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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ...
land-grant A land grant is a gift of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ...
. Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern technology and science, ranking it among the top
academic institutions Academic institution is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They p ...
in the world. Founded in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
. The institute has an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Hopkinton to Boston, Massachusetts, Boston along a highly meandering route, t ...
, and encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the
MIT Lincoln Laboratory The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts Lexington is a suburban town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is 11 miles (17 km) from Downtown Boston. The population was 31,394 at the 2010 census, whic ...
, the Bates Center, and the
Haystack Observatory Haystack Observatory is a multidisciplinary radio science center, ionospheric observatory, and astronomical microwave Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική ( ...
, as well as affiliated laboratories such as the
Broad Broad or Broads may refer to: People * A slang term for a woman. Is usually a derogatory term. * Broad (surname), a surname Places * Broad Peak, on the border between Pakistan and China, the 12th highest mountain on Earth * The Broads, a net ...
and
Whitehead Institute Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research is a non-profit research institute located in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of Londo ...

Whitehead Institute
s. , 98 Nobel laureates, 26
Turing Award The ACM A. M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international for . It was founded in 1947 and is the world's largest scientific and e ...
winners, and 8
Fields Medalists FIELDS heads into space in August 2018 as part of the ''Parker Solar Probe'' FIELDS is a science instrument on the ''Parker Solar Probe The Parker Solar Probe (abbreviated PSP; previously Solar Probe, Solar Probe Plus or Solar Probe+) is a ...
have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58
National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Fed ...

National Medal of Science
recipients, 29
National Medals of Technology and Innovation
National Medals of Technology and Innovation
recipients, 50
MacArthur Fellows The MacArthur Fellows Program, also known as the MacArthur Fellowship and commonly but unofficially known as the "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 indiv ...
, 80
Marshall Scholars The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for Academic degree, academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or ...
, 41
astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a List of human spaceflight programs, human spaceflight program to serve as a ...

astronaut
s, 16 Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force, and numerous heads of states have been affiliated with MIT. The institute also has a strong entrepreneurial culture and MIT alumni have founded or co-founded many notable companies. MIT is a member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
(AAU).


History


Foundation and vision

In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the
Massachusetts General Court The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the State legislature (United States), state legislature of the Massachusetts, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The name "General Court" is a hold-over from th ...
to use newly filled lands in
Back Bay Back Bay is an officially-recognized neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety th ...
, Boston for a " Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the
incorporation Incorporation may refer to: * Incorporation (business), the creation of a corporation * Incorporation of a place, creation of municipal corporation such as a city or county * Incorporation (academic), awarding a degree based on the student having a ...
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by
William Barton Rogers William Barton Rogers (December 7, 1804 – May 30, 1882) was an American geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the process ...

William Barton Rogers
, was signed by
John Albion Andrew John Albion Andrew (May 31, 1818 – October 30, 1867) was an American lawyer and politician from Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England reg ...
, the
governor of Massachusetts The governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the chief executive officer of the government of Massachusetts. The governor is the chief executive, head of the state cabinet and is the commander-in-chief of the commonwealth's Massachusetts ...
, on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a graduate of William and Mary and professor at
UVA
UVA
, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances. He did not wish to found a
professional school Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, attending conferences, and informal learning Informal learning is characterized “by a low degree of planning and ...
, but a combination with elements of both professional and
liberal education A liberal education is a system or course of education suitable for the cultivation of a (Latin: ''liber'') human being. It is based on the concept of the or, more commonly now, the of the . It has been described as "a philosophy of education ...
,Lewis 1949, p. 8. proposing that:
The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.


Early developments

Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865. The new institute was founded as part of the
Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S ...
to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the
Massachusetts Agricultural College The University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass Amherst, UMass) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such grouping ...

Massachusetts Agricultural College
, which developed as the
University of Massachusetts Amherst The University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass Amherst, UMass) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organizat ...
. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech". The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President
Francis Amasa Walker Francis Amasa Walker (July 2, 1840 – January 5, 1897) was an American economist, statistician, journalist, educator, academic administrator, and military officer in the Union Army. Walker was born into a prominent Boston family, the son of the ...

Francis Amasa Walker
. Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science. The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's
Lawrence Scientific School The Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) is the engineering education, engineering school within Harvard University's Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS). It offers undergrad ...
. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually, the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge ''Bucentaur'' built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River. The
neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
"New Technology" campus was designed by and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist
George Eastman George may refer to: People * George (given name) George (in English or in Romanian) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christia ...

George Eastman
of
Rochester, New York Rochester () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...

Rochester, New York
, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded
Eastman Kodak The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak ) is an American public company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a company whose ownership is or ...
. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($ million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.


Curricular reforms

In the 1930s, President
Karl Taylor Compton Karl Taylor Compton (September 14, 1887 – June 22, 1954) was a prominent United States, American physicist and president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1930 to 1948. The early years (1887–1912) Karl Taylor Compt ...

Karl Taylor Compton
and Vice-President (effectively
Provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
)
Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II, World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almo ...

Vannevar Bush
emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios. The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering".Lewis 1949, p. 13. Unlike
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on
tuition Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services. Besides public spen ...

tuition
than on endowments or
grants Grant or Grants may refer to: Places *Grant County (disambiguation)Grant County may refer to: Places ;Australia * County of Grant, Victoria ;United States *Grant County, Arkansas *Grant County, Indiana *Grant County, Kansas *Grant County, K ...
for its funding. The school was elected to the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
in 1934. Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.Bourzac, Katherine
"Rethinking an MIT Education: The faculty reconsiders the General Institute Requirements"
''
Technology Review ''MIT Technology Review'' is a magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule ...
'', Monday, March 12, 2007
The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the
MIT Sloan School of Management The MIT Sloan School of Management (also known as MIT Sloan or Sloan) is the business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may also be referred ...
were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of
Science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...
and
Engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...
. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more presidents Howard W. Johnson and
Jerome Wiesner Jerome Bert Wiesner (May 30, 1915 – October 21, 1994) was a professor of electrical engineering, chosen by President John F. Kennedy as chairman of his Science Advisory Committee (PSAC). Educated at the University of Michigan The Universit ...

Jerome Wiesner
between 1966 and 1980.


Defense research

MIT's involvement in
military science Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is mainly focused on theory A theory is a rational Rational ...
surged during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. In 1941,
Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II, World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almo ...

Vannevar Bush
was appointed head of the federal
Office of Scientific Research and Development The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily l ...
and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT. Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT's
Radiation LaboratoryThe Radiation Laboratory, commonly called the Rad Lab, was a microwave Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledg ...
, established in 1940 to assist the
British military The British Armed Forces, also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdo ...
in developing
microwave Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies mat ...
radar Radar (radio detection and ranging) is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (''ranging''), angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, Marine radar, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor ...

radar
. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area. Other defense projects included
gyroscope A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...

gyroscope
-based and other complex
control system A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loop A control loop is the fundamental building block of industrial control systems. It consists of all the physical components a ...
s for
gunsight A sight is an aiming device used to assist in visually aligning ranged weapons, surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points an ...
,
bombsight A bombsight is a device used by military aircraft to drop bomb A bomb is an explosive weaponAn explosive weapon generally uses high explosive to project blast wave, blast and/or fragmentation (weaponry), fragmentation from a point of deton ...

bombsight
, and
inertial navigation An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation i ...
under
Charles Stark Draper Charles Stark "Doc" Draper (October 2, 1901 – July 25, 1987) was an American scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In class ...
's Instrumentation Laboratory; the development of a
digital computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...
for flight simulations under
Project Whirlwind Whirlwind I was a Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in North ...
; and
high-speed High Speed or high-speed may refer to: Films * High Speed (1917 film), ''High Speed'' (1917 film), starring Jack Mulhall and Fritzi Ridgeway * High Speed (1920 film), ''High Speed'' (1920 film), an American drama directed by Charles Miller (direct ...
and
high-altitude Altitude or height (also sometimes known as depth) is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum (geodesy), datum and a point or object. The exact definition and reference datum varies according ...
photography under
Harold Edgerton Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton (April 6, 1903 – January 4, 1990), also known as Papa Flash, was a professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is largely credited with transforming the stroboscope A ...
. By the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush), employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone and receiving in excess of $100 million ($ billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946. Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for
ballistic missile A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target. These weapons are guided only during relatively brief periods—most of the flight is unpowered. Short-range ballistic missiles stay ...
s and
Project Apollo The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...
. These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of "any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute" to match the return to peacetime, remembering the "academic tranquility of the prewar years", though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities. The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of
Karl Taylor Compton Karl Taylor Compton (September 14, 1887 – June 22, 1954) was a prominent United States, American physicist and president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1930 to 1948. The early years (1887–1912) Karl Taylor Compt ...

Karl Taylor Compton
, president of MIT between 1930 and 1948;
James Rhyne Killian James Rhyne Killian Jr. (July 24, 1904 – January 29, 1988) was the 10th president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university in Cambridge, Ma ...
, president from 1948 to 1957; and
Julius Adams Stratton Julius Adams Stratton (May 18, 1901 – June 22, 1994) was a United States, U.S. electrical engineer and university administrator. He attended the University of Washington for one year, where he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, then tra ...
, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government. In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
and MIT's defense research. In this period MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles. The
Union of Concerned Scientists The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is a nonprofit science advocacy organization based in the United States. The UCS membership includes many private citizens in addition to professional scientists. Anne Kapuscinski, Sherman Fairchild profess ...
was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems. MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the
MIT Lincoln Laboratory The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts Lexington is a suburban town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is 11 miles (17 km) from Downtown Boston. The population was 31,394 at the 2010 census, whic ...
facility in 1973 in response to the protests. The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities. Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to "greater strength and unity" after these times of turmoil. However six MIT students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as
Michael Albert Michael Albert (born April 8, 1947) is an American economist, speaker, writer, and political critic. Since the late 1970s, he has published books, articles, and other contributions on a wide array of subjects. He has also set up his own media ...
and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT's role in military research and its suppression of these protests. (
Richard Leacock Richard Leacock (18 July 192123 March 2011)
The Telegraph (Londo ...

Richard Leacock
's film, ''November Actions'', records some of these tumultuous events.) In the 1980s, there was more controversy at MIT over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research. More recently, MIT's research for the military has included work on robots, drones and 'battle suits'.


Recent history

MIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at
Project MAC MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic r ...
, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the
Tech Model Railroad Club The Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) is a student organization at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Historically it has been a wellspring of hacker culture and the oldest such hacking group in North America. Formed in 1946, its HO sca ...
wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like ''Spacewar!'' and created much of modern Hacker (programmer subculture), hacker Jargon File, slang and culture. Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman's GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology; the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee; the MIT OpenCourseWare, OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002; and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005. MIT was named a National Sea Grant College Program, sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs. Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful fundraising, development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology#Tang Center for Management Education, Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology#Koch Biology Building (1994), biology, Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology#Brain and Cognitive Sciences Building (2006), brain and cognitive sciences, Broad Institute, genomics, Whitehead Institute, biotechnology, and David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research#Building, cancer research; and a number of new "backlot" buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center. Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School's eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest. In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing World energy resources and consumption, global energy consumption. In 2001, inspired by the open source movement, open source and open access movements, MIT launched MIT OpenCourseWare, OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabi, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed. While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high, OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages. In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its "MITx" program, for a modest fee. The "edX" online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard University, Harvard and its analogous "Harvardx" initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content. In March 2009 the MIT faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship open access, publicly accessible online. MIT has its own police force. Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Police Department, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day. One week later, Collier's memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the MIT community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada. On November 25, 2013, MIT announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to "an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the MIT community and in all aspects of his life". The announcement further stated that "Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness". In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an artificial intelligence research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. IBM will spend $240 million over the next decade, and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists. In October 2018 MIT announced that it would open a new Schwarzman College of Computing dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence, named after lead donor and The Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman. The focus of the new college is to study not just AI, but interdisciplinary AI education, and how AI can be used in fields as diverse as history and biology. The cost of buildings and new faculty for the new college is expected to be $1 billion upon completion. The LIGO, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from California Institute of Technology, MIT, and industrial contractors, and funded by the National Science Foundation. It was designed to open the field of gravitational-wave astronomy through the detection of gravitational waves predicted by general relativity. Gravitational waves were first observation of gravitational waves, detected for the first time by the LIGO detector in 2015. For contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves, two Caltech physicists, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish, and MIT physicist Rainer Weiss won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2017. Weiss, who is also an MIT graduate, designed the laser interferometric technique, which served as the essential blueprint for the LIGO. In 2021, MIT researchers in the field of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence developed an AI system that makes robots better at handling objects. The simulated, anthropomorphic hand created could manipulate more than 2,000 objects. And the system didn’t need to know what it was about to pick up to find a way to move it around in its hand.


Campus

MIT's campus in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge spans approximately a mile along the north side of the
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Hopkinton to Boston, Massachusetts, Boston along a highly meandering route, t ...
basin. The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue (metropolitan Boston), Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is known for being marked off in a List of humorous units of measurement, non-standard unit of length – the smoot. The Kendall/MIT station, Kendall/MIT Red Line (MBTA), MBTA Red Line station is located on the northeastern edge of the campus, in Kendall Square. The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings, as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods. In early 2016, MIT presented its updated Kendall Square Initiative to the City of Cambridge, with plans for mixed-use educational, retail, residential, startup incubator, and office space in a dense high-rise transit-oriented development plan. The MIT Museum will eventually be moved immediately adjacent to a Kendall Square subway entrance, joining the List Visual Arts Center on the eastern end of the campus. Each building at MIT Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology#Campus organization, has a number (possibly preceded by a ''W'', ''N'', ''E'', or ''NW'') designation, and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original center cluster of Maclaurin buildings. Many of the buildings are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather as well as a venue for roof and tunnel hacking. MIT Nuclear Research Reactor, MIT's on-campus nuclear reactor is one of the most powerful university-based nuclear reactors in the United States. The prominence of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has been controversial, but MIT maintains that it is well-secured. In 1999 Bill Gates donated US$20 million to MIT for the construction of a computer laboratory named the "William H. Gates Building", and designed by architect Frank Gehry. While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates. MIT Nano, also known as Building 12, is an interdisciplinary facility for nanoscale research. Its cleanroom and research space, visible through expansive glass facades, is the largest research facility of its kind in the nation. With a cost of US$400 million, it is also one of the costliest buildings on campus. The facility also provides state-of-the-art nanoimaging capabilities with vibration damped imaging and metrology suites sitting atop a slab of concrete underground. Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel for testing Aerodynamics, aerodynamic research, a ship model basin, towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs, and previously Alcator C-Mod, which was the largest fusion device operated by any university. MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering of campus. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Protection Agency sued MIT for violating the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Air Act with regard to its hazardous waste storage and disposal procedures. MIT settled the suit by paying a $155,000 fine and launching three environmental projects. In connection with capital campaigns to expand the campus, the Institute has also extensively renovated existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency. MIT has also taken steps to reduce its environmental impact by running alternative fuel campus shuttles, subsidizing CharlieCard, public transportation passes, and building a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity, heating, and cooling requirements. MIT has substantial commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge on which it pays property taxes, plus an additional voluntary payment in lieu of taxes (PILOT) on academic buildings which are legally tax-exempt. , it is the largest taxpayer in the city, contributing approximately 14% of the city's annual revenues. Holdings include Technology Square (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Technology Square, parts of Kendall Square, and many properties in Cambridgeport, Cambridge, Cambridgeport and Area 4, Cambridge, Area 4 neighboring the educational buildings. The land is held for investment purposes and potential long-term expansion.


Architecture

MIT School of Architecture and Planning, MIT's School of Architecture, now the School of Architecture and Planning, was the first formal architecture program in the United States, and it has a history of commissioning progressive buildings. The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are sometimes called the "Maclaurin buildings" after Institute president Richard Maclaurin who oversaw their construction. Designed by William Welles Bosworth, these imposing buildings were built of reinforced concrete, a first for a non-industrial – much less university – building in the US. Bosworth's design was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement of the early 1900s and features the Pantheon, Rome, Pantheon-esque Great Dome housing the Barker Engineering Library. The Great Dome overlooks Killian Court, where graduation ceremonies are held each year. The friezes of the limestone-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers. The spacious Building 7 atrium at Massachusetts Avenue (Cambridge), 77 Massachusetts Avenue is regarded as the entrance to the Infinite Corridor and the rest of the campus. Alvar Aalto's Baker House (1947), Eero Saarinen's MIT Chapel and Kresge Auditorium (1955), and I.M. Pei's Green Building (MIT), Green, Dreyfus, Landau, and MIT Media Lab, Wiesner buildings represent high forms of post-war modernist architecture. More recent buildings like Frank Gehry's Stata Center (2004), Steven Holl's List of MIT undergraduate dormitories#Simmons Hall, Simmons Hall (2002), Charles Correa's Building 46 (2005), and Fumihiko Maki's Media Lab Extension (2009) stand out among the Boston area's classical architecture and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture". These buildings have not always been well received; in 2010, ''The Princeton Review'' included MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both".


Housing

Undergraduates are guaranteed four-year housing in one of MIT's 11 undergraduate dormitories. Out of the 11 dormitories, 10 are currently active due to one of the residential halls, Burton Conner, undergoing renovation from 2020 to 2022. Those living on campus can receive support and mentoring from live-in graduate student tutors, resident advisors, and faculty housemasters. Because housing assignments are made based on the preferences of the students themselves, diverse social atmospheres can be sustained in different living groups; for example, according to the ''Yale Daily News'' staff's ''The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010'', "The split between East Campus and West Campus is a significant characteristic of MIT. East Campus has gained a reputation as a thriving counterculture." MIT also has 5 dormitories for single graduate students and 2 apartment buildings on campus for married student families. MIT has an active Greek and student housing cooperative, co-op housing system, including thirty-six fraternity, fraternities, sorority, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs). , 98% of all undergraduates lived in MIT-affiliated housing; 54% of the men participated in fraternities and 20% of the women were involved in sororities. Most FSILGs are located across the river in Back Bay near where MIT was founded, and there is also a cluster of fraternities on MIT's West Campus that face the Charles River Basin. After the 1997 alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger, a new pledge at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, MIT required all freshmen to live in the dormitory system starting in 2002. Because FSILGs had previously housed as many as 300 freshmen off-campus, the new policy could not be implemented until List of MIT undergraduate dormitories#Simmons Hall, Simmons Hall opened in that year. In 2013–2014, MIT abruptly closed and then demolished undergrad dorm Bexley Hall, citing extensive water damage that made repairs infeasible. In 2017, MIT shut down Senior House after a century of service as an undergrad dorm. That year, MIT administrators released data showing just 60% of Senior House residents had graduated in four years. Campus-wide, the four-year graduation rate is 84% (the cumulative graduation rate is significantly higher).


Organization and administration

MIT is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed Board of directors, board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation. The current board consists of 43 members elected to five-year terms, 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday, 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary), and 4 ''ex officio'' members (the president of the alumni association, the Governor of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Secretary of Education, and the Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court). The board is chaired by Diane Greene SM ’78, co-founded and former CEO of VMware and former CEO of Google Cloud. The Corporation approves the budget, new programs, degrees and faculty appointments, and elects the President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and preside over the Institute's faculty. MIT's financial endowment, endowment and pension, other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary called MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo). Valued at $16.4 billion in 2018, MIT's endowment was then the List of colleges and universities in the United States by endowment size, sixth-largest among American colleges and universities. MIT has five schools (
Science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...
,
Engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...
, MIT School of Architecture and Planning, Architecture and Planning, MIT Sloan School of Management, Management, and MIT School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Schwarzman College of Computing), but no schools of law or medicine. While faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs, the chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President. The current president is L. Rafael Reif, who formerly served as provost under President Susan Hockfield, the first woman to hold the post.


Academics

MIT is a large, highly residential, research university with a majority of enrollments in graduate and professional programs. The university has been educational accreditation, accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929. MIT operates on a Academic term#Collegiate calendars, 4–1–4 academic calendar with the fall semester beginning after Labor Day (United States), Labor Day and ending in mid-December, a 4-week "Independent Activities Period" in the month of January, and the spring semester commencing in early February and ceasing in late May. MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms alone. Departments and their corresponding majors are numbered in the approximate order of their foundation; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is , while Linguistics and Philosophy is . Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course 6". MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; for instance, the introductory calculus-based classical mechanics course is simply "8.01" at MIT.


Undergraduate program

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program maintains a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences, and has been dubbed "most selective" by ''U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News'', admitting few transfer students and 4.1% of its applicants in the 2020–2021 admissions cycle. MIT offers 44 undergraduate degrees across its five schools. In the 2017–2018 academic year, 1,045 bachelor of science degrees (abbreviated "Scientiæ Baccalaureus, SB") were granted, the only type of undergraduate degree MIT now awards. In the 2011 fall term, among students who had designated a major, the School of Engineering was the most popular division, enrolling 63% of students in its 19 degree programs, followed by the School of Science (29%), School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences (3.7%), Sloan School of Management (3.3%), and School of Architecture and Planning (2%). The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (), Computer Science and Engineering (), Mechanical Engineering (), Physics (), and Mathematics (). All undergraduates are required to complete a core curriculum called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs). The Science Requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics, two semesters of calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. There is a Laboratory Requirement, usually satisfied by an appropriate class in a course major. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Requirement consists of eight semesters of classes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, including at least one semester from each division as well as the courses required for a designated concentration in a HASS division. Under the Communication Requirement, two of the HASS classes, plus two of the classes taken in the designated major must be "communication-intensive", including "substantial instruction and practice in oral presentation". Finally, all students are required to complete a Human swimming, swimming test; non-varsity athletes must also take four quarters of physical education classes. Most classes rely on a combination of lectures, recitations led by associate professors or graduate students, weekly problem sets ("p-sets"), and periodic quizzes or tests. While the pace and difficulty of MIT coursework has been compared to "drinking from a fire hose", the freshmen retention rate at MIT is similar to other research universities. The "pass/no-record" grading system relieves some pressure for first-year undergraduates. For each class taken in the fall term, freshmen transcripts will either report only that the class was passed, or otherwise not have any record of it. In the spring term, passing grades (A, B, C) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again not recorded. (Grading had previously been "pass/no record" all freshman year, but was amended for the Class of 2006 to prevent students from gaming the system by completing required major classes in their freshman year.) Also, freshmen may choose to join alternative learning communities, such as Experimental Study Group, Concourse Program at MIT, Concourse, or Terrascope. In 1969, Margaret MacVicar founded the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. Students join or initiate research projects ("UROPs") for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly. A substantial majority of undergraduates participate. Students often become scientific journal, published, file patent applications, and/or launch startup company, start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs. In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published ''The Hidden Curriculum,'' arguing that education at MIT was often slighted in favor of following a set of unwritten expectations and that graduating with good grades was more often the product of figuring out the system rather than a solid education. The successful student, according to Snyder, was the one who was able to discern which of the formal requirements were to be ignored in favor of which unstated norms. For example, organized student groups had compiled "History of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology#Course "Bibles", course bibles"—collections of problem-set and examination questions and answers for later students to use as references. This sort of gamesmanship, Snyder argued, hindered development of a creative intellect and contributed to student discontent and unrest.


Graduate program

MIT's graduate program has high coexistence with the undergraduate program, and many courses are taken by qualified students at both levels. MIT offers a comprehensive doctoral program with degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees. The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science (which is abbreviated as SM at MIT), various Engineer's Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Science (ScD) and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the MD-PhD (with Harvard Medical School) and a joint program in oceanography with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. More than 90% of doctoral students are supported by fellowships, research assistantships (RAs), or teaching assistantships (TAs).


MIT Bootcamps

MIT Bootcamps are intense week-long innovation and leadership programs that challenge participants to develop a venture in a week. Each Bootcamp centers around a particular topic, specific to an industry, leadership skill set, or emerging technology. Cohorts are organized into small teams who work on an entrepreneurial project together, in addition to individual learning and team coaching. The program includes a series of online seminars with MIT faculty, practitioners, and industry experts, innovation workshops with bootcamp instructors focused on putting the theory participants have learned into practice, coaching sessions, and informal office hours for learners to exchange ideas freely. Bootcampers are tasked with weekly "deliverables," which are key elements of a business plan, to help guide the group through the decision-making process involved in building an enterprise. The experience culminates in a final pitch session, judged by a panel of experts. MIT Bootcamp instructors include Eric von Hippel, Sanjay Sarma, Erdin Beshimov, and Bill Aulet. MIT Bootcamps were founded by Erdin Beshimov.


Rankings

MIT also places among the top five in many overall rankings of universities (see right) and rankings based on students' revealed preferences. For several years, ''U.S. News & World Report'', the QS World University Rankings, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities have ranked MIT's School of Engineering first, as did the 1995 United States National Research Council, National Research Council report. In the same lists, MIT's strongest showings apart from in engineering are in computer science, the natural sciences, business, architecture, economics, linguistics, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, political science and philosophy. Times Higher Education has recognized MIT as one of the world's "six super brands" on its ''World Reputation Rankings'', along with University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Harvard University, Harvard, University of Oxford, Oxford and Stanford University, Stanford. In 2019, it ranked 3rd among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings. In 2017, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated MIT the #2 university for arts and humanities. MIT was ranked #7 in 2015 and #6 in 2017 of the Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.


Collaborations

The university historically pioneered research and training collaborations between academia, industry and government.  In 1946, President Compton, Harvard Business School professor Georges Doriot, and Massachusetts Investor Trust chairman Merrill Grisswold founded American Research and Development Corporation, the first American venture-capital firm.  In 1948, Compton established the MIT Industrial Liaison Program. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a Late 1980s recession, declining economy by technology transfer, transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international – especially Economy of Japan, Japanese – firms that were competing with struggling American businesses. On the other hand, MIT's extensive collaboration with the federal government on research projects has led to several MIT leaders serving as President's Science Advisory Committee, presidential scientific advisers since 1940. MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue effective lobbying for research funding and national science policy. The United States Department of Justice, US Justice Department began an investigation in 1989, and in 1991 filed an Sherman Antitrust Act, antitrust suit against MIT, the eight
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
colleges, and eleven other institutions for allegedly engaging in price-fixing during their annual "Overlap Meetings", which were held to prevent bidding wars over promising prospective students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships. While the Ivy League institutions consent decree, settled, MIT contested the charges, arguing that the practice was not anti-competitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students. MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994. MIT's proximityMIT's Building 7 and Harvard's Johnston Gate, the traditional entrances to each school, are apart along Massachusetts Avenue (Boston), Massachusetts Avenue. to
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
("the other school up the Charles River, river") has led to a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the Broad Institute. In addition, students at the two schools can cross-registration, cross-register for credits toward their own school's degrees without any additional fees. A cross-registration program between MIT and Wellesley College has also existed since 1969, and in 2002 the Cambridge–MIT Institute launched an undergraduate exchange program between MIT and the University of Cambridge. MIT also has a long term partnership with Imperial College London, for both student exchanges and research collaboration. More modest cross-registration programs have been established with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston area, such as the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, the Whitehead Institute, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Ongoing international research and educational collaborations include th
Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS Institute)
Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Politecnico di Milano, MIT-University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza International Logistics Program, and projects in other countries through the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program. The mass-market magazine ''
Technology Review ''MIT Technology Review'' is a magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule ...
'' is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as an alumni magazine. The MIT Press is a major university press, publishing over 200 books and 30 journals annually, emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events, and social issues.


Libraries, collections and museums

The MIT library system consists of five subject libraries: Barker (Engineering), Dewey (Economics), Hayden (Humanities and Science), Lewis (Music), and Rotch (Arts and Architecture). There are also various specialized libraries and archives. The libraries contain more than 2.9 million printed volumes, 2.4 million microforms, 49,000 print or electronic journal subscriptions, and 670 reference databases. The past decade has seen a trend of increased focus on digital over print resources in the libraries. Notable collections include the Lewis Music Library with an emphasis on 20th and 21st-century music and electronic music, the List Visual Arts Center's rotating exhibitions of contemporary art, and the Compton Gallery's cross-disciplinary exhibitions. MIT allocates a percentage of the budget for all new construction and renovation to commission and support its extensive public art and outdoor sculpture collection. The MIT Museum was founded in 1971 and collects, preserves, and exhibits artifacts significant to the culture and history of MIT. The museum now engages in significant educational outreach programs for the general public, including the annual MIT Museum#Cambridge Science Festival, Cambridge Science Festival, the first celebration of this kind in the United States. Since 2005, its official mission has been, "to engage the wider community with MIT's science, technology and other areas of scholarship in ways that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century".


Research

MIT was elected to the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
in 1934 and is Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity"; research expenditures totaled $952 million in 2017. The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $255.9 million, United States Department of Defense, Department of Defense $97.5 million, United States Department of Energy, Department of Energy $65.8 million, National Science Foundation $61.4 million, and NASA $27.4 million. MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers in addition to faculty. In 2011, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 632 inventions, were issued 153 patents, earned $85.4 million in cash income, and received $69.6 million in royalties. Through programs like the Deshpande Center, MIT faculty leverage their research and discoveries into multi-million-dollar commercial ventures. In electronics, magnetic core memory,
radar Radar (radio detection and ranging) is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (''ranging''), angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, Marine radar, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor ...

radar
, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers. Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography and sonar. Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory. In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to Norbert Wiener, cybernetics, Marvin Minsky, artificial intelligence, Joseph Weizenbaum, computer languages, Patrick Winston, machine learning, Rodney Brooks, robotics, and Ronald Rivest, cryptography. At least nine
Turing Award The ACM A. M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international for . It was founded in 1947 and is the world's largest scientific and e ...
laureates and seven recipients of the Draper Prize in engineering have been or are currently associated with MIT. Current and previous physics faculty have won eight Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prizes, four Dirac Medal#Dirac Medal of the ICTP, Dirac Medals, and three Wolf Prizes predominantly for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory. Members of the chemistry department have been awarded three Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prizes and one Wolf Prize for the discovery of novel syntheses and methods. MIT biologists have been awarded six Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel Prizes for their contributions to genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology. Professor Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project. Positronium atoms, synthetic penicillin, Julius Rebek, synthetic self-replicating molecules, and the genetic bases for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and Huntington's disease were first discovered at MIT. Jerome Lettvin transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain". Researchers developed a system to convert MRI scans into 3D printed physical models. In the domain of humanities, arts, and social sciences, as of October 2019 MIT economists have been awarded seven Nobel Prize in Economics, Nobel Prizes and nine John Bates Clark Medals. Linguists Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle authored seminal texts on generative grammar and phonology. The MIT Media Lab, founded in 1985 within the MIT School of Architecture and Planning, School of Architecture and Planning and known for its unconventional research, has been home to influential researchers such as Constructivism (learning theory), constructivist educator and Logo (programming language), Logo creator Seymour Papert. Spanning many of the above fields, MacArthur Fellowships (the so-called "Genius Grants") have been awarded to 50 people associated with MIT. Five Pulitzer Prize–winning writers currently work at or have retired from MIT. Four current or former faculty are members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Allegations of research misconduct or improprieties have received substantial press coverage. Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in a misconduct investigation starting in 1986 that led to Congressional hearings in 1991. Professor Ted Postol has accused the MIT administration since 2000 of attempting to Whitewash (censorship), whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed. Associate Professor Luk Van Parijs was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct and found guilty of the same by the United States Office of Research Integrity in 2009. In 2019, Clarivate Analytics named 54 members of MIT's faculty to its list of "Highly Cited Researchers". That number places MIT 8th among the world's universities.


Discoveries and innovation


Natural sciences

* Oncogene – Robert Weinberg (biologist), Robert Weinberg discovered genetic basis of human cancer. * David Baltimore#Reverse transcriptase, Reverse transcription – David Baltimore independently isolated, in 1970 at MIT, two RNA tumor viruses: Murine leukemia virus, R-MLV and again Rous sarcoma virus, RSV. * Thermal death time – Samuel Cate Prescott and William Lyman Underwood from 1895 to 1898. Done for canning of food. Applications later found useful in medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.


Computer and applied sciences

* Akamai Technologies – Daniel Lewin and Tom Leighton developed a faster content delivery network, now one of the world's largest distributed computing platforms, responsible for serving between 15 and 30 percent of all web traffic. * Cryptography – MIT researchers Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman developed one of the first practical public-key cryptography, public-key cryptosystems and started a company RSA (cryptosystem). * Digital circuits – Claude Shannon, while a master's degree student at MIT, developed the digital circuit design theory which paved the way for modern computers. * Electronic ink – developed by Joseph Jacobson at MIT Media Lab. * Emacs, Emacs (text editor) – development began during the 1970s at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT AI Lab. * Flight recorder, Flight recorder (black box) –
Charles Stark Draper Charles Stark "Doc" Draper (October 2, 1901 – July 25, 1987) was an American scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In class ...
developed the black box at Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, MIT's Instrumentation Laboratory. That lab later made the Apollo program, Apollo Moon landings possible through the Apollo Guidance Computer it designed for NASA. * GNU Project – Richard Stallman formally founded the free software movement in 1983 by launching the GNU Project at MIT. * Julia (programming language) - Development was started in 2009, by Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral B. Shah, and Alan Edelman, all at MIT at that time, and continued with the contribution of a dedicated MIT Julia Lab * Lisp (programming language) – John McCarthy (computer scientist), John McCarthy invented Lisp at MIT in 1958. * Lithium-ion battery#Commercialization and advances, Lithium-ion battery efficiencies – Yet-Ming Chiang and his group at MIT showed a substantial improvement in the performance of lithium batteries by boosting the material's conductivity by Doping (semiconductor), doping it with aluminium, niobium and zirconium. * Macsyma, one of the oldest general-purpose computer algebra systems; the GPL-licensed version Maxima (software), Maxima remains in wide use.. See also * MIT OpenCourseWare – the OpenCourseWare movement started in 1999 when the University of Tübingen in Germany published videos of lectures online for its ''timms'' initiative (Tübinger Internet Multimedia Server). The OCW movement only took off, however, with the launch of MIT OpenCourseWare and the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University in October 2002. The movement was soon reinforced by the launch of similar projects at Yale, Utah State University, the University of Michigan and the University of California Berkeley. * Perdix micro-drone – autonomous drone that uses artificial intelligence to swarm with many other Perdix drones. *
Project MAC MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic r ...
– groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation. DARPA funded project. * Radar in World War II, Radar – developed at MIT's Radiation Laboratory (MIT), Radiation Laboratory during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. * Sketchpad, SKETCHPAD – invented by Ivan Sutherland at MIT (presented in his PhD thesis). It pioneered the way for human–computer interaction (HCI). Sketchpad is considered to be the ancestor of modern computer-aided design (CAD) programs as well as a major breakthrough in the development of computer graphics in general. * VisiCalc – first spreadsheet computer program for personal computers, originally released for the Apple II by VisiCorp. MIT alumni Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston rented time sharing at night on an MIT mainframe computer (that cost $1/hr for use). * World Wide Web Consortium – founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web * X Window System – pioneering architecture-independent system for graphical user interfaces that has been widely used for Unix and Linux systems.


Companies and entrepreneurship

MIT alumni and faculty have founded numerous companies, some of which are shown below: * Analog Devices, 1965, co-founders Ray Stata, (SB, SM) and Matthew Lorber (SB) * BlackRock, 1988, co-founder Bennett Golub, (SB, SM, PhD) * Bose Corporation, 1964, founder Amar Bose (SB, PhD) * BuzzFeed, Buzzfeed, 2006, co-founder Jonah Peretti (SM) * Dropbox (service), Dropbox, 2007, founders Drew Houston (SB) and Arash Ferdowsi (drop-out) * E-Trade, E*Trade, 1982, co-founder William A. Porter (MBA) * Hewlett-Packard, 1939, co-founder William Redington Hewlett, William R. Hewlett (SM) * ''HuffPost,'' 2005, co-founder Jonah Peretti (SM) * Intel, 1968, co-founder Robert Noyce (PhD) * Koch Industries, 1940, founder Fred C. Koch (SB), sons Bill Koch (businessman), William (SB, PhD), David Koch, David (SB) * Qualcomm, 1985, co-founders Irwin M. Jacobs (SM, PhD) and Andrew Viterbi (SB, SM) * Raytheon, 1922, co-founder
Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II, World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almo ...

Vannevar Bush
(DEng, Professor) * Renaissance Technologies, 1982, founder James Harris Simons, James Simons (SB) * Texas Instruments, 1930, founder Cecil Howard Green (SB, SM) * TSMC, 1987, founder Morris Chang (SB, SM) * VMware, 1998, co-founder Diane Greene (SM) * Zipcar, 2000, co-founder Robin Chase (MBA)


Traditions and student activities

The faculty and student body place a high value on meritocracy and on technical proficiency. MIT has never awarded an honorary degree, nor does it award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degree, '' ad eundem'' degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation. However, MIT has twice awarded honorary professorships: to Winston Churchill in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993. Many wikt:upperclassman, upperclass students and alumni wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat". Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring". The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a American Beaver, beaver. The initialism IHTFP, representing the informal school motto "I Hate This Fucking Place" and jocularly euphemized as "I Have Truly Found Paradise", "Institute Has The Finest Professors", "Institute of Hacks, TomFoolery and Pranks", "It's Hard to Fondle Penguins", and other variations, has occasionally been featured on the ring given its historical prominence in student culture.


Activities

MIT has over 500 recognized student activity groups, including a WMBR, campus radio station, ''The Tech (newspaper), The Tech'' student newspaper, an annual MIT $100K Entrepreneurship Competition, entrepreneurship competition, a MIT Crime Club, crime club, and weekly screenings of popular films by the Student life and culture at MIT#Lecture Series Committee, Lecture Series Committee. Less traditional activities include the "world's largest open-shelf MIT Science Fiction Society, collection of science fiction" in English, a TMRC, model railroad club, and a vibrant Tech Squares, folk dance scene. Students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center. Fraternities and sororities provide a base of activities in addition to housing. Approximately 1,000 undergrads, 48% of men and 30% of women, participate in one of several dozen Greek Life men's, women's and co-ed chapters on the campus. The Student life and culture at MIT#Independent Activities Period, Independent Activities Period is a four-week-long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are Autonomous Robot Design (course 6.270), Robocraft Programming (6.370), and MasLab Traditions and student activities at MIT#Competitions, competitions, the annual MIT Mystery Hunt, "mystery hunt", and Student life and culture at MIT#Charm School, Charm School. More than 250 students pursue externships annually at companies in the US and abroad. Many MIT students also engage in "hacking", which encompasses both the Roof and tunnel hacking, physical exploration of areas that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, elaborate practical jokes. Examples of high-profile hacks have included the Caltech's rival, abduction of Caltech's cannon, reconstructing a Wright Flyer atop the Great Dome, and adorning the John Harvard (clergyman), John Harvard statue with the Master Chief (Halo), Master Chief's Mjölnir Helmet.


Athletics

MIT sponsors 31 varsity sports and has one of the three broadest NCAA Division III athletic programs. MIT participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA's Division III (NCAA), Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA's Division I Patriot League for women's crew, and the Collegiate Water Polo Association, Collegiate Water Polo Association (CWPA) for Men's Water Polo. Men's crew competes outside the NCAA in the College rowing (United States)#Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges, Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC). The intercollegiate sports teams, called the MIT Engineers won 22 Team National Championships, 42 Individual National Championships. MIT is the all-time Division III leader in producing Academic All-Americas (302) and rank second across all NCAA Divisions only behind the University of Nebraska. MIT Athletes won 13 Elite 90 Award, Elite 90 awards and ranks first among NCAA Division III programs, and third among all divisions. In April 2009, budget cuts led to MIT eliminating eight of its 41 sports, including the mixed men's and women's teams in alpine skiing and pistol; separate teams for men and women in ice hockey and gymnastics; and men's programs in golf and wrestling.


People


Students

MIT enrolled 4,602 undergraduates and 6,972 graduate students in 2018–2019. Undergraduate and graduate students came from all 50 US states as well as from 115 foreign countries. MIT received 33,240 applications for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2025: it admitted 1,365 (4.1 percent). In 2019, 29,114 applications were received for graduate and advanced degree programs across all departments; 3,670 were admitted (12.6 percent) and 2,312 enrolled (63 percent). Undergraduate tuition and fees for 2019-2020 was $53,790 for nine months. 59% of students were awarded a need-based MIT scholarship. Graduate tuition and fees for 2019-2020 was also $53,790 for nine months, and summer tuition was $17,800. Financial support for graduate students are provided in large part by individual departments. They include fellowships, traineeships, teaching and research assistantships, and loans. The annual increase in expenses had led to a student tradition (dating back to the 1960s) of tongue-in-cheek "tuition riots". MIT has been nominally co-educational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in environmental health, sanitary chemistry. Female students remained a small minority prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, Katherine Dexter McCormick, McCormick Hall, in 1963. Between 1993 and 2009 the proportion of women rose from 34 percent to 45 percent of undergraduates and from 20 percent to 31 percent of graduate students. , women outnumbered men in Biology, Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Architecture, Urban Planning, and Biological Engineering.


Faculty and staff

, MIT had 1,030 Faculty (academic staff), faculty members. Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, for advising both graduate and undergraduate students, and for sitting on academic committees, as well as for conducting original research. Between 1964 and 2009 a total of seventeen faculty and staff members affiliated with MIT won Nobel Prizes (thirteen of them in the latter 25 years). As of October 2020, 37 MIT faculty members, past or present, have won Nobel Prizes, the majority in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Economics or Nobel Prize in Physics, Physics. , current faculty and teaching staff included 67 Guggenheim Fellows, 6 Fulbright Scholars, and 22 MacArthur Fellows. Faculty members who have made extraordinary contributions to their research field as well as the MIT community are granted appointments as Institute Professors for the remainder of their tenures. Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiology, neurobiologist, served as MIT's president from 2004 to 2012. She was the first woman to hold the post. MIT faculty members have often been recruited to lead other colleges and universities. Founding faculty-member Charles W. Eliot became president of Harvard University in 1869, a post he would hold for 40 years, during which he wielded considerable influence both on American higher education and on secondary education. MIT alumnus and faculty member George Ellery Hale played a central role in the development of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and other faculty members have been key founders of Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering in nearby Needham, Massachusetts. former provost Robert A. Brown served as president of Boston University; former provost Mark S. Wrighton, Mark Wrighton is chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis; former associate provost Alice Gast is president of Lehigh University; and former professor Suh Nam-pyo is president of KAIST. Former dean of the School of Science Robert J. Birgeneau was the chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (2004–2013); former professor John Maeda was president of Rhode Island School of Design (RISD, 2008–2013); former professor David Baltimore was president of Caltech (1997–2006); and MIT alumnus and former assistant professor Hans Mark served as chancellor of the University of Texas system (1984–1992). In addition, faculty members have been recruited to lead governmental agencies; for example, former professor Marcia McNutt is president of the National Academy of Sciences, urban studies professor Xavier de Souza Briggs served as the associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget, and biology professor Eric Lander was a co-chair of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. In 2013, faculty member Ernest Moniz was nominated by President Obama and later confirmed as United States Secretary of Energy. Former professor Hans Mark served as Secretary of the Air Force from 1979 to 1981. Alumna and Institute Professor Sheila Widnall served as Secretary of the Air Force between 1993 and 1997, making her the first female Secretary of the Air Force and first woman to lead an entire branch of the US military in the Department of Defense. , MIT was the second-largest employer in the city of Cambridge. Based on feedback from employees, MIT was ranked #7 as a place to work, among US colleges and universities . Surveys cited a "smart", "creative", "friendly" environment, noting that the work-life balance tilts towards a "strong work ethic" but complaining about "low pay" compared to an industry position.


Notable alumni

Many of MIT's over 120,000 alumni have achieved considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business sector , business. , 41 MIT alumni have won Nobel Prizes, 48 have been selected as Rhodes Scholars, 61 have been selected as Marshall Scholars, and 3 have been selected as Mitchell Scholarship, Mitchell Scholars. Alumni in United States politics and public service include former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, former Massachusetts's 1st congressional district , MA-1 Representative John Olver, former California's 13th congressional district , CA-13 Representative Pete Stark, Representative Thomas Massie, Senator Alex Padilla, former United States National Economic Council, National Economic Council chairman Lawrence H. Summers, and former Council of Economic Advisors chairman Christina Romer. MIT alumni in international politics include Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, Prime Minister of Israel, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, President of Colombia Virgilio Barco Vargas, President of the European Central Bank Mario Draghi, former Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Raghuram Rajan, former Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, British Foreign Minister David Miliband, former Prime Minister of Greece , Greek Prime Minister Lucas Papademos, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, former Council of Ministers of Iraq, Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi, former Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia Yahya Muhaimin, former Jordanian Minister of Education, Higher Education and Scientific Research and former Jordanian Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Khaled Toukan. Alumni in sports have included Olympic fencing champion Johan Harmenberg. MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Robert Noyce, Intel, James Smith McDonnell, McDonnell Donald Wills Douglas, Sr., Douglas, Cecil Howard Green, Texas Instruments, Robert Metcalfe , 3Com, Andrew Viterbi, Qualcomm, Amar Bose, Bose, Vannevar Bush, Raytheon, Apotex, Fred C. Koch, Koch Industries, Willard Rockwell, Rockwell International, Robert A. Swanson, Genentech, Drew Houston , Dropbox, and John Thompson Dorrance, Campbell Soup. According to the British newspaper ''The Guardian'', "a survey of living MIT alumni found that they have formed 25,800 companies, employing more than three million people including about a quarter of the workforce of Silicon Valley. Those firms collectively generate global revenues of about $1.9 trillion (£1.2 trillion) a year". If the companies founded by MIT alumni were a country, they would have the 11th-highest GDP of any country in the world. MIT alumni have leadership , led prominent institutions of higher education, including the David S. Saxon, University of California system, Lawrence H. Summers, Harvard University, the Rahmat Shoureshi , New York Institute of Technology, William R. Brody, Johns Hopkins University, Subra Suresh, Carnegie Mellon University, Larry Bacow, Tufts University, Albert J. Simone, Rochester Institute of Technology, John Maeda, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Vishaan Chakrabarti, UC Berkeley College of Environmental Design, the Allan Cullimore , New Jersey Institute of Technology, Joseph E. Aoun, Northeastern University, Joseph Klafter , Tel Aviv University, Adil Najam, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Shirley Jackson (physicist), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Eugenio Garza Sada, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Martin C. Jischke , Purdue University, T. Marshall Hahn, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Suh Nam-pyo , KAIST, and Pervez Hoodbhoy, Quaid-e-Azam University. Berklee College of Music, the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world, was founded and led by MIT alumnus Lawrence Berk for more than three decades. More than one third of the List of NASA missions#Human spaceflight , United States' crewed spaceflights have included List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni#Alumni Astronauts, MIT-educated astronauts, a contribution exceeding that of any university excluding the United States service academies. Of the List of Apollo astronauts , 12 people who have set foot on the Moon , four graduated from MIT (among them Apollo 11 Apollo Lunar Module , Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin). Alumnus and former faculty member Qian Xuesen led the China and weapons of mass destruction , Chinese nuclear-weapons program and became instrumental in the People's Republic of China , PRC rocket-program. Noted alumni in non-scientific fields include author Hugh Lofting, sculptor Daniel Chester French, guitarist Tom Scholz of the band Boston (band), Boston, the British ''BBC'' and ''ITN'' correspondent and political advisor David Walter (British journalist and politician) , David Walter, ''The New York Times'' columnist and Nobel Prize-winning economist Paul Krugman, ''The Bell Curve'' author Charles Murray (political scientist) , Charles Murray, United States Supreme Court building architect Cass Gilbert, Pritzker Prize-winning architects I.M. Pei and Gordon Bunshaft. File:Buzz Aldrin.jpg, Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, ScD 1963 (MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics) File:Kofi Annan.jpg, Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, SM 1972 (MIT Sloan School of Management) File:President Virgilio Barco.png, President of Colombia (1986–1990) Virgilio Barco Vargas, Scientiæ Baccalaureus , SB 1943 (MIT Civil and Environmental Engineering) File:Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg, Former Federal Reserve Bank chairman Ben Bernanke, PhD 1979 (MIT Department of Economics) File:Esther Duflo - Pop!Tech 2009 - 001 (cropped).jpg, Economics Nobel laureate Esther Duflo, PhD 1999 (MIT Department of Economics), also an MIT professor File:Richard Feynman Nobel.jpg, Physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman, SB 1939 (MIT Department of Physics) File:Edward Michael Fincke.jpg, Astronaut and USAF Colonel Michael Fincke, SB 1989 (MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics), SB 1989 (MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences) File:Daniel Chester French 1902 crop.jpg, Sculptor Daniel Chester French, Did not graduate File:Paul Krugman-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-8.jpg, Economics Nobel laureate Paul Krugman, PhD 1977 (MIT Department of Economics) File:Ronald mcnair.jpg, STS-51-L , Space Shuttle ''Challenger'' astronaut and physicist Ronald McNair, PhD 1976 (MIT Department of Physics) File:Benjamin Netanyahu.jpg, Israeli Former Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, SB 1975 (MIT Architecture), SM 1976 (MIT Sloan School of Management) File:I.M. Pei.JPG, Architect I. M. Pei, BArch 1940 (MIT Architecture) File:ClaudeShannon MFO3807.jpg, Claude Shannon, PhD 1940 (MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science) File:Alfred P. Sloan on the cover of TIME Magazine, December 27, 1926.jpg, CEO of General Motors Alfred P. Sloan, SB 1895 (MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science) File:TomScholz.JPG, "Boston (band), Boston" guitarist Tom Scholz, SB 1969, SM 1970 (MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering) File:Michael Massimino.jpg, Astronaut and engineer Mike Massimino, PhD 1992 (MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering) File:Robert Woodward Nobel.jpg, Chemist and Nobel laureate Robert Burns Woodward, SB 1936, PhD 1937


See also

* Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society, The Coop, campus bookstore * Engineering * Glossary of engineering *Murray Eden


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

: ''Also see th
bibliography
maintained by MIT'
Institute Archives & Special Collections
and MIT in popular culture#Written works, Written Works in MIT in popular culture.'' * * * * * * * * * * * * Nelkin, Dorothy. (1972). ''The University and Military Research: Moral politics at MIT (science, technology and society)''. New York: Cornell University Press. . * *
Postle, Denis. (1965). ''How to be First''. BBC documentary on MIT available at reidplaza.com
* Renehan, Colm. (2007)
''Peace Activism at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1975 to 2001: A case study''
PhD thesis, Boston: Boston College. * * * * * * *


External links

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