A mature technology is a technology that has been in use for long enough that most of its initial fault
s and inherent problems have been removed or reduced by further development. In some contexts, it may also refer to technology that has not seen widespread use, but whose scientific background is well understood. Its performance characteristics are also expected to be well understood with well-established design specifications.
One of the key indicators of a mature technology is the ease of use
for both non-
An expert is somebody who has a broad and deep understanding and competence in terms of knowledge, skill and experience through practice and education in a particular field. Informally, an expert is someone widely recognized as a reliable s ...
s and professionals. Another indicator is a reduction in the rate of new breakthrough advances related to it—whereas
An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition, idea or process. An invention may be an improvement upon a machine, product, or process for increasing efficiency or lowering cost. It may also be an entirely new concept. If an i ...
s related to a (popular) immature technology are usually rapid and diverse, and may change the whole use
In science and philosophy, a paradigm () is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitute legitimate contributions to a field.
''Paradigm'' comes f ...
—advances to a mature technology are usually
Increment or incremental may refer to:
* Incrementalism, a theory (also used in politics as a synonym for gradualism)
* Increment and decrement operators, the operators ++ and -- in computer programming
* Incremental computing
*Incremental backup, ...
The QWERTY keyboard
design is an example of mature technology because its performance characteristics such as typing speeds and error rates have been established in various describable situations.
Additionally, the basic key organization of this technology has remained the same over the last century.
Another example is the
A barcode or bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths, spacings and sizes of parallel lines. These barcodes, now commonly referred to as linear or o ...
, a technology that also satisfies all the previously cited indicators. It is widely used since when it was first introduced it was an open technology made available in the public domain where anyone had access.
Other mature technologies include the following:
Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people t ...
, most advances are in slight improvements of breeds or in pest reduction.
A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be easily heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into el ...
, though considered mature,
A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, hand phone or pocket phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell, or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive telephone call, calls over a radio freq ...
showed a rare potential for substantial changes even in such technologies.
A watch is a portable timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep a consistent movement despite the motions caused by the person's activities. A wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, attached b ...
, most ordinary watch movements have the same or very similar components. Most advances are with the aesthetic looks or sub-dials on the watch face.
A bicycle, also called a pedal cycle, bike or cycle, is a human-powered or motor-powered assisted, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A is called a cyclist, or bicyclist.
, a mature form of transport in that it is easy to learn, simple, affordable, and improves a person's ability to travel without inhibiting others' ability to do so
Technologies not yet fully mature
A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled land vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails (such as trains or trams) and is used for the transportation of people or cargo.
The ve ...
, widely used by non-experts, but require significant infrastructure and sacrifices to public space.
The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consists ...
, with still partly conflicting technological and human standards.
A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These prog ...
, becoming more mature due to advances in user-friendly
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also in ...
and the decline of
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit (IC) doubles about every two years. Moore's law is an observation and projection of a historical trend. Rather than a law of physics, it is an empir ...
In economics, a model is a theoretical construct representing economic processes by a set of variables and a set of logical and/or quantitative relationships between them. The economic model is a simplified, often mathematical, framework de ...
, still shows high
Failure rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. It is usually denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is often used in reliability engineering.
The failure rate of a ...
s in economic prediction.
A distributed ledger (also called a shared ledger or distributed ledger technology or DLT) is the consensus of replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data that is geographically spread (distributed) across many sites, countries, or institutio ...
technology is currently used in a limited number of applications mainly being
A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger technology (DLT) that consists of growing lists of records, called ''blocks'', that are securely linked together using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, ...
s, though ongoing research and potential use cases are currently being explored.
Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for industrial purposes. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal o ...
, actual industrial applications limited so far.
Biotechnology is the integration of natural sciences and engineering sciences in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues for products and services. The term ''biotechnology'' was first used b ...
, which still does not solve most health and ecologic human challenges.
* Quantum computer
s, so far mostly a theoretical concept.
* Nuclear fusion power
, mainly theoretical due to the containment energy expenditure thus far outweighs yielded energy in practice.
Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that employs pose tracking and 3D near-eye displays to give the user an immersive feel of a virtual world. Applications of virtual reality include entertainment (particularly video games), e ...
, whilst practical systems exist, the potential roadmap is estimated to require a lifetime of advances in many fields.
Business cycles are intervals of expansion followed by recession in economic activity. These changes have implications for the welfare of the broad population as well as for private institutions. Typically business cycles are measured by examin ...
* Technology lifecycle
Technology readiness level
Technology readiness levels (TRLs) are a method for estimating the maturity of technologies during the acquisition phase of a program. TRLs enable consistent and uniform discussions of technical maturity across different types of technology. TR ...