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The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations.


Magister Equitum (Ancient Rome)

The original Master of the Horse (Latin ''Magister Equitum'') in the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
was an office appointed and dismissed by the
Roman Dictator A dictator was a magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In , a ' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both an ...
, as it expired with the Dictator's own office, typically a term of six months in the early and mid-republic. The Magister Equitum served as the Dictator's main
lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...

lieutenant
. The nomination of the Magister Equitum was left to the choice of the Dictator, unless a ''
senatus consultum A ''senatus consultum'' (Latin – decree of the senate; plural ''senatus consulta'') is a text emanating from the senate in Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) ...
'' specified, as was sometimes the case, the name of the person who was to be appointed. The Dictator could not be without a Magister Equitum to assist him, and, consequently, if the first Magister Equitum either died or was dismissed during the Dictator's term, another had to be nominated in his stead. The Magister Equitum was granted a form of ''
imperium In ancient Rome, ''imperium'' was a form of authority held by a Roman citizenship, citizen to control a military or governmental entity. It is distinct from ''auctoritas'' and ''potestas'', different and generally inferior types of power in t ...

imperium
'', but at the same level as a
praetor Praetor ( , ), also pretor, was the granted by the government of to a man acting in one of two official capacities: (i) the commander of an , and (ii) as an elected ' (magistrate), assigned to discharge various duties. The functions of the magi ...
, and thus was subject to the ''imperium'' of the Dictator and was not superior to that of a
Consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
. In the Dictator's absence, the Magister Equitum became his representative, and exercised the same powers as the Dictator. It was usually but not always necessary for the man nominated as Magister Equitum to have already held the office of Praetor. Accordingly, the Magister Equitum had the insignia of a praetor: the
toga praetexta The toga (, ), a distinctive garment of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest histori ...
and an escort of six
lictors A lictor (possibly from la, ligare, "to bind") was a Ancient Rome, Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard to a Roman magistrate, magistrate who held ''imperium''. Lictors are documented since the Roman Kingdom, and may have origi ...
. The most famous Master of the Horse is
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
, who served during
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
's first dictatorship. After the constitutional reforms of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
, the office of Dictator fell into disuse, along with that of the Magister Equitum. The title ''magister equitum'' was revived in the late Empire, when
Constantine I Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). Th ...

Constantine I
established it as one of the supreme military ranks, alongside the
Magister Peditum (Latin for "master of soldiers", plural ) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great. The term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, ...
("Master of the Foot"). Eventually, the two offices would be amalgamated into that of the
Magister Militum (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...
("Master of the Soldiers"). The title
Constable A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal Police, law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police. O ...

Constable
, from the Latin ''
comes stabuli ''Comes'' ( ), plural ''comites'' ( ), is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "'' comitatus''", especially the suite of a magnate, being in some instances sufficiently large and/or form ...
'' or count of the stables, has a similar history.


Master of the Horse (United Kingdom)

The Master of the Horse in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
was once an important official of the
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'', meaning "above". The roles of a sovereign v ...
's household, though the role is largely ceremonial today. The master of the horse is the third dignitary of the court, and was always a member of the ministry (before 1782 the office was of
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
rank), a
peer Peer may refer to: Sociology * Peer, an equal in age, education or social class; see Peer group * Peer, a member of the peerage Computing * Peer, one of several functional units in the same layer of a network; See Peer group (computer networking) ...
and a
privy council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's per ...
lor. All matters connected with the
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
s and formerly also the
hound A hound is a type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display con ...

hound
s of the sovereign, as well as the
stable A stable is a building in which livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and c ...
s and
coachhouse A carriage house, also called a remise or coach house, is an outbuilding which was originally built to house horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in ...
s, the
stud Stud may refer to: Animals * Stud (animal) A stud animal is a registered animal retained for breeding. The terms for the male of a given animal species (stallion A stallion is a male that has not been (). Stallions follow the and of th ...
,
mews Mews is a British English, British name for a row or courtyard of stables and carriage houses with living quarters above them, built behind large city houses before motor vehicles replaced horses in the early twentieth century. Mews are usually ...
and previously the
kennel A kennel is a structure or shelter for dogs or cats. Used in the plural, ''the kennels'', the term means any building, collection of buildings or a property in which dogs or cats are housed, maintained, and (though not in all cases) bred. A ken ...
s, are within his jurisdiction. The practical management of the Royal Stables and stud devolves on the chief or
Crown Equerry The Crown Equerry is the operational head of the Royal Mews The Royal Mews is a mews Mews is a British name for a row or courtyard of stables and carriage houses with living quarters above them, built behind large city houses before moto ...
, formerly called the Gentleman of the Horse, whose appointment was always permanent. The
Clerk Marshal The Clerk Marshal (also spelled Clerk Martial) was an official of the British Royal Household The Royal Households of the United Kingdom are the collective departments that support members of the British Royal Family The British royal fam ...
had the supervision of the accounts of the department before they are submitted to the
Board of Green Cloth The Board of Green Cloth was a board of officials belonging to the Royal Household of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotla ...
, and was in waiting on the
Sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'', meaning "above". The roles of a sovereign v ...

Sovereign
on state occasions only. Exclusive of the
Crown Equerry The Crown Equerry is the operational head of the Royal Mews The Royal Mews is a mews Mews is a British name for a row or courtyard of stables and carriage houses with living quarters above them, built behind large city houses before moto ...
there were seven regular equerries, besides extra and honorary equerries, one of whom was always in attendance on the Sovereign and rode at the side of the royal carriage. They were always officers of the
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch Military branch ...

army
, and each of them was on duty for about the same time as the lords and grooms in waiting. There are still several
pages of honour A Page of Honour is a ceremonial position in the Royal Household of the Monarch, Sovereign of the United Kingdom. It requires attendance on state occasions, but does not now involve the daily duties which were once attached to the office of page. ...
who are nominally in the master of the horse's department, who must not be confounded with the
page Page most commonly refers to: * Page (paper) A page is one side of a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the , usually borne above ground and specialized for . The leaves, stem, flower and fruit togethe ...
s of various kinds who are in the department of the
Lord Chamberlain The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom The Royal Households of the United Kingdom are the collective departments that support members of the British ...
. They are youths aged from twelve to sixteen, selected by the sovereign in person, to attend on him at state ceremonies. At the Coronation they assisted the groom of the stole in carrying the royal train. The current Master of the Horse is Lord de Mauley. Today the Master of the Horse has a primarily ceremonial office, and rarely appears except on state occasions, and especially when the Sovereign is mounted. The
Crown Equerry The Crown Equerry is the operational head of the Royal Mews The Royal Mews is a mews Mews is a British name for a row or courtyard of stables and carriage houses with living quarters above them, built behind large city houses before moto ...
has daily oversight of the
Royal Mews The Royal Mews is a mews Mews is a British name for a row or courtyard of stables and carriage houses with living quarters above them, built behind large city houses before motor vehicles replaced horses in the early twentieth century. Me ...
, which provides vehicular transport for the Sovereign, both cars and horse-drawn carriages. Train travel is arranged by the Royal Travel Office, which also co-ordinates air transport. The Pages of Honour, who appear only on ceremonial occasions, and the Equerries, were nominally under the authority of the Master of the Horse. The former are now controlled by the
Keeper of the Privy Purse The Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the King/Queen (or Financial Secretary to the King/Queen) is responsible for the financial management of the Royal Household of the Sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest ...
. The latter are effectively independent, and are functionally closer to the Private Secretary's Office. There are now three equerries to the Sovereign, and a larger number of extra equerries - usually retired officers with some connection to the Royal Household. The extra equerries are rarely if ever required for duty, but the Equerries are in attendance on the Sovereign on a daily basis. For some years the senior
Equerry An equerry (; from French ' stable', and related to ' squire') is an officer of honour. Historically, it was a senior attendant with responsibilities for the horses of a person of rank. In contemporary use, it is a personal attendant, usually upo ...
has also held the position of Deputy Master of the Household. The permanent equerry is an officer of
major Major is a military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchical A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are repre ...

major
rank or equivalent, recruited from the three armed services in turn. Many previous equerries have gone on to reach high rank. The temporary equerry is a
Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
of the
Coldstream Guards The Coldstream Guards is the oldest continuously serving regular regiment A regiment is a military unit Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed force A military, also known collectivel ...
, who provides part-time attendance. When not required for duty he has additional regimental or staff duties. Senior members of the
Royal Family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City New York City (NYC), often simp ...
also have one or two equerries.


Grand Squire of France

In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, the master of the horse, known as the
Grand Squire of France The Grand Écuyer de France or Grand Squire of France or Grand Equerry of France was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France {{More citations needed, date=May 2007 The Great Officers of the Crown of France (French: ''Grands officiers de ...
(Grand Écuyer, or more usually Monsieur le grand) was one of the seven
Great Officers of the Crown of France The Great Officers of the Crown of France (french: Grands officiers de la couronne de France) were the most important officers of state in the French royal court during the ''Ancien Régime'' and Bourbon Restoration in France, Bourbon Restoratio ...
from 1595. As well as the superintendence of the royal stables, he had that of the retinue of the
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'', meaning "above". The roles of a sovereign v ...
, also the charge of the funds set aside for the religious functions of the court,
coronation A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the stand ...

coronation
s, etc. On the death of a sovereign he had the right to all the horses and their equipment in the royal stables. He oversaw personally the "Great Stable" ("grande écurie"). Distinct from this officer and independent of him, was the first equerry (''Premier Ecuyer''), who had charge of the horses which the sovereign used personally (''La petite écurie''), and who attended on him when he rode out. The office of master of the horse existed down to the reign of
Louis XVI Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; ; 23 August 175421 January 1793) was the last King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the West Francia, Kingdom of the West Franks in 843 until the fall of the Second ...

Louis XVI
. Under
Louis XVIII Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as the Desired (), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de Franc ...

Louis XVIII
and
Charles X Charles X (born Charles Philippe, Count of Artois; 9 October 1757 – 6November 1836) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, R ...

Charles X
the duties were discharged by the first equerry, but under
Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led Napoleon Bonaparte's battle record, several successful campaigns during the French Rev ...
and
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
the office was revived with much of its old importance.


Oberststallmeister (Germany)

In
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
the master of the horse (Oberststallmeister) was a high court dignitary; but his office was merely titular, the superintendence of the Emperor's stables having been carried out by the ''Oberstallmeister'', an official corresponding to the crown equerry in England.


Caballerizo mayor (Spain)

The
Caballerizo mayor The Caballerizo major (Great Equerry) was the Officer of the Royal Household and Heritage of the Crown of Spain in charge of the trips, the mews and the hunt of the King of Spain. Regime during the 16th to 18th centuries The Office of “Caballer ...
was the Officer of the
Royal Household and Heritage of the Crown of Spain The Royal Household and Heritage of the Crown of Spain was the institution that governed the organization of the Royal Spanish Court from the time of the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus ...
in charge of the trips, the
mews Mews is a British English, British name for a row or courtyard of stables and carriage houses with living quarters above them, built behind large city houses before motor vehicles replaced horses in the early twentieth century. Mews are usually ...
and the hunt of the King of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. The Office of "Caballerizo mayor" was one of the main Offices of the Royal Household in charge of the Royal Stables and everything related to the transportation of the Monarch. When the King sorted out from the Royal Palace, the Caballerizo had the main position behind him and the major rang over the other Court Officials. He managed as well the stables, the carriages and the horses. He was assisted by the "Primeros Caballerizos" (First Equerries) who were nominated by him. He was in charge of the Royal hunt as "Montero mayor" (Great Hunter) holding, in many cases, the "Alcaldías" (Majorships) of the
Spanish royal sites The Royal Sites ( es, Reales Sitios) are a set of palaces, monastery, monasteries, and convents built for and under the patronage of the Spanish monarchy. They are administered by Patrimonio Nacional ''(National Heritage)'', a Spanish state agenc ...
.


Papal Master of the Horse

The Master of the Horse, Cavallerizzo Maggiore, or Hereditary Superintendent of the Stables of the Palaces, was a hereditary position held by the Marquess Serlupi Crescenzi. The office was a Participating Privy Chamberlain of the Sword and Cape, in the
papal household The papal household or pontifical household (usually not capitalized in the media and other nonofficial use, ), called until 1968 the Papal Court (''Aula Pontificia''), consists of dignitaries who assist the pope in carrying out particular ceremonie ...
. It was abolished in the reforms of the
Papal Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
of 1968.


Riksstallmästare/Överhovstallmästare (Sweden)

The holder of the title Master of the Horse of the Realm (''Riksstallmästare'') in Sweden was not one of the
Great Officers of the Realm The Great Officers of the Realm (Swedish: ''De högre riksämbetsmännen'') were the five leading members of the Swedish Privy Council from the later parts of the 16th century to around 1680. With the constitution of 1634, the five officers becam ...
, but rather one of the Lesser Officers of the Realm. He was the superintendent of the Royal Stables and of the realm's
stud farm A stud farm or stud in animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Im ...
s. As such he was important in military matters, and often he had a tight connection with the army, and then especially with the army's
cavalry Historically, cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via O ...

cavalry
units. His duties were partly taken over by the
Master of the Horse The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations. Magister Equitum (Ancient Rome) The original Master of the Horse (Latin ''Magister Equitum'') in the Roman Republic Th ...
(''Överhovstallmästare'').


Equerry (Russia)

''Konyushy'' (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (), Russian language term for all citizens and people ...
: ''Конюший'') is literally translated as Master of the Horse or Equerry. Konyushy was a
boyar A boyar or bolyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th ...
in charge of the
stable A stable is a building in which livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and c ...
s of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
n rulers. It was a high title at the
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...

court
of Russian rulers until the 17th century. By the end of the 15th century a special Equerry Office (конюшенный приказ, "konyushenny
prikaz A prikaz (russian: прика́з, ''prikaz''; , plural: ) was an administrative, judicial, territorial, or executive office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrat ...
") was introduced, headed by the Konyushy. It was in charge of the
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

Tsar
's stables, parade equipage, ceremonies of court ride-offs, and military horse breeding. At one point
Boris Godunov Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (; russian: Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в; possibly 1551 ) ruled the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, translit=Russkoye tsarstvo, ...

Boris Godunov
was konyushy. The Equerry Office handled a significant amount of Tsar's treasures, related to
harness A harness is a looped restraint or support. Specifically, it may refer to one of the following harness types: * Bondage harness A bondage harness is a piece of BDSM equipment BDSM is a variety of often erotic Eroticism (from the Gr ...
and horse/horseman
armor Armour (British English) or armor (American English; see American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, spelling differences) is a covering to protect an object, individual, or vehicle from damage, especially direct contact weapon ...

armor
, which were transferred to the
Kremlin Armoury The Kremlin Armoury,Officially called the "Armou/ory Chamber" but also known as the cannon yard, the "Armou/ory Palace", the "Moscow Armou/ory", the "Armou/ory Museum", and the "Moscow Armou/ory Museum" but different from the Kremlin Arsenal Th ...

Kremlin Armoury
in 1736.


Koniuszy (Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania)

"''Koniuszy''" (corresponding to the
English-language English is a West Germanic language West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are an evenly spaced set of horizontal directions (or azimuth An azimuth (; from Arabi ...

English-language
"Equerry" or "Master of the Horse") was a position of
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
known in the
Kingdom of Poland Historical political entities *Kingdom of Poland Historical political entities *Kingdom of Poland "Kingdom of Poland" ( Polish: ''Królestwo Polskie'', Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic br ...
from the 11th century, and in the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire t ...

Grand Duchy of Lithuania
from the 15th. A ''koniuszy'' had charge of the stables and herds of a
Grand Duke Grand Duke (feminine: Grand Duchess) is a European hereditary title, used either by certain monarchs or by members of certain monarchs' families. In status, a Grand Duke traditionally ranks in order of precedence below an emperor, king or archd ...
or
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...

King
; in reality, it was a ''podkoniuszy'' (sub-equerry), subordinate to the ''koniuszy'', who had the more direct responsibility. From the 14th to 16th centuries, a "koniuszy" was a dignitary (''dygnitarz'') in the
Polish Kingdom Historical political entities *Kingdom of Poland Historical political entities *Kingdom of Poland "Kingdom of Poland" ( Polish: ''Królestwo Polskie'', Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic br ...
and in the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
.


Georgia

In the
Kingdom of Georgia The Kingdom of Georgia ( ka, საქართველოს სამეფო, tr), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy that started circa 1008 Anno Domini, AD. It reached Georgian Golden Age, its Golden Age o ...
, the similar post was known under the name of ''amilakhvari'' (''amir-akhori'', lit.: Prince-Master of the Horse), derived from
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
. It was a deputy to the commander-in-chief (''amir-spasalari'') and a member of the royal council. From the 1460s to the Russian annexation of Georgia (1801), the office was hereditary in the Zevdginidze-Amilakhvari family.


Hungary

In the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
the master of the horse (Hungarian: ''főlovászmester'') was one of the high officials of the royal household.


Asia

Similar posts were common in the imperial courts of China and Japan, the royal courts of Korea, and elsewhere in East Asia. The position, known as "
Sima Sima or SIMA may refer to: People * Sima (Chinese surname) * Sima (given name), a feminine name in use in Arabic countries, Persia (Iran). * Sima (surname) Places * Sima, Comoros, on the island of Anjouan, near Madagascar * Atapuerca Mountains ...
" in Chinese (司马), literally means "Master of the Horse". It was first created in the
Western Zhou The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chin ...
dynasty, with responsibility for military administration and conscription. The position was below the Three Grand Offices and equivalent in status to the six ministers. It was often grouped with four other positions also named with the "Si-" (control, administer) prefix as the "five officials" (五官). The title was used in different ways in subsequent dynasties. The Han Dynasty awarded "Grand Sima" as an additional title to high generals, in which context it is often translated into English as "Marshal". "Sima" also became a Chinese surname, adopted by descendants of one occupant of the office. The Sima family became emperors in the Jin dynasty, as a result of which "Sima" ceased to exist as an official position in the central bureaucracy. However, in later dynasties it was used as the name of various relatively minor positions in the military and local administration. However, "Sima" was also used informally to refer to the
Minister of War A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent ...
. The Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya had a Master of the Royal Elephants. The holder of this office was titled ''Krom Phra Gajapala'' ( th, กรมพระคชบาล). Beneath him in rank was a Master of the Royal Horse who was titled ''Krom Phra Asvaraja'' ( th, กรมพระอัศวราช). This demonstrated that the ancient Siamese attached more importance to the maintenance of war Elephant than a cavalry force.


See also

*
Constitution of the Roman Republic The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of uncodified norms and customs which, together with various written laws, guided the procedural governance of the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a sta ...
*
Constable A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal Police, law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police. O ...

Constable
*
Equerry An equerry (; from French ' stable', and related to ' squire') is an officer of honour. Historically, it was a senior attendant with responsibilities for the horses of a person of rank. In contemporary use, it is a personal attendant, usually upo ...
*
Cursus honorum The ''cursus honorum'' (; , or more colloquially 'ladder of offices') was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the cla ...
* List of British ministries *
Marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...

Marshal


References

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Master Of The Horse Ceremonial officers in the United Kingdom Ancient Roman titles Military ranks Positions within the British Royal Household Equestrianism Cursus honorum Papal household