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A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their
constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state Sta ...
. In many countries with
bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
parliaments, this term implies members of the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
, as upper houses often have a different title.
Member of Congress A Member of Congress (MOC) is a person who has been appointed or elected and inducted into an official body called a congress, typically to represent a particular constituency in a legislature. Member of Parliament (MP) is an equivalent term in ...
or
Deputy Deputy is one empowered to act for another. Depute is the historical form of "deputy" and is still used in the Scottish legal system. Deputy or depute may refer to: * Steward (office) * Khalifa, an Arabic title that can signify "deputy" * Deputy ( ...
is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions. ''Parliamentarian'' is also sometimes used to describe members of parliament, but the term may also be used to refer to unelected government officials with specific roles in the parliament, such as the Senate Parliamentarian in the United States, or to imply the characteristic of performing the duties of a member of a legislature, e.g. "The two party leaders often disagreed on issues, but both were excellent parliamentarians and cooperated to get many good things done." Members of parliament typically form
parliamentary group A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council. Parliamentary group ...
s, often called
caucus A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold si ...
es, with members of the same
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
.


Westminster system

The Westminster system is a
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
of
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
modelled after the
politics of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom is a unitary state with Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, monarch, ...
. This term comes from the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
, the seat of the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
.


Australia

A member of parliament is a member of the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...

House of Representatives
, the lower house of the
Commonwealth (federal) parliament
Commonwealth (federal) parliament
. Members may use "MP" after their names; "MHR" is no longer used. A member of the upper house of the Commonwealth Parliament, the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
, is known as a "Senator". In the
Australian states and territories The states and territories are federated administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many simila ...
, "MP" is commonly used. In
bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
legislatures, members of the lower house (
legislative assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of ...
or
house of assembly House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who ...
) also use the post-nominals "MLA" or "MHA" and members of the upper house (
legislative council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
) use "MLC". MLCs are informally refer to as upper house MPs.


Bahamas

The
Parliament of The Bahamas #REDIRECT Parliament of the Bahamas#REDIRECT Parliament of the Bahamas The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate Deliberative assembly, assemblies, chambers, o ...
is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The parliament is formally made up by the Queen (represented by the Governor-General), an appointed Senate, and an elected House of Assembly. It currently sits at Nassau, the national capital. The structure, functions, and procedures of the parliament are based on the Westminster system.


Bangladesh

In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, a Member of Parliament is an individual who serves in the
unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a legislature which co ...
Jatiya Sangsad The Jatiya Sangsad ( bn, জাতীয় সংসদ ''Jatiyô Sôngsôd''; lit. ’National Parliament’), often referred to simply as the ''Sangsad'' or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme legislative body of ...
or House of the Nation. Members of the Jatiya Sangsad are elected at a
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
, usually held once every five years unless Parliament is dissolved sooner by the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
on the advice of the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. Under the
Constitution of Bangladesh The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the constitutional document of Bangladesh. It was adopted on 4 November 1972 and went into effect from 16 December 1972. It provides the framework of the Bangladeshi republic with a parl ...
, an individual is required to be a citizen of Bangladesh and must have attained the age of 25 years in order to qualify for election to Parliament. The Parliament consists of 300 directly elected members from general seats elected by use of
first past the post In a first-past-the-post electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are o ...
who represent single-constituencies, while 50 seats are reserved exclusively for women and are allocated on a
proportional basis
proportional basis
. After an election, the
Election Commission An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of electioneering process of any country. The formal names of election commissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and may be styled an electoral commission, a ce ...
allocates reserved seats to parties based on the number of general seats they won. A party then presents a list of candidates, each requiring a presenter and a seconder. If the number of candidates presented and seats allocated is equal, then there is no election and the reserved seats are filled in accordance with the candidate lists prepared by parties. In the event there are more candidates than seat allocations, the 300 MPs elected from general seats vote through use of the
single transferable vote Single transferable vote (STV) is a type of ranked preferential electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Poli ...
system to determine the reserved seats. In reality, there has never been an election for reserved seats as parties have never nominated more candidates than they have been allocated. In order to form a
Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
, a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
or
alliance An alliance is a relationship among people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and ...
usually requires a simple majority in Parliament. Since Bangladesh's independence, the Prime Minister has concurrently held the position of Leader of the House.


Canada

The
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate of Canada, Senate, and the House of C ...

Parliament of Canada
consists of the
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...
, the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

Senate
and the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporat ...
. Only members of the House of Commons are referred to as Members of Parliament (); members of the Senate are called Senators (). There are currently 105 seats in the Senate and 338 in the House of Commons. Members of Parliament are elected, while senators are appointed by the governor general on behalf of the sovereign at the direction of the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. Retirement is mandatory for senators upon reaching the age of 75 years. Each province (and territory) has its own legislature, with each member usually known as a
Member of the Legislative Assembly A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to a legislative assembly. Most often, the term refers to a subnational assembly such as that of a state, province, or territory of a country. St ...
(MLA). In certain provinces, legislators carry other titles: Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) in
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, Member of the National Assembly (MNA) in
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
() and Member of the House of Assembly (MHA) in
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newf ...
. The provincial upper houses were eliminated through the 20th century.


India

A Member of Parliament is any member of the two houses of
Indian Parliament The Parliament of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the supreme legislature, legislative body of the India, Republic of India. It is a Bicameralism, bicameral legislature composed of the President of India an ...

Indian Parliament
, i.e.,
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
and
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Huma ...

Rajya Sabha
. As of now, Lok Sabha has 545 seats, of which 543 members are elected popularly by single-member constituencies via
first past the post In a first-past-the-post electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are o ...
method in each of the 29 Indian states and 8 union territories, while the
President of India The president of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ), officially the president of the Republic of India, is the figurehead, ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. ...
may appoint 2 representatives of the
Anglo-Indian The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with multiracial people, mixed Indian people, Indian and British people, British ancestry and people of British descent born or residing in India. The latter sense is now ...
community. As of 2018, Rajya Sabha can have 245 members, 233 of which are elected indirectly by the state legislatures using
Single transferable vote Single transferable vote (STV) is a type of ranked preferential electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Poli ...
method of proportional representation, and 12 are appointed by the President for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services (Art. 80 of the Constitution). Each state is allocated a fixed number of representatives in each chamber, in order of their respective population. As of 2018, the state of
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
has the greatest number of representatives in both houses. The person which secures the support of more than half the seats in the Lok Sabha forms the
Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
. To form the government, parties may form a coalition. The Lok Sabha is the lower house and the Rajya Sabha is the upper house of the bicameral Indian Parliament. The term of a member of the Rajya Sabha is 6 years long, while the Lok Sabha members are elected for a term of 5 years unless the house is dissolved sooner. Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and is not subject to dissolution, and the members serve staggered terms- one-third of the membership retires every two years. Vacancies in both houses, whether because of death or resignation of a member, are filled with
by-election A by-election (also spelled bye-election), also known as a special election in the United States and the Philippines, or a bypoll (India), is an election used to fill an office that has become vacant between general elections. In most cases these ...
s within six months of the vacancy - the newly elected member in which case serves only the rest of the pending term of the seat they are elected to. The number of seats in both houses is regulated by
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

Constitution
and parliamentary statutes.


Ireland

Since the formation of the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
in 1922 and subsequently in the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 Counties of Ireland, counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern ...

Republic of Ireland
, the legislature of Ireland is known as the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country ...
, and consists of the President; the upper house,
Seanad Éireann Seanad Éireann ( , ; "Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamb ...

Seanad Éireann
(or Senate); and lower house,
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the , and principal chamber, of the (Irish legislature), which also includes the and (the ).Article 15.1.2º of the reads: "The Oireachtas shall consist of the President and two Houses, viz.: a House of Represent ...
(Assembly, or House of Representatives). They are functionally similar to other bicameral parliaments, with the lower house being significantly more influential and having more power over the creation of legislation. Elections to Dáil Éireann are held at least every five years using the Single Transferable Vote; while Elections to Seanad Éireann are restricted to members of both houses, elected members of local authorities, and alumni of
National University of Ireland The National University of Ireland (NUI) ( ga, Ollscoil na hÉireann) is a federal university system of ''constituent universities'' (previously called ''university college, constituent colleges'') and ''recognised colleges'' set up under t ...
colleges. 11 Senators are nominated directly by the
Taoiseach The Taoiseach is the prime minister and head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous reg ...
. A Member of Dáil Éireann is known as a
Teachta Dála A Teachta Dála ( , ; plural ), abbreviated as TD (plural ''TDanna'' in Irish, TDs in English), is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament). It is the equivalent of terms such as ''Member of Parliamen ...
(TD) or "Deputy to the Dáil", and addressed as "Teachta" (Deputy), while a Member of the Seanad is known and addressed as Seanadóir (Senator). These titles are used much more commonly in English than the official Irish. A ''member of Parliament'' was the term used to refer to a member of the pre-1801
Irish House of Commons The Irish House of Commons was the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, t ...
of the
Parliament of Ireland The Parliament of Ireland ( ga, Parlaimint na hÉireann) was the of the , and later the , from 1297 until 1800. It was modelled on the and from 1537 comprised two chambers: the and the . The Lords were members of the (’’) and bisho ...
. Irish members elected to the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporat ...

House of Commons
of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state that existed between 1801 and 1922. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland into a unified state ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
were also called ''members of Parliament'' from 1801 to 1922.
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
continues to elect MPs to the Parliament of the United Kingdom.


Jamaica

The Parliament of Jamaica is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. It is a bicameral body, composed of an appointed Senate and an elected House of Representatives. The Senate (upper house), the direct successor of a pre-Independence body known as the "Legislative Council" – comprises 21 senators appointed by the governor-general: thirteen on the advice of the Prime Minister and eight on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition. The House of Representatives, the lower house, is made up of 63 (previously 60) Members of Parliament, elected to five-year terms on a first-past-the-post basis in single-seat constituencies.


Kenya

The
National Assembly of Kenya National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ...
has a total of 349 seats; 205 members are elected from the
constituencies An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state Sta ...
, 47 women are elected from the
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
and 12 members are nominated representatives.


Malaysia

The
Parliament of Malaysia The Parliament of Malaysia ( ms, Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives, Literal translation, lit. "People's A ...
consists of the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Literal translation, lit. "He Who is Made Lord"), Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, Paramount Ruler or King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Mal ...
(King) and two houses, the ''
Dewan Rakyat The Dewan Rakyat (Malay language, Malay for 'House of Representatives'; ) is the lower house of the Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of Malaysia, Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by A ...

Dewan Rakyat
'' (the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...

House of Representatives
) and ''
Dewan Negara The Dewan Negara ( Malay for ''Senate'', literally ''State Assembly'') is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia The Parliament of Malaysia ( ms, Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster s ...
'' (the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

Senate
). The term "members of Parliament" only refers to members of the ''Dewan Rakyat''. In
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
, a member of Parliament is called ''Ahli Parlimen'', or less formally ''wakil rakyat'' (people's representative). Members of Parliament are elected from population-based single-seat constituencies using
first-past-the-post voting In a first-past-the-post electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are or ...
. The
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
must be a member of Parliament. Members of Parliament are styled ''Yang Berhormat'' ("Honourable") with the initials ''Y.B.'' appended prenominally. A prince who is a member of Parliament is styled ''Yang Berhormat Mulia''. The Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and
Tuns
Tuns
who are members of Parliament are styled ''Yang Amat Berhormat'' ("Most Honourable"), abbreviated Y.A.B.


Malta

The
Parliament of Malta The Parliament of Malta ( mt, Il-Parlament ta' Malta or also known as ''Il-Maħdet ta' Malta'') is the constitutional legislative body in Malta Malta (, ; in Maltese: ; Italian: ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubbl ...

Parliament of Malta
consists of the President of Malta and the House of Representatives of 69 members (article 51 of the Constitution), referred to as "members of Parliament" (article 52(1) of the Constitution). When appointed from outside the House, the Speaker is also considered a member of the Parliament. The Constitution lists the qualifications and disqualifications from serving as a member of Parliament. Privileges of members of Parliament and their Code of Ethics are laid out in the House of Representatives (Privileges and Powers) Ordinance.


Nauru

The
Parliament of Nauru The Parliament of Nauru has 19 members, elected for a three-year term in multi-seat constituency, constituencies. The President of Nauru is elected by the members of the Parliament.
Parliament of Nauru
consists of 18 seats. Members of Parliament are entitled to use the prefix ''The Honourable''.


New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is made up of the
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...
and the
unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by ...
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
. A ''member of Parliament'' is a member of the House of Representatives, which has a minimum of 120 members, elected at a general election for a three-year term. There are 72
electorate Electorate may refer to: * The people who are eligible to vote in an Election#Electorate, election, especially their number e.g. the term ''size of (the) electorate'' * The dominion of a Prince-elector in the Holy Roman Empire until 1806 * An electo ...
MPs, of which seven are elected only by Māori who have chosen to be registered on a separate Māori electoral roll. The remaining members are elected by
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
from published
party list Poster for the European Parliament election 2004 in Italy, showing party lists Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and r ...
s. Before 1951, New Zealand had an upper house, the
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
whose members were appointed. Members of the lower house, the body that still exists, have always been elected. Since 1907, elected members have been referred to as 'Member of Parliament', abbreviated MP. From the 1860s until 1907 they were designated as Member of the House of Representatives, abbreviated MHR. Between the first general election, in
1853 Events January–March * January 6 – Florida Governor Thomas Brown (Florida politician), Thomas Brown signs legislation that provides public support for the new East Florida Seminary, leading to the establishment of the University of Fl ...
, and the 1860s, the designation was Member of the General Assembly, abbreviated MGA.


Pakistan

''Member of Parliament'' refers to a member of Parliament (
National Assembly of Pakistan The National Assembly or Aiwān-e-Zairīñ of Pākistān ( ur, , , literally "Pakistan lower house") is the lower legislative house of the bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with ...
, Qaumi Assembly), based in
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or othe ...

Islamabad
.


Singapore

''Member of Parliament'' refers to elected members of the
Parliament of Singapore The Parliament of Singapore and the President of Singapore, president jointly make up the legislature of Singapore. Largely based from the Westminster system, the Parliament is unicameralism, unicameral and is made up of List of Singapore MPs, ...
, the appointed Non-Constituency members of Parliament from the opposition, as well as the Nominated members of Parliament, who may be appointed from members of the public who have no connection to any political party in Singapore.


Sri Lanka

In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
, a ''Member of Parliament'' refers to a member of the
Parliament of Sri Lanka The Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව ''Shri Lanka Parlimenthuwa'', Tamil: இலங்கை நாடாளுமன்றம் ''Ilaṅkai ...
(since 1978), the
National State Assembly The National State Assembly (NSA) was the legislative body of Sri Lanka established in May 1972 under the Sri Lankan Constitution of 1972, First Republican Constitution. The assembly was introduced by Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, Prime Minister Sir ...
(1972–78) and the
House of Representatives of Ceylon The House of Representatives was the lower chamber of the Parliament of Ceylon, parliament of Dominion of Ceylon, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) established in 1947 by the Soulbury Constitution. The House was housed in the old State Council of Ceylon, Stat ...
(1947–72), the lower house of the
Parliament of Ceylon The Parliament of Ceylon was the legislative body of British Ceylon Ceylon ( Sinhala: බ්‍රිතාන්‍ය ලංකාව, ''Brithānya Laṃkāva''; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, ''Birithaniya Ilang ...
. Members are elected in a
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
or appointed from the national lists allocated to
parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an ...
(and
independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area of the United States during the early 1930s * Independent ...
groups) in proportion to their share of the national vote at a general election. A candidate to become an MP must be a Sri Lankan citizen and can be a holder of dual-citizenship in any other country, be at least 18 years of age, and not be a public official or officeholder.


Trinidad and Tobago

The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. The Parliament is bicameral. It consists of the elected House of Representatives, which has 41 members elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies, and the Senate which has 31 members appointed by the President: 16 Government Senators appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister, 6 Opposition Senators appointed on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition and 9 Independent Senators appointed by the President to represent other sectors of civil society.


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom elects members of its parliament: * the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
, with 650 members elected by the
first-past-the-post In a first-past-the-post electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are org ...
system to the (lower)
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporat ...

House of Commons
, referred to as Members of Parliament, abbreviated to ''MP'' and four devolved legislatures: * the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; Scots language, Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyro ...

Scottish Parliament
, with 129 members elected under the
additional member system The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation Mixed-member proportional representation (MMP or MMPR) is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the legislator, rep ...
every five years, and each called
Member of the Scottish Parliament Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP; gd, Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba, BPA; sco, Memmer o the Scots Pairliament, MSP) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. Electoral system The addit ...
(''MSP''; gd, Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba, BPA; sco, Memmer o the Scots Pairliament, MSP) * the
Northern Ireland Assembly The Northern Ireland Assembly ( ga, Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots: ''Norlin Airlan Assemblie'') often referred to by the metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase ...
, with 90 members each known as
Member of the Legislative Assembly A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to a legislative assembly. Most often, the term refers to a subnational assembly such as that of a state, province, or territory of a country. St ...
(''MLA''; ga, Comhalta den Tionól Reachtach, CTR;
Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Ulstèr-Scotch'', ga, Albanaigh na hUladh), also called Ulster Scots ...
: ''Laa-Makkan Forgaitherar'', LMF). (Between 1921 and 1973, Northern Ireland was governed by the bicameral
Parliament of Northern Ireland The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature of Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label= Ulster-Scots, Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of ...
. Members of its lower house, the
House of Commons of Northern Ireland The House of Commons of Northern Ireland was the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
, were known as ''Member of Parliament''.) * the Senedd (Welsh Parliament), with 60 elected members called ''
Member of the Senedd , insignia = , insigniasize = , insigniacaption = , insigniaalt = , flag = , flagsize = , flagalt = , flagborder = , flagcaption = , image = , imagesize = , alt = , imagecaption = , incumbent = Members of the 6th Sened ...
'' (''English - MS'') ; cy, Aelod o'r Senedd, AS) * the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
, with 25 members elected under the additional member system every four years, called ''Members of the London Assembly'' (''AM'') MPs are elected in
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
and by-elections to represent
constituencies An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state Sta ...
, and may remain MPs until Parliament is dissolved, which occurs around five years after the last general election, as laid down in the
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) (FTPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make ...
. A candidate to become an MP must be a British or Irish or Commonwealth citizen, be at least 18 years of age (reduced from 21 in 2006), and not be a public official or officeholder, as set out in the schedule to the Electoral Administration Act 2006. Technically, MPs have no right to
resign Resignation is the formal act of leaving or quitting one's office or position. A resignation can occur when a person holding a position gained by election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses ...
their seats (though they may refuse to seek re-election). However a
legal fiction A legal fiction is a fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In everyday language, truth i ...
allows voluntary resignation between elections; as MPs are forbidden from holding an "
office of profit An office of profit means a position that brings to the person holding it some financial gain, or advantage, or benefit. It may be an office or place of profit if it carries some remuneration, financial advantage, benefit etc. It’s a term used i ...
under the Crown", an MP wishing to resign will apply for the
Stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds The Chiltern Hundreds is an ancient administrative area in Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England that borders Greater London to the south-east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire ...
or the Stewardship of the Manor of Northstead which are nominally, such paid offices and thus result in the MP vacating their seat. (Accepting a salaried Ministerial office does not amount to a paid office under the Crown for these purposes.) The House of Lords is a legislative chamber that is part of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Although they are part of the parliament, its members are referred to as peerage, peers, more formally as ''Lords of Parliament'', not MPs. Lords Temporal sit for life, Lords Spiritual while they occupy their ecclesiastical positions. Hereditary peers may no longer pass on a seat in the House of Lords to their heir automatically. The 92 who remain have been elected from among their own number, following the House of Lords Act 1999 and are the only elected members of the Lords.


Zimbabwe

"Members of Parliament" are members of the House of Assembly of Zimbabwe. Members of the upper house of Parliament are referred to as Senators.


Other systems

''Member of Parliament'' can be the term (often a translation) for representatives in parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system and who are usually referred to in a different fashion, such as ''Deputé'' in France, ''Deputato'' in Italy, ''Deputat'' in Bulgaria, ''Parlamentario'' o ''Diputado'' in Spain and Spanish speaking Latin America, ''Deputado'' in Portugal and Brazil, ''Mitglied des Bundestages (MdB)'' in Germany. However, better translations are often possible.


Afghanistan

Prior to the takeover of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in August 2021, a ''Member of Parliament (MP)'' was a member of the Lower House of the bicameral Parliament National Assembly of Afghanistan: a member of the Wolesi Jirga (House of People) held one of the in total 250 seats in the Lower House. The 102 members of the Upper House Meshrano Jirga (House of Elders) were called Senators.


Austria

A ''member of Parliament'' is a member of either of the two chambers of the Parliament of Austria (''Österreichisches Parlament''). The members of the National Council of Austria, Nationalrat are called ''Abgeordnete zum Nationalrat''. The members of the Federal Council of Austria, Bundesrat, elected by the provincial diets (''Landtage'') of the nine federal States of Austria, are known as ''Mitglieder des Bundesrats''.


Azerbaijan


Bulgaria

In Bulgaria there are 240 members of Parliament ( bg, Народно събрание / Парламент; transliteration Narodno sabranie / Parlament), which are called 'Deputati' (singular Deputat). Moreover, there are 240 MPs in the normal parliament and 400 in the "Great Parliament". The Great Parliament is elected when a new constitution is needed. There have been seven Great Parliaments in modern Bulgarian history, in 1879, 1881, 1886, 1893, 1911, 1946 and 1990. MPs in Bulgaria are called депутати – ''deputies''.


Cambodia

The ''member of Parliament'' ( km, សមាជិកសភា) refers to the elected members of the National Assembly (Cambodia), National Assembly. There are 123 members of Parliament in total. They are also alternatively called ''member of the National Assembly''. Parliamentary elections are traditionally held every five years with no term limits imposed. The 25 provinces of Cambodia are represented by the members of Parliament in the National Assembly. A constituency may have more than one MP, depending on the population.


Czech Republic

A ''member of Parliament'' is a member of either of the two chambers of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, although the term ''Member of Parliament of the Czech Republic'' is commonly referred to Deputy of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech language, Czech: ''Poslanec Parlamentu České republiky'') who is member of the lower house of the Parliament, Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic, Chamber of Deputies. For the upper house, Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, Senate, the term Senator is used.


Denmark

In Denmark, a Member of the Folketing, member of Folketinget ( da, medlem af Folketinget) is one of the 179 members of Folketinget. The title is almost always shortened to the initialism "MF".


France

In France, ''Member of Parliament'' refers to the elected members of the National Assembly (France), National Assembly.


Germany

''Member of Parliament'' refers to the elected members of the federal Bundestag Parliament at the Reichstag building in Berlin. In German a member is called ' (Member of the Federal Diet (assembly), Diet) or officially ' (Member of the German Federal Diet), abbreviated MdB and attached . Unofficially the term ''Abgeordneter'' (literally: "delegate", i.e. of a certain electorate) is also common (abbreviated ''Abg.'', never follows the name but precedes it). In accordance with article 38 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, which is the German constitution, "[m]embers of the German Bundestag shall be elected in general, direct, free, equal, and secret elections. They shall be representatives of the whole people, not bound by orders or instructions, and responsible only to their conscience." An important though not constitutionally required feature of German parliamentarianism is a slightly modified proportional representation. The 16 federal States of Germany (''Länder'') are represented by the Bundesrat of Germany, Bundesrat at the former Prussian House of Lords, whose members are representatives of the respective ''Länder's'' governments and not directly elected by the people.


Greece

The Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων), is the supreme democratic institution in Greece, that represents all citizens through an elected body of Members of Parliament. It is a
unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a legislature which co ...
legislature of 300 members, elected for a four-year term.


Iceland


Israel

A ''Member of the Knesset'' ( he, חבר הכנסת) is one of the 120 members of the Knesset. The title is usually shortened to the initialism "MK".


Italy

In the Republican Parliament the current term is '':it:Deputato, Deputato'' (that is ''deputy'' as appointed to act on people's behalf) and so the Lower House takes the name of '':it:Camera dei Deputati, Camera dei Deputati''. Similarly to other countries, the Upper House is called '':it:Senato della Repubblica, Senato'' and its members are the ''Senatori''. In the Republic of Italy there are 315 members of Senate and 630 members of the Camera dei Deputati. Both of them are elected by general elections every five years. The President of the Italian Republic can nominate for life five members of the Upper House. All former Presidents of the Republic are members of the Upper House for life. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately.


Japan

In Japan, both houses of today's national parliament, the National Diet ''(Kokkai)'', are directly elected, and although the two chambers differ in legislative and political authority, term length and age restriction of eligibility, the members of both houses are generally equal in personal status (financial compensation, immunity, etc.). There are currently 710 members of the National Diet (''Kokkai giin'', 国会議員): 465 House of Representatives (Japan), Members of the House of Representatives (''Shūgiin giin'', 衆議院議員) and 245 House of Councillors (Japan), Members of the House of Councillors (''Sangiin giin'', 参議院議員). The former are elected in Elections in Japan, general/by-/repeat elections of members of the House of Representatives ''(Shūgiin giin sō-/hoketsu-/sai-senkyo)'', the latter in Elections in Japan, regular/by-/repeat elections of members of the House of Councillors ''(Sangiin giin tsūjō-/hoketsu-/sai-senkyo)''. Under the postwar constitution, the Prime Minister of Japan, prime minister is elected by the National Diet and must be a member of the National Diet, as must the majority of other ministers; by practice, all prime ministers since 1947 have been members of the House of Representatives so far. Under the constitution of the Empire of Japan, the National Diet#History, Imperial Diet (''Teikoku-gikai'') was a bicameral legislature of two houses, generally equal in legislative authority, and while the members of both houses received the same financial compensation — from 1920 and 1947, Japanese yen, ¥7500 for the two presidents, ¥4500 for the two vice-presidents, ¥3000 for all other members of both houses, except Imperial princes, dukes and marquesses — their status was different by definition: The upper house consisted mainly of hereditary nobles and lifetime-appointed peers, the lower house of elected commoners. In the First Imperial Diet in 1890, there were initially 551 members of the Imperial Diet (''Teikoku-gikai giin'', 帝国議会議員, or in Kyūjitai, contemporaneous script 帝國議會議員): 251 House of Peers (Japan), members of the House of Peers (''Kizokuin giin'', 貴族院議員) and 300 members of the House of Representatives ''(Shūgiin giin)''; of the House of Peers members, 10 were members of the Imperial family, 31 were hereditary members from the two upper Kazoku, nobility ranks, 104 were members elected in mutual elections from the three lower nobility ranks, 61 were lifetime-appointed members (many of these from the bureaucracy) and 45 were members elected by the 15 top taxpayers in each of the 45 prefectures. The number of noble and appointed members of the House of Peers was not fixed and varied gradually over time as members died or new peerages were granted; the number of elected top taxpayer seats, Imperial Academy seats (introduced in 1925), members appointed from the colonies Chōsen/Korea and Taiwan/Formosa (introduced in 1945), and the size of the House of Representatives was fixed by law, but was also changed several times over the decades. The last, 92nd Imperial Diet of 1946–1947 had 839 members — 466 members of the House of Representatives and 373 members of the House of Peers. As the regulations establishing the Cabinet of Japan, cabinet ''(naikaku)'' and the cabinet's prime minister ''(naikaku sōri-daijin)'' were decreed before the Imperial constitution, the prime minister did not have to be a member of the Imperial Diet, but after the establishment of the Imperial Diet in 1890, many prime ministers were appointed from the House of Peers; very few were members of the House of Representatives, ''viz.'' Hara Takashi, Takashi Hara, Osachi Hamaguchi, and Inukai Tsuyoshi, Tsuyoshi Inukai.


Lebanon

The Parliament of Lebanon is the Lebanese national legislature. It is elected to a four-year term by universal adult suffrage in multi-member constituencies, apportioned among Lebanon's diverse Christian and Muslim denominations. Its major functions are to elect the List of Presidents of Lebanon, President of the Republic, to approve the government (although appointed by the President, the Prime Minister, along with the Cabinet, must retain the confidence of a majority in the Parliament), and to approve laws and expenditure. The name of a deputy in Arabic is Naeb (نائب). The plural of Naeb is Nuwab (نواب).


Netherlands

The Parliament of the Netherlands is known as the ''Staten-Generaal'', States General of the Netherlands, States General. It is bicameral, divided in two ''Kamers'' (English: Chambers). The Senate (Netherlands), Senate is known in Dutch as the ''Eerste Kamer'' (First Chamber) and its members as ''senatoren'', Senators. The House of Representatives (Netherlands), House of Representatives, known in Dutch as the ''Tweede Kamer'' (Second Chamber), is the most important one. The important debates take place here. Also, the Second Chamber can edit proposed laws with amendments and it can propose laws itself. The Senate does not have these capabilities. Its function is a more technical reviewing of laws. It can only pass a law or reject it. Both chambers are in The Hague which is the seat of parliament but not the official capital of the Netherlands, which is Amsterdam. The 150 members of the House of Representatives are elected by general elections every 4 years (or earlier if the government falls). The 75 members of the Senate are elected indirectly. The members of the 12 provincial Parliaments and the councils of the three Caribbean ''Caribbean Netherlands, special municipalities'' elect the senators. The value of a vote of a member of a provincial Parliament is weighted by the population of the province. Provincial Parliaments, the States-Provincial, are elected by general elections every four years; a new Senate is elected three months after the provincial elections.


North Macedonia

In the Republic of North Macedonia there are 120 members of parliament ( mk, Sobranie) which are called 'Pratenici' (singular Pratenik).


Norway

A member of Parliament is an elected member of the ''Stortinget''. They are called ''stortingsrepresentanter'' (literal translation: ''Representatives of the Storting''). Since 2009, Norway has had a unicameral Parliament, which previously consisted of ''Odelstinget'' and ''Lagtinget'', Odelstinget with three-quarters, or 127, of the total 169 members, Lagtinget with the remainder. The dividing of the Parliament into chambers was only used when dealing with passing regular laws and in cases of prosecution by the national court (''riksrett''). In other matters, such as passing the national budget or changing the constitution (the latter requiring a majority of two-thirds), the chambers were united. The members of the unicameral Parliament of Norway are chosen by popular vote for a parliamentary period of four years.


Philippines

From 1978 to 1984, the Philippine Parliament was called the ''Batasang Pambansa'' (National Assembly), and its elected members were called ''Mambabatas Pambansa'' (National Assemblyman), often shortened to "MP".


Poland


Portugal

The Portuguese parliament is called ''Assembleia da República''. A member of Parliament is known as a ''deputado'', that is, a person who is appointed through democratic election to act on the people's behalf.


Spain

The word ''parlamento'' -of the same origin as Parliament in English- is used as a common name for all legislative assemblies, and hence ' for the member of any of them, which can usually refer to members of: * both chambers of the national legislature (Cortes Generales), the Congress of Deputies (Spain), Congress of Deputies and the Senate of Spain, Senate. * the regional devolved legislatures of the Autonomous Communities. * the European Parliament. Members of the Congress of Deputies are called ''diputados'' (deputies), implying that they are elected to act in the name and on behalf of the people they represent. It is also usual to call members of the European Parliament ''eurodiputados''. Members of the Senate are called ''senadores'' (senators).


South Africa

The Parliament of South Africa consists of two houses, the National Assembly of South Africa (lower house) and the National Council of Provinces (upper house). Members of both houses are given the title of ''Member of Parliament''.What Parliament Does – Parliament of South Africa
/ref> The National Assembly is made up of 400 members, who are all elected by the public in general elections using a
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
system with closed lists. The National Council of Provinces is composed of 90 delegates with 10 delegates for each of the nine provinces regardless of the population of the province. A provincial delegation consists of six permanent delegates and four special delegates. NCOP delegates are elected by the nine provincial legislatures on the day when they reconvene, usually the same day as the National Assembly. The delegates are sworn in the next day.


South Korea

The Title Member of Parliament(MP) refers to the Members of National Assembly (South Korea), Parliament of South Korea. 253 MPs are elected by First-past-the-post voting, First-past-the-post System from Electoral district, Parliamentary Constituencies, 30 MPs are elected by Mixed-member proportional representation, Proportional Compensation, 17 MPs are elected by Parallel voting, Mixed Member Majoritarian. In Second Republic of Korea or if Constitution of South Korea is amended as Parliamentary system with Bicameralism, only the Members of House of Commons (South Korea), House of Commons of South Korea are called Member of Parliament(MP). Whilst the Member of Senate (South Korea), Senate of South Korea is called Senator. The Members of Administrative divisions of South Korea, Provincial Legislature are called
Member of the Legislative Assembly A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to a legislative assembly. Most often, the term refers to a subnational assembly such as that of a state, province, or territory of a country. St ...
also called MLA. Some Provinces call Councillor and Member of Provincial Parliament.


Sweden

''Members of Parliament'' refers to the elected List of members of the Swedish Riksdag, members of the Riksdag. In Swedish, an MP is usually referred to as a ''riksdagsledamot'' (''member of the Riksdag'') or a ''riksdagsman'' (''Gentleman of the Riksdag''). The former is in more common use today, especially in official contexts, due to its status as a unisex word, while the latter was used more often historically and literally refers to a male MP exclusively. The parliament is a unicameral assembly with 349 members who are chosen every four years in Elections in Sweden, general elections. To become an MP, a person must be entitled to vote (i.e. be a Swedish Citizenship, citizen, be at least 18 years old and be or have been resident in Sweden) and must be nominated by a List of political parties in Sweden, political party. The MPs are elected by proportionality in constituencies across the nation. To decide which candidate will be elected the Sainte-Laguë method, modified Sainte-Laguë method is used. This method usually but not always gives an accurate result in proportion to cast votes. In the 2014 Swedish general election, 2014 general election the centre-right coalition government got one less MP than the overall opposition, despite more votes in total. To get a more proportional result 39 MPs are elected at compensation mandate (''Utjämningsmandat'') and those MPs, therefore, do not represent their own constituency. The salaries of the MPs are decided by the Riksdag Pay Committee (''Riksdagens arvodesnämnd''), a Government agencies in Sweden, government agency under the Riksdag. Since 1 November 2007, the basic monthly pay of an MP is Swedish krona, SEK52,900 (ca. US$6,500). The pay of the Speaker of the parliament of Sweden, Speaker is SEK126,000 a month (ca. US$15,000), which is the same as that of the Prime Minister of Sweden, Prime Minister. The Deputy Speakers receive an increment of 30% of the pay of a member. The chairs and deputy chairs of the parliamentary committees receive a similar increment of 20% and 15% respectively. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Swedish national parliamentarians have an average workweek of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports that the average Swedish national parliamentarian sleeps 6.5 hours per night.


Switzerland


Thailand

In the Thailand, Kingdom of Thailand, ''members of Parliament'' ( th, สมาชิกรัฐสภา; ) refer to the members of the National Assembly of Thailand, that is, the House of Representatives (Thailand), Members of the House of Representatives and the Senate of Thailand, Senators. Following the 2006 Thai coup d'état, military coup d'état on 19 September 2006, all members of the Assembly were suspended from duty until the next election. The Assembly was fully reconvened after the 2007 Thai general election, general elections under a slightly amended new Constitution of Thailand, constitution. Under the 2007 Constitution of Thailand, 2007 Constitution there are 650 members of Parliament, consisting of 500 members in the House of Representatives, of which 375 elected from constituencies and the other 125 by party-list, and 150 Senators.


Turkey

In the Republic of Turkey, a member of Parliament is an elected member of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey ( tr, Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi, TBMM), which has 600 members elected at a general election for a term of office of five years.


Ukraine

People's Deputy of Ukraine (''Ukrainian language, Ukrainian'': народний депутат України, narodnyi deputat Ukrayiny) is a member of Parliament, legislator elected by a Direct election, popular vote to the Verkhovna Rada (the unicameral parliament of Ukraine). Often People's Deputies of Ukraine are referred to simply as deputies. The main statutes that define the order of elections, rights and duties of the People's Deputies of Ukraine are outlined in Articles 76 – 81 of the Constitution of Ukraine. There are 450 people's deputies of Ukraine who are elected based on the general, equal and direct electoral right for 5 years. The deputies may be appointed to various parliamentary positions such as the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, chairperson (speaker) of Parliament, a head of a committee or a parliamentary faction, etc. Upon its appointment, to the office, each people's deputy of Ukraine receives a ''deputy mandate''. People's Deputies that ran for the parliament as self-nominated candidates can join factions if they wish.Yanukovych signs law on open voting to elect parliamentary chairman
Kyiv Post (19 November 2012)


See also

* Deputy (legislator) *
Member of Congress A Member of Congress (MOC) is a person who has been appointed or elected and inducted into an official body called a congress, typically to represent a particular constituency in a legislature. Member of Parliament (MP) is an equivalent term in ...
* Australia and New Zealand Association of Clerks-at-the-Table, an association with the aim of advancing the professional development of parliamentarians.


References

{{Authority control Legislators Parliamentary titles