early
Church Fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...
that he believed predated the development of
Nicene The original Nicene Creed (; grc-gre, Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας; la, Symbolum Nicaenum) was first adopted at the First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (; grc, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishop ...
trinitarianism. Servetus hoped that the dismissal of the trinitarian dogma would make Christianity more appealing to believers in
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
and
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, which had preserved the unity of God in their teachings. According to Servetus, trinitarians had turned Christianity into a form of "tritheism", or belief in three gods. Servetus affirmed that the divine ''
Logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...

Logos
'', the manifestation of God and not a separate divine Person, was incarnated in a human being, Jesus, when God's spirit came into the womb of the
Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...

Virgin Mary
. Only from the moment of conception was the Son actually generated. Therefore, although the Logos from which He was formed was eternal, the Son was not Himself eternal. For this reason, Servetus always rejected calling Christ the "
eternal Eternal(s) or The Eternal may refer to: * Eternity, an infinite amount of time, or a timeless state * Immortality or eternal life * God, the supreme being, creator deity, and principal object of faith in monotheism Comics, film and television * ...

eternal
Son of God" but rather called him "the Son of the eternal God." In describing Servetus' view of the Logos, Andrew Dibb explained: "In 'Genesis' God reveals himself as the creator. In 'John' he reveals that he created by means of the Word, or Logos. Finally, also in 'John', he shows that this Logos became flesh and 'dwelt among us'. Creation took place by the spoken word, for God said "Let there be ..." The spoken word of Genesis, the Logos of John, and the Christ, are all one and the same." In his "Treatise Concerning the Divine Trinity" Servetus taught that the Logos was the reflection of Christ, and "That reflection of Christ was 'the Word with God" that consisted of God Himself, shining brightly in heaven, "and it was God Himself" and that "the Word was the very essence of God or the manifestation of God's essence, and there was in God no other substance or hypostasis than His Word, in a bright cloud where God then seemed to subsist. And in that very spot the face and personality of Christ shone bright." Unitarian scholar Earl Morse Wilbur states, "Servetus' ''Errors of the Trinity'' is hardly heretical in intent, rather is suffused with passionate earnestness, warm piety, an ardent reverence for Scripture, and a love for Christ so mystical and overpowering that [he] can hardly find words to express it ... Servetus asserted that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were dispositions of God, and not separate and distinct beings." Wilbur promotes the idea that Servetus was a Modalism, modalist. Servetus states his view clearly in the preamble to ''Restoration of Christianity'' (1553): "There is nothing greater, reader, than to recognize that God has been manifested as substance, and that His divine nature has been truly communicated. We shall clearly apprehend the manifestation of God through the Word and his communication through the Spirit, both of them substantially in Christ alone." This theology, though original in some respects, has often been compared to Adoptionism, Arianism, and
Sabellianism In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social- ...
, all of which Trinitarians rejected in favour of the belief that God exists eternally in three distinct persons. Nevertheless, Servetus rejected these theologies in his books: Adoptionism, because it denied Jesus's divinity; Arianism, because it multiplied the hypostasis (Christianity), hypostases and established a rank; and Sabellianism, because it seemingly confused the Father with the Son, though Servetus himself does appear to have denied or diminished the distinctions between the Persons of the Godhead, rejecting the Trinitarian understanding of One God in Three Persons.
The incomprehensible God is known through Christ, by faith, rather than by philosophical speculations. He manifests God to us, being the expression of His very being, and through him alone, God can be known. The scriptures reveal Him to those who have faith; and thus we come to know the Holy Spirit as the Divine impulse within us.
Under severe pressure from Catholics and Protestants alike, Servetus clarified this explanation in his second book, ''Dialogues'' (1532), to show the Logos coterminous with Christ. He was nevertheless accused of
heresy Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
because of his insistence on denying the dogma of the Trinity and the distinctions between the three divine Persons in one God. Servetus also had very unorthodox views on the end times. He believed that he was the Michael referenced in both Daniel and Revelation who would fight the Antichrist. Furthermore, he believed that all this would take place in his lifetime. This possibly explains his decision to visit Calvin in Geneva. Servetus could have thought that he was somehow bringing about the beginnings of the end times by facing those who argued and fought against him.


Legacy


Theology

Because of his rejection of the Trinity and eventual execution by burning for
heresy Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
, Unitarians often regard Servetus as the first (modern) Unitarian martyr —though he was a Unitarian in neither the 17th-century sense of the term nor the modern sense. Sharply critical though he was of the orthodox formulation of the trinity, Servetus is better described as a highly unorthodox trinitarian.Hughes, Peter. "Michael Servetus", ''Dictionary of Unitarian & Universalist Biography''
Aspects of his thinking—his critique of existing trinitarian theology, his devaluation of the doctrine of original sin, and his fresh examination of biblical proof-texts—did influence those who later inspired or founded unitarian churches in Poland and Transylvania. Other non-trinitarian groups, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, and Oneness Pentecostalism, also claim Servetus held similar non-trinitarian views as theirs. Oneness Pentecostalism particularly identifies with Servetus' teaching on the divinity of Jesus Christ and his insistence on the oneness of God, rather than a Trinity of three distinct persons: "And because His Spirit was wholly God He is called God, just as from His flesh He is called man." Pentecostal Scholar David K. Bernard has written the following in regard to the theology of Michael Servetus: "... some historians consider him to be a motivating force for the development of Unitarianism. However, he definitely was not Unitarian, for he acknowledged Jesus as God." Swedenborg wrote a systematic theology that had many similarities to the theology of Servetus.


Freedom of conscience

Widespread aversion to Servetus's death has been taken as signaling the birth in Europe of the idea of religious tolerance, a principle now more important to modern Unitarian Universalists than antitrinitarianism. The Spanish scholar on Servetus' work, Ángel Alcalá, identified the radical search for truth and the right for freedom of conscience as Servetus' main legacies, rather than his theology. The Polish-American scholar, Marian Hillar, has studied the evolution of freedom of conscience, from Servetus and the Polish Socinians, to John Locke and to Thomas Jefferson and the American Declaration of Independence. According to Hillar: "Historically speaking, Servetus died so that freedom of conscience could become a civil right in modern society."


Science

Servetus was the first European to describe the function of
pulmonary circulation The mammalian heart is divided between the systemic and the pulmonary circulation, generally agreed upon as left and right sided circuits. The right circuit is the portion of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the ca ...
(it was already known in the Islamic world,) although his achievement was not widely recognized at the time, for a few reasons. One was that the description appeared in a theological treatise, ''Christianismi Restitutio'', not in a book on medicine. However, the sections in which he refers to anatomy and medicines demonstrate an amazing understanding of the body and treatments. Most copies of the book were burned shortly after its publication in 1553 because of persecution of Servetus by religious authorities. Three copies survived, but these remained hidden for decades. In passage V, Servetus recounts his discovery that the blood of the
pulmonary circulation The mammalian heart is divided between the systemic and the pulmonary circulation, generally agreed upon as left and right sided circuits. The right circuit is the portion of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the ca ...
flows from the heart to the lungs (rather than air in the lungs flowing to the heart as had been thought). His discovery was based on the colour of the blood, the size and location of the different ventricle (heart), ventricles, and the fact that the pulmonary vein was extremely large, which suggested that it performed intensive and transcendent exchange. However, Servetus does not only deal with cardiology. In the same passage, from page 169 to 178, he also refers to the brain, the cerebellum, the meninges, the nerves, the eye, the tympanum (anatomy), tympanum, the rete mirabile, etc., demonstrating a great knowledge of
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ...

anatomy
. In some other sections of this work he also talks of medical products. Servetus also contributed enormously to medicine with other published works specifically related to the field, such as his ''Complete Explanation of Syrups'' and his study on syphilis in his ''Apology against
Leonhart Fuchs Leonhart Fuchs (; 17 January 1501 – 10 May 1566), sometimes spelled Leonhard Fuchs, was a German physician and botanist. His chief notability is as the author of a large book about plants and their uses as medicines, a herbal A herbal is a ...

Leonhart Fuchs
'', among others.


References in literature

*Austrian author Stefan Zweig features Servetus in ''The Right to Heresy: Castellio against Calvin'', 1936 (original title ''Castellio gegen Calvin oder Ein Gewissen gegen die Gewalt'') *Canadian dramatist Robert Lalonde wrote ''Vesalius and Servetus'', a 2008 play on Servetus. *Roland Herbert Bainton: ''Michael Servet. 1511–1553.'' Mohn, Gütersloh 1960 *Rosemarie Schuder: ''Serveto vor Pilatus.'' Rütten & Loening, Berlin 1982 *Antonio Orejudo: ''Feuertäufer.'' Knaus, München 2005, (Roman, Spanish original title: ''Reconstrucción.'') *Vincent Schmidt: ''Michel Servet. Du bûcher à la liberté de conscience'', Les Éditions de Paris, Collection Protestante, Paris 2009 *Albert J. Welti: ''Servet in Genf''. Genf, 1931 *Wilhelm Knappich: ''Geschichte der Astrologie''. Veröffentlicht von Vittorio Klostermann, 1998, , *Friedrich Trechsel: ''Michael Servet und seine Vorgänger''. Nach Quellen und Urkunden geschichtlich Dargestellt. Universitätsbuchhandlung Karl Winter, Heidelberg 1839 (Reprint durch: Nabu Press, 2010, ) *Hans-Jürgen Goertz: ''Religiöse Bewegungen in der Frühen Neuzeit'' Oldenbourg, München 1992, *Henri Tollin: ''Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs durch Michael Servet, 1511-1553'', Nabu Public Domain Reprints *Henri Tollin: ''Charakterbild Michael Servet´s'', Nabu Public Domain Reprints *Henri Tollin: ''Das Lehrsystem Michael Servet´s Volume 1'', Nabu Public Domain Reprints *Henri Tollin: ''Das Lehrsystem Michael Servet´s Volume 2'', Nabu Public Domain Reprints *Henri Tollin: ''Michaelis Villanovani (Serveti) in quendam medicum apologetica disceptatio pro astrologia: Nach dem einzig vorhandenen echten Pariser Exemplare, mit einer Einleitung und Anmerkungen.'' Mecklenburg -1880 *Carlos Gilly: ''Miguel Servet in Basel''; ''Alfonsus Lyncurius und Pseudo-Servet''. In: Ders.: ''Spanien und der Basler Buchdruck bis 1600''. Helbing & Lichtenhahhn, Basel und Frankfurt a.M. 1985, pp. 277–298; 298-326.
PDF; 64,1 MiB
) *M. Hillar: "Poland's Contribution to the Reformation: Socinians/Polish Brethren and Their Ideas on the Religious Freedom," The Polish Review, Vol. XXXVIII, No.4, pp. 447–468, 1993. *M. Hillar, "From the Polish Socinians to the American Constitution," in A Journal from the Radical Reformation. A Testimony to Biblical Unitarianism, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 22–57, 1994. *José Luis Corral: ''El médico hereje'', Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, S.A., 2013 . A novel (in Spanish) narrating the publication of ''Christianismi Restitutio'', Servetus' trial by the Inquisition of Vienne, his escape to Geneva, and his disputes with John Calvin and subsequent burning at the stake by the Calvinists.


Honours


Geneva

In Geneva, 350 years after the execution, remembering Servetus was still a controversial issue. In 1903 a committee was formed by supporters of Servetus to erect a monument in his honour. The group was led by a French Senator, , an author of a book on heretics and revolutionaries which was published in 1887. The committee commissioned a local sculptor, Clotilde Roch, to execute a statue showing a suffering Servetus. The work was three years in the making and was finished in 1907. However, by then, supporters of Calvin in Geneva, having heard about the project, had already erected a simple stele in memory of Servetus in 1903, the main text of which served more as an apologetic for Calvin:
Duteous and grateful followers of Calvin our great Reformer, yet condemning an error which was that of his age, and strongly attached to liberty of conscience according to the true principles of his Reformation and gospel, we have erected this expiatory monument. Oct. 27, 1903
About the same time, a short street close by the stele was named after him. The city council then rejected the request of the committee to erect the completed statue, on the grounds that there was already a monument to Servetus. The committee then offered the statue to the neighbouring French town of Annemasse, which in 1908 placed it in front of the city hall, with the following inscriptions:
“The arrest of Servetus in Geneva, where he did neither publish nor dogmatize, hence he was not subject to its laws, has to be considered as a barbaric act and an insult to the Right of Nations.” Voltaire
"I beg you, shorten please these deliberations. It is clear that Calvin for his pleasure wishes to make me rot in this prison. The lice eat me alive. My clothes are torn and I have nothing for a change, nor shirt, only a worn out vest.” Servetus, 1553
In 1942, the Vichy France, Vichy Government took down the statue, as it was a celebration of freedom of conscience, and melted it. In 1960, having found the original molds, Annemasse had it recast and returned the statue to its previous place. Finally, on 3 October 2011, Geneva erected a copy of the statue which it had rejected over 100 years before. It was cast in Aragon from the molds of Clotilde Roch's original statue. Rémy Pagani, former mayor of Geneva, inaugurated the statue. He previously had described Servetus as "the dissident of dissidence." Representatives from the Roman Catholic Church in Geneva and the Director of Geneva's International Museum of the Reformation attended the ceremony. A Geneva newspaper noted the absence of officials from the National Protestant Church of Geneva, the church of John Calvin.


Aragon

In 1984, the Zaragoza public hospital changed its name from ''José Antonio Primo de Rivera, José Antonio'' to ''Miguel Servet''. Since 1999, this hospital has been known as the ''Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet'', in recognition of its association with the Servetus' own University of Zaragoza


Works

Only the dates of the first editions are included. *1531 ''On the Errors of the Trinity. De Trinitatis Erroribus.'' Haguenau printed by Hans Setzer. Without imprint mark or mark of printer, nor the city in which it was printed. Signed as Michael Servete alias Revés, from Aragon, Spanish. Written in Latin, it also includes words in Greek and in Hebrew in the body of the text whenever he wanted to stress the original meaning of a word from Scripture.Wilbur, E.M. (1969)
The two treatises of Servetus on the Trinity
', New York, Kraus Reprint Co., pp. vii–xviii
*1532 ''Dialogues on the Trinity. Dialogorum de Trinitate.'' Haguenau, printed by Hans Setzer. Without imprint mark or mark of printer, nor the city where it was printed. Signed as Michael Serveto alias Revés, from Aragon, Spanish. *1535 ''Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. Claudii Ptolemaeii Alexandrinii Geographicae''. Lyon, Trechsel. Signed as Michel de Villeneuve. Servetus dedicated this work to Hugues de la Porte. The second edition was dedicated to Pierre Palmier. Michel de Villeneuve states that the basis of his edition comes from the work of Bilibald Pirkheimer, who translated this work from Greek to Latin, but Michel also affirms that he also compared it to the primitive Greek texts. The 19th-century expert in Servetus, Henri Tollin (1833–1902), considered him to be "the father of comparative geography" due to the extension of his notes and commentaries. *1536 ''The Apology against Leonard Fuchs. In Leonardum Fucsium Apologia.'' Lyon, printed by Gilles Hugetan, with Parisian prologue. Signed as Michel de Villeneuve. The physician
Leonhart Fuchs Leonhart Fuchs (; 17 January 1501 – 10 May 1566), sometimes spelled Leonhard Fuchs, was a German physician and botanist. His chief notability is as the author of a large book about plants and their uses as medicines, a herbal A herbal is a ...

Leonhart Fuchs
and a friend of Michael Servetus,
Symphorien Champier Symphorien Champier (1471–1539) was a Lyonnese doctor and writer. Born in Saint-Symphorien-sur-Coise, Saint-Symphorien, France, Champier was a relation of the Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard, Chevalier de Bayard through his wife, Marguerite T ...

Symphorien Champier
, got involved in an argument ''via'' written works, on their different Lutheran and Catholic beliefs. Servetus defends his friend in the first parts of the work. In the second part he talks of a medical plant and its properties. In the last part he writes on different topics, such as the defense of a pupil attacked by a teacher, and the origin of syphilis. *1537 ''Complete Explanation of the Syrups. Syruporum universia ratio''. Paris, printed by Simon de Colines. Signed as Michael de Villeneuve. This work consists of a prologue "The Use of Syrups", and 5 chapters: I "What the concoction is and why it is unique and not multiple", II "What the things that must be known are", III "That the concoction is always..", IV "Exposition of the aphorisms of Hippocrates" and V "On the composition of syrups". Michel de Villeneuve refers to experiences of using the treatments, and to pharmaceutical treatises and terms more deeply described in his later pharmacopeia ''Enquiridion'' or ''Dispensarium''. Michel mentions two of his teachers, Sylvius and Andernach, but above all, Galen. This work had a strong impact in those times. *1538 ''Apologetic discourse of Michel de Villeneuve in favour of Astrology and against a certain physician. Michaelis Villanovani in quedam medicum apologetica disceptatio pro Astrologia.'' Paris, unknown printer. Servetus denounces Jean Tagault, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, for attacking astrology, while many great thinkers and physicians praised it. He lists reasonings of Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen, how the stars are related to some aspects of a patient's health, and how a good physician can predict effects by them: the effect of the moon and sun on the sea, the winds and rains, the period of women, the speed of the decomposition of the corpses of beasts, etc. *1542 ''Holy Bible according to the translation of Santes Pagnino. Biblia sacra ex Santes Pagnini tralation, hebraist.'' Lyon, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. The name Michel de Villeneuve appears in the prologue, the last time this name would appear in any of his works. *1542 ''Biblia sacra ex postremis doctorum'' (octavo). Vienne in Dauphiné, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. Anonymous. *1545 ''Holy Bible with commentaries. Biblia Sacra cum Glossis.'' Lyon, printed by Trechsel and Vincent. Called "Ghost Bible" by scholars who denied its existence. There is an anonymous work from this year that was edited in accordance with the contract that Miguel de Villeneuve made with the Company of Booksellers in 1540. The work consists of 7 volumes (6 volumes and an index) illustrated by Hans Holbein the Younger, Hans Holbein. This research was carried out by the scholar Julien Baudrier in the sixties. Recently scholar González Echeverría has graphically proved the existence of this work, and demonstrating that contrary to what experts Barón and Hillard thought, this work is also anonymous. *"Manuscript of Paris" (c. 1546). This document is a draft of the ''Christianismi Restitutio''. Written in Latin, it includes a few quotes in Greek and Hebrew. This work has paleographically the same handwriting as the "Manuscript of the Complutense". *1553 ''The Restoration of Christianity. Cristianismi Restitutio''.
Vienne Vienne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...
, printed by Baltasar Arnoullet. Without imprint mark or mark of printer, nor the city in which it was printed. Signed as M.S.V. at the colophon though "Servetus" name is mentioned inside, in a fictional dialog. Servetus uses Biblical quotes in Greek and in Hebrew on its cover and in the body of the text whenever he wanted to stress the original meaning of a word from Scripture.


Servetus's anonymous editions

In 1553, Lyonese printer Jean Frellon confessed to the French Inquisition that Michael Servetus had been working at his print shop, and had translated for him, among other works, several Latin grammar treatises to Spanish, and a  “somme espagnole”. New studies reveal Servetus as the author of an additional set of anonymous editions of grammatical, medical and Biblical works — exactly like his ''Biblia cum glossis'' from 1545 — which came from that print shop. These works were not completely original, but enriched and commented editions of previous works by other authors, much like what Servetus had done with his ''Geography of Ptolemy'' (1535). These works were anonymous due to four reasons: (the main one) the strong penalty Servetus got from the University of Paris, through its Medicine, Law and Theology Faculties; the fact that these works had references to authors who were forbidden in the Spanish Empire, and opposed by the Sorbonne Faculty of Theology, such as Erasmus and Robert Estienne; the fact that some other authors mentioned by these works, such as Corderius, Mathurin Cordier and Robert Estienne, were at the same time very close to
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
; the prohibition of any Biblical translation into any common language, pushed by the Spanish Empire. The main  works which Servetus edited at Jean Frellon’s print shop were: *  1543 ''Disticha de moribus nomine Catonis'', Lyon, printed by Jean and François Frellon. One of the several Latin grammar treatises to Spanish, originally authored by Erasmus and Mathurin Cordier. * 1543 ''Retratos o tablas de las Historias del Testamento Viejo'', Lyon, printed by Jean and François Frellon. The Spanish “sommes” or summaries of specific chapters from the Old Testament. Originally printed in 1538 at Lyon by Melchior & Gaspard Trechsel, with woodcuts by Hans Holbein (''Icones''). There had been also a French edition in 1539. In this Spanish edition Servetus included a poem for each of the 92 woodcuts. * 1543 ''Dioscorides'', Lyon, printed by Jean and François Frellon. This work was a ''De materia medica, De Materia Medica'', originally authored by Pedanius Dioscorides, and edited by the eminent Dr. Jean Ruel from Paris. Servetus added 20 long commentaries and 277 marginalia. There is also a different edition (or “homage edition”) of this ''Dioscorides'' which was published in 1554, a year after Servetus’s execution. In this 1554 edition printers B. Arnoullet, Frellon, Vincent and G. Rouillé included some of Servetus’ comments from the 1543 ''Dioscorides'', and added signed comments by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, Andrea Mattioli. In addition, there seems to be an extensive manuscript by Servetus related to this Dioscorides of 1543: a copy of a 1537 ''Dioscorides'' published by Dionisus Corronius, which Servetus used as a workbook for developing his medical ideas while he was a medical student in Paris and Montpelier. The copy is kept at the Complutense University of Madrid, Complutesian University, in Madrid. * 1543 ''Enchiridion. Dispensarium vulgo vocant'', Lyon, printed by Jean and François Frellon. A pharmacological formulas handbook. Its previous edition had been completed by Thibault Lespleigney & François Chappuis. Servetus added 224 new formulas, credited 21 of them to his teacher prof. Sylvius, and also revealed some personal anecdotes regarding this professor. This is the twin work of 1543 Dioscorides, which formed a set for simples & compounds handbook. * 1549 ''De octo orationis partium constructione'', Lyon, printed by Jean Frellon. One of the Latin grammar treatises to Spanish, previously edited by John Colet, Colet, William Lily (grammarian), Lily, Erasmus, and Junien Ranvier — Robert Estienne’s print corrector. * 1548–1550 A Giuntina edition of ''Galen’s Opera Omnia'', Lyon, printed by Jean Frellon. A massive philological revision of Galen’s works, in 6 volumes. Its first edition had been published by printer Giunta in Venice. * 1551 ''Biblia Sacrosancta veteris et Novi Testamenti'', Lyon, printed by Jean Frellon. In this Bible edition, Servetus included an expanded version of his own commentaries from the 1542 ''Holy Bible according to the translation of Santes Pagnino''.González Echeverría (2017)
''Miguel Servet y los impresores lioneses del siglo XVI''
pp. 116–118, 373.


See also

*
Sebastian Castellio Sebastian Castellio (also Sébastien Châteillon, Châtaillon, Castellión, and Castello; 1515 – 29 December 1563) was a French people, French preacher and theology, theologian; and one of the first Reformed Christian proponents of religious ...

Sebastian Castellio
* Servetism * Physician writer#16th century, Physician writer * List of multiple discoveries#13th century, List of multiple discoveries


Notes


Further reading

* Chaves, Joao. "The Servetus Challenge." ''Journal of Reformed Theology'' 10.3 (2016): 195–214. * Roland H. Bainton, Bainton, Roland H. ''Hunted Heretic: The Life and Death of Michael Servetus 1511–1553'' by . Revised Edition edited by Peter Hughes with an introduction by Ángel Alcalá
Blackstone Editions
. a standard scholarly biography focused on religion. * González Echeverría, Francisco Javier (2017)
''Miguel Servet y los impresores lioneses del siglo XVI''
PhD dissertation on Modern History, Spanish National Distance University (UNED). Dissertation director: Carlos Martínez Shaw, Modern History prof. at UNED & Numerary member at the Spanish Real Academia de la Historia, Royal Academy of History, chair #32. Qualification: unanimous Cum Laude. Madrid: Spanish National Distance University (UNED) * González Ancín, Miguel & Towns, Otis. (2017)
Miguel Servet en España (1506–1527). Edición ampliada
' . 474pp. A work focused on Servetus's past in Spain, with his documents as a student and professor of arts in Saragossa. * Goldstone, Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone. ''Out of the Flames: The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy, and One of the Rarest Books in the World'' . 353pp * * Hughes, Peter. "Michael Servetus's Britain: Anatomy of a Renaissance Geographer's Writing." ''Renaissance & Reformation/Renaissance et Reforme'' (2016_ 39#2 pp 85–109. * Hughes, Peter. "The Face of God: The Christology of Michael Servetus." ''Journal of Unitarian Universalist History'' 2016/2017, Vol. 40, pp 16–53 * Hughes, Peter. "The Early Years of Servetus and the Origin of His Critique of Trinitarian Thought" ''Journal of Unitarian Universalist History'' (2013/2014), Vol. 37, pp 32–99. * Lovci, Radovan
''Michael Servetus, Heretic or Saint?''
Prague: Prague House, 2008. . * McNeill, John T. ''The History and Character of Calvinism'', New York: Oxford University Press, 1954. . * Nigg, Walter.''The Heretics: Heresy Through the Ages'' Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1962. (Republished b
Dorset Press, 1990
) * Pettegree, Andrew. "Michael Servetus and the limits of tolerance." ''History Today'' (Feb 1990) 40#2 pp 40–45; popular history by a scholar


Historiography

* Hughes, Peter. "The Present State of Servetus Studies, Eighty Years Later." ''Journal of Unitarian Universalist History'' (2010/2011), Vol. 34, pp 47–70.


Primary sources

* Michael Servetus
''Claudii Ptolemaeii Alexandrinii Geographicae'' (1535, Lyon, Trechsel)
* Michael Servetus
''In Leonardum Fuchsium apologia'' (1536, Lyon, Hugetan)
* Michael Servetus
''Syruporum universa ratio'' (1537, Paris, Simon de Colines)
* Michael Servetus, ''Apologetica disceptatio pro astrologia'' (1538, Paris). It is completely reproduced on servetian Verdu Vicente's dissertation on such work, pp. 113–129. (Verdu Vicente
''Astrologia y hermetismo en Miguel Servet''
Directors: Mínguez Pérez, Carlos; Estal, Juan Manuel. Universitat de València, 1998). * Jean Calvin
''Defensio orthodoxae fidei de sacra Trinitate contra prodigiosos errores Michaelis Serveti...''
(Defense of Orthodox Faith against the Prodigious Errors of the Spaniard Michael Servetus...), Geneva, 1554. Calvin's ''Opere'' in the Corpus Reformatorum, vol. viii, 453–644
Ursus Books and Prints Catalogue of Scarce Books, Americana, Etc. Bangs & Co, p. 41

''Letters of John Calvin''
Carlisle, Penn
The Banner of Truth Trust
1980. .

with WorldCat. Contains seventy letters of Calvin, several of which discuss his plans for, and dealings with, Servetus. Also includes his final discourses and his last will and testament (25 April 1564). * Jules Bonnet,
Letters of John Calvin
', 2 vols., 1855, 1857, Edinburgh, Thomas Constable and Co.: Little, Brown, and Co., Boston – The Internet Archive
''The Man from Mars: His Morals, Politics and Religion''"> ''The Man from Mars: His Morals, Politics and Religion''
by William Simpson, San Francisco: E.D. Beattle, 1900. Excerpts from letters of Servetus, written from his prison cell in Geneva (1553), pp. 30–31. Google Books. * The translation of ''Christianismi Restitutio'' into English (the first ever) by Christopher Hoffman and Marian Hillar was published so far in four parts. One part still remains to be published: * ["The Restoration of Christianity. An English Translation of Christianismi restitutio, 1553, by Michael Servetus (1511–1553). Translated by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar," (Lewiston, NY; Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2007). Pp. 409+xxix *"Treatise on Faith and Justice of Christ’s Kingdom" by Michael Servetus. Selected and Translated from "Christianismi restitutio" by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar (Lewiston, NY; Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2008). pp. 95 +xlv *"Treatise Concerning the Supernatural Regeneration and the Kingdom of the Antichrist by Michael Servetus. Selected and Translated from Christianismi restitutio by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar," (Lewiston, NY; Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2008). pp. 302+l *"Thirty Letters to Calvin & Sixty Signs of the Antichrist by Michael Servetus." Translated from Christianismi restitutio by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar (Lewiston, NY; Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010). pp. 175 + lxxxvi


External links

*
Michael Servetus Institute
– Museum and centre for Servetian studies in Villanueva de Sigena, Spain
Michael Servetus Center
– Research portal on Michael Servetus run by servetians González Ancín & Towns, also including multiple works and studies by servetian González Echeverría.
Center for Philosophy and Socinian Studies
*
Works
a
Open Library

''Christianismi Restitutio'' – Full text
digitalized by the Spanish National Library.
''De Trinitatis Erroribus'' – Full text
digitalized by the Spanish National Library.


Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain)


from the Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography
Michael Servetus – A Solitary Quest for the Truth

PDF; 64,1 MiB on Michael Servetus in Basel & Alfonsus Lyncurius and Pseudo-Servetus


Comments and quotes.


Reformed Apologetic for Calvin's actions against Servetus

Phillip Schaff, ''History of the Christian Church'', Vol. 8, chapter 16.

Thomas Jefferson: letter to William Short, 13 April 1820
– mention of Calvin and Servetus. {{DEFAULTSORT:Servetus, Michael 1511 births 1553 deaths 16th-century apocalypticists 16th-century Christian martyrs 16th-century jurists 16th-century Latin-language writers 16th-century Spanish physicians 16th-century Spanish theologians Antitrinitarians Christologists Executed people from the Republic of Geneva Executed scientists Executed Spanish people Founders of religions People executed by burning People executed for heresy People from Monegros Spanish medical writers Spanish Unitarians University of Paris alumni Victims of the Inquisition