The mesentery is an organ
that attaches the
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus. The GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans a ...
s to the posterior abdominal wall
in humans and is formed by the double fold of
The peritoneum is the serous membrane forming the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids. It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothel ...
. It helps in storing fat
The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body. These vessels transport blood cells, nutrients, and oxygen to the tissues of the body. They also take waste and carbon dioxide awa ...
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers (called axons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A nerve transmits electrical impulses. It is the basic unit of the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the ...
s to supply the intestines, among other functions.
The mesocolon was thought to be a fragmented structure, with all named parts—the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid mesocolons, the mesoappendix, and the mesorectum—separately terminating their insertion into the posterior abdominal wall.
However, in 2012, new
The microscopic scale () is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly. In physics, the microscopic scale is sometimes regarded as the scale bet ...
and electron microscopic examinations
showed the mesocolon to be a single structure derived from the duodenojejunal flexure
and extending to the distal mesorectal layer.
Thus, the mesentery is an
In biology, an organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. In the hierarchy of life, an organ lies between tissue and an organ system. Tissues are formed from same type cells to act together in a f ...
The mesentery of the small intestine
arises from the root of the mesentery (or mesenteric root) and is the part connected with the structures in front of the vertebral column
. The root is narrow, about 15 cm long, 20 cm in width, and is directed obliquely from the duodenojejunal flexure
at the left side of the second
The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis. They are the largest segments of the vertebral column and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse p ...
to the right
The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected by strong ligaments. In humans, the sacrum supports the spine and is supported in turn by an ilium on each side. The ...
. The root of the mesentery extends from the duodenojejunal flexure to the ileocaecal junction
. This section of the small intestine is located centrally in the abdominal cavity and lies behind the transverse colon and the
The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach. It extends from the greater curvature ...
The mesentery becomes attached to the colon
at the gastrointestinal margin and continues as the several regions of the mesocolon. The parts of the mesocolon take their names from the part of the colon to which they attach. These are the transverse mesocolon attaching to the transverse colon, the sigmoid mesocolon attaching to the sigmoid colon, the mesoappendix attaching to the appendix, and the mesorectum attaching to the upper third of the rectum.
The mesocolon regions were traditionally taught to be separate sections with separate insertions into the posterior abdominal wall. In 2012, the first detailed observational and histological
studies of the mesocolon were undertaken and this revealed several new findings.
The study included 109 patients undergoing open, elective, total abdominal colectomy
. Anatomical observations were recorded during the surgery and on the post-operative specimens.
These studies showed that the mesocolon is continuous from the ileocaecal to the rectosigmoid level. It was also shown that a mesenteric confluence occurs at the ileocaecal and rectosigmoid junctions, as well as at the hepatic and splenic flexures
and that each confluence involves peritoneal and omental attachments. The proximal rectum was shown to originate at the confluence of the mesorectum and mesosigmoid. A plane occupied by perinephric fascia was shown to separate the entire apposed small intestinal mesentery and the mesocolon from the retroperitoneum
. Deep in the
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region), together with its embedded skeleton (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
, this fascia coalesces to give rise to presacral fascia
Flexural anatomy is frequently described as a difficult area. It is simplified when each flexure is considered as being centered on a mesenteric contiguity. The ileocaecal flexure arises at the point where the ileum is continuous with the caecum around the ileocaecal mesenteric flexure. Similarly, the hepatic flexure
is formed between the right mesocolon and transverse mesocolon at the mesenteric confluence. The colonic component of the hepatic flexure is draped around this mesenteric confluence. Furthermore, the splenic flexure
is formed by the mesenteric confluence between the transverse and left mesocolon. The colonic component of the splenic flexure occurs lateral to the mesenteric confluence. At every flexure, a continuous peritoneal fold lies outside the colonic/mesocolic complex tethering this to the posterior abdominal wall.
The transverse mesocolon is that section of the mesocolon attached to the
In human anatomy, the transverse colon is the longest and most movable part of the colon.
It crosses the abdomen from the ascending colon at the right colic flexure (hepatic flexure) with a downward convexity to the descend ...
that lies between the
In the anatomy of the human digestive tract, there are two colic flexures, or curvatures in the transverse colon. The right colic flexure is also known as the hepatic flexure, and the left colic flexure is also known as the splenic flexure. Note ...
The sigmoid mesocolon is that region of the mesentery to which the
The sigmoid colon (or pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop that averages about in length. The loop is typically shaped like a Greek letter sigma (ς) or Latin letter S (thus '' ...
is attached at the gastrointestinal mesenteric margin.
The mesoappendix is the portion of the mesocolon connecting the
The ileum () is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms posterior intestine or distal intestine m ...
to the appendix
. It may extend to the tip of the appendix. It encloses the appendicular artery
and vein, as well as
Lymph (from Latin, , meaning "water") is the fluid that flows through the lymphatic system, a system composed of lymph vessels (channels) and intervening lymph nodes whose function, like the venous system, is to return fluid from the tissues to ...
atic vessels, nerves, and often a
A lymph node, or lymph gland, is a kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system and the adaptive immune system. A large number of lymph nodes are linked throughout the body by the lymphatic vessels. They are major sites of lymphocytes that inclu ...
The mesorectum is that part attached to the upper third of the rectum.
Understanding the macroscopic structure of the mesenteric organ meant that associated structures—the peritoneal folds and congenital and omental adhesions—could be better appraised. The small intestinal mesenteric fold occurs where the small intestinal mesentery folds onto the posterior abdominal wall and continues laterally as the right mesocolon. During mobilization of the small intestinal mesentery from the posterior abdominal wall, this fold is incised, allowing access to the interface between the small intestinal mesentery and the retroperitoneum. The fold continues at the inferolateral boundary of the ileocaecal junction and turn as the right paracolic peritoneal fold. This fold is divided during lateral to medial mobilization, permitting the surgeon to serially lift the right colon and associated mesentery off the underlying fascia and retroperitoneum. At the hepatic flexure, the right lateral peritoneal fold turns and continues medially as the hepatocolic peritoneal fold. Division of the fold in this location permits separation of the colonic component of the hepatic flexure and mesocolon off the retroperitoneum.
Interposed between the hepatic and splenic flexures, the greater omentum adheres to the transverse colon along a further band or fold of peritoneum. Dissection through this allows access to the cephalad (top) surface of the transverse mesocolon. Focal adhesions frequently tether the greater omentum to the cephalad aspect of the transverse mesocolon. The left colon is associated with a similar anatomic configuration of peritoneal folds; the splenic peritoneal fold is contiguous with the left lateral paracolic peritoneal fold at the splenic flexure. Division of the latter similarly allows for the separation of the left colon and associated mesentery off the underlying fascia and frees it from the retroperitoneum. The left lateral paracolic peritoneal fold continues distally at the lateral aspect of the mobile component of the mesosigmoid.
Determination of the macroscopic structure of the mesenteric organ allowed a recent characterisation of the histological and electron microscopic properties.
The microscopic structure of the mesocolon and associated fascia is consistent from ileocecal to mesorectal levels. A surface
The mesothelium is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelial cells of mesodermal origin, which forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (pleural cavity around the lungs), peritoneum ( abdominopelvic cavity including the mese ...
and underlying connective tissue is universally apparent.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. I ...
lobules within the body of the mesocolon are separated by fibrous septae
arising from submesothelial connective tissue. Where apposed to the retroperitoneum, two mesothelial layers separate the mesocolon and underlying retroperitoneum. Between these is Toldt's fascia
, a discrete layer of connective tissue. Lymphatic channels are evident in mesocolic connective tissue and in Toldt's fascia.
The primitive gut is suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by the dorsal mesentery. The gastrointestinal tract and associated dorsal mesentery are subdivided into
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct. Beyond the stomach, the foregut is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery. The foregut arises from the endoderm, devel ..., midgut
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop. After it bends around the superior mesenteric artery, it is called the "midgut loop". It comprises the portion of the alimentary canal from the end of the foregut a ..., and hindgut
The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior ( caudal) part of the alimentary canal. In mammals, it includes the distal one third of the transverse colon and the splenic flexure, the descending colon, sigmoid colon and up to the ano-rectal junc ... regions based on the respective blood supply. The foregut is supplied by the celiac trunk
The celiac () artery (also spelled ''coeliac''), also known as the celiac trunk or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta. It is about 1.25 cm in length. Branching from the aorta at thoracic vertebra 12 (T12) in ..., the midgut is supplied by the superior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is an artery which arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies blood to the intestine from the lower part of the ... (SMA), and the hindgut is supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the distal transverse colon to the upper part of the ana ... (IMA). This division is established by the fourth week of development. After this, the midgut undergoes a period of rapid elongation, forcing it to herniate through the navel
The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, commonly known as the belly button or tummy button) is a protruding, flat, or hollowed area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord. All placental mammals have a navel, although .... During herniation, the midgut rotates 90° anti-clockwise around the axis of the SMA and forms the midgut loop. The cranial portion of the loop moves to the right and the caudal portion of the loop moves toward the left. This rotation
Rotation, or spin, is the circular movement of an object around a '' central axis''. A two-dimensional rotating object has only one possible central axis and can rotate in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. A three-dimensional ... occurs at about the eighth week of development. The cranial portion of the loop will develop into the jejunum and most of the ileum, while the caudal part of the loop eventually forms the terminal portion of the ileum, the ascending colon and the initial two-thirds of the transverse colon. As the foetus grows larger, the mid-gut loop is drawn back through the umbilicus and undergoes a further 180° rotation, completing a total of 270° rotation. At this point, about 10 weeks, the caecum lies close to the liver
The liver is a major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth. In humans, it .... From here it moves in a cranial to caudal direction to eventually lie in the lower right portion of the abdominal cavity. This process brings the ascending colon to lie vertically in the lateral right portion of the abdominal cavity apposed to the posterior abdominal wall. The descending colon occupies a similar position on the left side. [Mitchell B, Sharma R. Embryology: An Illustrated Colour Text, 2e. Churchill Livingstone; 2 edition (June 22, 2009). .]
During these topographic changes, the dorsal mesentery undergoes corresponding changes. Most anatomical and embryological textbooks say that after adopting a final position, the ascending and descending mesocolons disappear during embryogenesis. ''Embryology—An Illustrated Colour Text'', "most of the mid-gut retains the original dorsal mesentery, though parts of the duodenum derived from the mid-gut do not. The mesentery associated with the ascending colon and descending colon is resorbed, bringing these parts of the colon into close contact with the body wall." In ''The Developing Human'', the author states, "the mesentery of the ascending colon fuses with the parietal peritoneum on this wall and disappears; consequently the ascending colon also becomes retroperitoneal". [Moore KL, TPersaud TVN, Torchia MG. The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology with Student Consult Online Assess, 9th Edition. Saunders; ] To reconcile these differences, several theories of embryologic mesenteric development—including the "regression" and "sliding" theories—have been proposed, but none has been widely accepted.
The portion of the dorsal mesentery that attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital organ in the digestive system. The stomach i ..., is known as the dorsal mesogastrium. The part of the dorsal mesentery that suspends the colon is termed the mesocolon. The dorsal mesogastrium develops into the greater omentum
The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach. It extends from the greater curvature ....
The development of the
The septum transversum is a thick mass of cranial mesenchyme, formed in the embryo, that gives rise to parts of the thoracic diaphragm and the ventral mesentery of the foregut in the developed human being and other mammals.
The septum tr ... takes part in the formation of the diaphragm, while the caudal portion into which the liver
The liver is a major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth. In humans, it ... grows forms the ventral mesentery. The part of the ventral mesentery that attaches to the stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital organ in the digestive system. The stomach i ... is known as the ventral mesogastrium. [Gray's anatomy]
The lesser omentum
The lesser omentum (small omentum or gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach, and to the first part of the duodenum. The lesser omentum is usually divided into t ... is formed, by a thinning of the mesoderm
The mesoderm is the middle layer of the three germ layers that develops during gastrulation in the very early development of the embryo of most animals. The outer layer is the ectoderm, and the inner layer is the endoderm.Langman's Medical Embr ... or ventral mesogastrium, which attaches the stomach and duodenum
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine ... to the anterior abdominal wall
In anatomy, the abdominal wall represents the boundaries of the abdominal cavity. The abdominal wall is split into the anterolateral and posterior walls.
There is a common set of layers covering and forming all the walls: the deepest being the v .... By the subsequent growth of the liver this leaf of mesoderm is divided into two parts – the lesser omentum
The lesser omentum (small omentum or gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach, and to the first part of the duodenum. The lesser omentum is usually divided into t ... between the stomach and liver, and the falciform
The ''falx'' was a weapon with a curved blade that was sharp on the inside edge used by the Thracians and Dacians. The name was later applied to a siege hook used by the Romans.
''Falx'' is a Latin word originally meaning 'sickle ... and coronary ligaments between the liver and the abdominal wall and diaphragm. [
In the adult, the ventral mesentery is the part of the ] peritoneum
The peritoneum is the serous membrane forming the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids. It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothel ... closest to the navel
The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, commonly known as the belly button or tummy button) is a protruding, flat, or hollowed area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord. All placental mammals have a navel, although ....
Clarifications of the mesenteric anatomy have facilitated a clearer understanding of diseases involving the mesentery, examples of which include malrotation and
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, abdominal distension, ... (CD). In CD, the mesentery is frequently thickened, rendering hemostasis
In biology, hemostasis or haemostasis is a process to prevent and stop bleeding, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage). It is the first stage of wound healing. This involves coagulation, ... challenging. In addition, fat wrapping—creeping fat—involves extension of mesenteric fat over the circumference of contiguous gastrointestinal tract, and this may indicate increased mesothelial plasticity. The relationship between mesenteric derangements and mucosal manifestations in CD points to a pathobiological overlap; some authors say that CD is mainly a mesenteric disorder that secondarily affects the GIT and systemic circulation.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek "clotting") is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses platelets (thr ... of the superior mesenteric vein
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum). Behind the neck of the pancreas, the superior mesenteric vein combines with the splenic vein to form the hepa ... can cause mesenteric ischemia
Intestinal ischemia is a medical condition in which injury to the large or small intestine occurs due to not enough blood supply. It can come on suddenly, known as acute intestinal ischemia, or gradually, known as chronic intestinal ischemia. Th ... also known as ''ischemic bowel''. Mesenteric ischemia can also result from the formation of a volvulus, a twisted loop of the small intestine that when it wraps around itself and also encloses the mesentery too tightly can cause ischemia
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to any tissue, muscle group, or organ of the body, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive). Ischemia is generally caused by problems w ....
The rationalization of mesenteric and peritoneal fold anatomy permits the surgeon to differentiate both from intraperitoneal adhesions—also called congenital adhesions. These are highly variable among patients and occur in several locations. Congenital adhesions occur between the lateral aspect of the peritoneum overlying the mobile component of the mesosigmoid and the parietal peritoneum in the left iliac fossa. During the lateral to the medial approach of mobilizing of the mesosigmoid, these must be divided first before the peritoneum proper can be accessed. Similarly, focal adhesions occur between the undersurface of the greater omentum and the cephalad aspect of the transverse mesocolon. These can be accessed after dividing the peritoneal fold that links the greater omentum and transverse colon. Adhesions here must be divided to separate the greater omentum off the transverse mesocolon, thus allowing access to the lesser sac proper.
While the total mesocolic excision (TME) operation has become the surgical gold standard for the management of rectal cancer, this is not so for colon cancer.
Recently, the surgical principles underpinning TME in rectal cancer have been extrapolated to colonic surgery. Total or complete mesocolic excision (CME), use planar surgery and extensive mesenterectomy (high tie) to minimise breach of the mesentery and maximise lymph nodes yield. Application of this T/CME reduces local five-year recurrence rates in colon cancer from 6.5% to 3.6%, while cancer-related five-year survival rates in patients resected for cure increased from 82.1% to 89.1%.
Recent radiologic appraisals of the mesenteric organ have been conducted in the context of the contemporary understanding of mesenteric organ anatomy. When this organ is divided into non-flexural and flexural regions, these can readily be differentiated in most patients on CT imaging. Clarification of the radiological appearance of the human mesentery resonates with the suggestions of Dodds and enables a clearer conceptualization of mesenteric derangements in disease states.
This is of immediate relevance in the spread of cancer from colon cancer and perforated diverticular disease, and in pancreatitis where fluid collections in the lesser sac dissect the mesocolon from the retroperitoneum and thereby extend distally within the latter.
Mesentery has been known for thousands of years, however it was unclear whether mesentery is a single organ or there are several mesenteries. The classical anatomical description of the mesocolon is credited to British surgeon Sir Frederick Treves in 1885,
although a description of the membrane as a single structure dates back to at least Leonardo da Vinci. Treves is known for performing the first appendectomy
An appendectomy, also termed appendicectomy, is a surgical operation in which the vermiform appendix (a portion of the intestine) is removed. Appendectomy is normally performed as an urgent or emergency procedure to treat complicated acute append ... in England in 1888; he was surgeon to both Queen Victoria
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Her reign of 63 years and 216 days was longer than that of any previ ... and King Edward VII
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India, from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
The second child and eldest son of Queen Victoria and .... He studied the human mesentery and peritoneal folds in 100 cadavers and described the right and left mesocolons as vestigial or absent in the human adult. Accordingly, the small intestinal mesentery, transverse, and sigmoid mesocolons all terminated or attached at their insertions into the posterior abdominal wall. These assertions were included in mainstream surgical, anatomical, embryological, and radiologic literature for more than a century.
Almost 10 years before Treves, the Austrian anatomist Carl Toldt described the persistence of all portions of the mesocolon into adulthood. Toldt was professor of anatomy in Prague and Vienna; he published his account of the human mesentery in 1879. Toldt identified a fascial plane between the mesocolon and the underlying retroperitoneum, formed by the fusion of the visceral peritoneum of the mesocolon with the parietal peritoneum of the retroperitoneum; this later became known as Toldt's fascia.
In 1942, anatomist Edward Congdon also demonstrated that the
right and left mesocolons persisted into adulthood and remained separate from the retroperitoneum—extraretroperitoneal. Radiologist Wylie J. Dodds described this concept in 1986. Dodds extrapolated that unless the mesocolon remained an extraretroperitoneal structure—separate from the retroperitoneum—only then would the radiologic appearance of the mesentery and peritoneal folds be reconciled with actual anatomy.
Descriptions of the mesocolon by Toldt, Congdon, and Dodds have largely been ignored in mainstream literature until recently. A formal appraisal of the mesenteric organ anatomy was conducted in 2012; it echoed the findings of Toldt, Congdon, and Dodds. The single greatest advance in this regard was the identification of the mesenteric organ as being contiguous, as it spans the gastrointestinal tract from duodenojejunal flexure to mesorectal level.
In 2012 it was discovered that the mesentery was a single organ, which precipitated advancement in colon and rectum surgery and in sciences related to anatomy
Anatomy () is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science that deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its ... and development.
The word "mesentery" and its
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) is the revival of Literary Latin used in original, scholarly, and scientific works since about 1500. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy a ... equivalent ' () use the combining forms '' mes-'' + '' enteron'', ultimately from ancient Greek ('), from (', "middle") + (', "gut"), yielding "mid-intestine" or "midgut". The adjectival form is "mesenteric" ().
An improved understanding of mesenteric structure and histology has enabled a formal characterization of mesenteric lymphangiology.
[ Stereologic assessments of the lymphatic vessels demonstrate a rich lymphatic network embedded within the mesenteric connective tissue lattice. On average, vessels occur every , and within from the mesocolic surfaces—anterior and posterior. Lymphatic channels have also been identified in Toldt's fascia, though the significance of this is unknown.] [
The testes, at an early period of foetal life, are placed at the back part of the abdominal cavity, behind the peritoneum, and each is attached by a peritoneal fold, the mesorchium, to the mesonephros.
The mesov ...
The mesovarium is the portion of the broad ligament of the uterus that suspends the ovaries. The ovary is not covered by the mesovarium; rather, it is covered by germinal epithelium.
At first the mesonephros and genital ridge are suspended by a ...
* Blood vessels: The superior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is an artery which arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies blood to the intestine from the lower part of the ... and the inferior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the distal transverse colon to the upper part of the ana ... (the two main mesenteric arteries), and the superior mesenteric vein
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum). Behind the neck of the pancreas, the superior mesenteric vein combines with the splenic vein to form the hepa ... and the inferior mesenteric vein
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine. It usually terminates when reaching the splenic vein, which goes on to form the portal vein with the superior mesenteric vein (SMV ... (the two main mesenteric veins), plus their branches and the capillaries
File:Small intestine dissection.jpg, Mesenteric relation of intestines. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web founded by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit based in San Francisco, California. Created in 1996 and launched to the public in 2001, it allows the user to go "back in time" and se ... copy)