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Merkwiller-Pechelbronn () is a
commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, politica ...

commune
in the
Bas-Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian language, Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a Departments of France, department in Alsace which is a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name me ...
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
in
Grand Est Grand Est (; gsw-FR, Grossa Oschta; Moselle Franconian/ lb, Grouss Osten; Rhine Franconian: ''Groß Oschte''; german: Großer Osten ; en, "Great East") is an Regions of France, administrative region in Northeastern France. It superseded three ...

Grand Est
in north-eastern
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. It is notable as the original home of
oil sands Oil sands, tar sands, crude bitumen, or bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional oil, unconventional petroleum deposit. Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandstone containing a naturally occurring mixture of s ...
mining. Oil sands were mined from 1745 in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn, initially under the direction of Louis Pierre Ancillon de la Sablonnière, by special appointment of
Louis XV Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...
. The Pechelbronn oil field was active until 1970, and was the birthplace of companies such as
Antar Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR) is an independent, national non-government, not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is ...
and
Schlumberger Schlumberger Limited () is an oilfield services company. Schlumberger employees represent more than 140 nationalities working in more than 120 countries. Schlumberger has four principal executive offices located in Paris, Houston, London, and T ...

Schlumberger
. The first modern oil sands refinery was built there in 1857; and it also had the first school of oil technology."History of Pechelbronn oil"


See also

*
Communes of the Bas-Rhin department The following is a list of the 514 Communes of France, communes of the Bas-Rhin Departments of France, department of France. The communes cooperate in the following Communes of France#Intercommunality, intercommunalities (as of 2020):


References


INSEE commune file


External links


Official site (in French)
Communes of Bas-Rhin Bituminous sands {{BasRhin-geo-stub